Evolución de la terminología lingüística en las Actas de Congresos de AESLA

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1 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Anteriormente me he referido a las causas externas al lenguaje como sistema, y derivadas de su uso, y de su función en la vida humana, que determinaron el desarrollo de la tecnología educativa, y con ella de una modelación teórica (recordemos que muchos de los trabajos teóricos de Chomsky, Kats, Fodor, etc., estuvieron financiados por organismos técnicos, como el M. 1.T., o militares). Indudablemente el desarrollo de la Lingüística Aplicada, desde el Congreso de Nancy en 1964, ha ido paralelo al de una exigencia política de una más rica y mejor enseñanza de las lenguas. Pero antes de seguir quiero de nuevo referirme a la presencia de la lingüística aplicada en España. Y debo decir que fue Emilio Lorenzo quien ya en su lección inaugural de su Cátedra, en 1958, se refirió, creo que por primera vez en nuestro país, a la Applied Linguistics. Abrió así, con ese trabajo, no solamente una serie de estudios e investigaciones propias, sino, lo que es más importante, una escuela. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Hay que decir que ya tempranamente se fija el concepto de Applied Linguistik o Angewandte Linguistik, preferentemente en el campo de la didáctica de lenguas modernas. Ocurrió entonces que ese impulso que recibió la enseñanza de lenguas modernas determinó también el crecimiento de la actividad de creación de métodos. Las grandes editoriales, pero también instituciones estatales, apoyaban la formación de métodos, eso sí, muchas veces con apoyos, importantes y de alto coste, a la preparación previa, y con supuestos teóricos, más o menos discutidos después, cuando el método estaba publicado. Como se lee en un trabajo publicado en el número 23 de Etudes de Linguistique AppZiquée, «les mystifications commercialment fructueuses accompagnent rituelrnent chaque avancée de la didactique». Ya en 1962, participando en un Seminario del Consejo de Europa, con la profesora Marga Zielinski, que estaba iniciando la instalación y uso del Laboratorio de Idiomas en el Institut dlEtudes Hispaniques de la Sorbona, pude comprobar la lucha entre editoriales, casas de material audiovisual y sus distintos equipos (algo de eso se vivió después en nuestra Universidad cuando la citada profesora introdujo el método multi-media «En Francaiw). En este momento se había desarrollado paralelamente y con las consiguientes y eficaces implicaciones la metodología audiovisual, y puedo decir que también había sus grupos distintos y no cooperantes. Los métodos que dominaban eran los estructuro-globales, i el grupo de Mons, en conexión con grupos franceses y la Universidad de Zagreb, había desarrollado toda la metodología verbotonal inspirada por Guberina. La fundación A. 1. M. A. V. (Association Internationale pour la Recherche et la Diffusion des Methodes Audiovisuelles et Structuro-Globales), la creación de la A. 1.L. A., de la re-vista P. R.A. L., son nuevas muestras de que la Lingüística Aplicada se define entonces primordialmente como el fundamento y práctica de la enseñanza de lenguas modernas, la enseñanza y sus problemas de las lenguas nacionales quedó menos atendida. En 1972 se celebró el 111 Seminario de A. I.M.A.V., en Neuchatel, con la colaboración con la /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:A. 1. L. A. y la Commision interuniversitaria suiza de Lingüística Aplicada y el Consejo de Europa. En tema de la reunión era los modelos teóricos lingüísticos en Lingüística Aplicada (Theorical linguistic models in applied linguistics) 5. El profesor Corder (impulsor con Nickel, entre otras actividades, de la Lapsología) ofrecía tanto en la introducción como en su comunicación («Linguistic Theory and Applied Linguistics~) diversas aproximaciones, como el resto de los participantes, al pro-blema enunciado. Desde luego entraba todo en la dirección ya anotada como preferida de considerar la L. A. como situada en el campo de la ensefianza de la lengua. Creo que ofrecía ya una diferenciación que creo interesante anotar: «Applied linguistics (in language teaching) is that part of the practica1 activity of planning, designing and executing Language teaching programmes which is carried out in the light of what the linguistics sciences have revealed about the nature of human language. ~a&gua~e teaching on the other hand, is the activity of implementing these programmesn 6. Y desarrolla la cuestión de las relaciones entre el lingüista que describe con modelos cuya eficacia se debe cuestionar previamente o que puedan ser verificados o falseados en la aplicación, y el docente de lenguas que en su actividad ya opera con situaciones que analizan y modelan otras ciencias teóricas o dis-tintas prácticas. (Anticipa algo que diré luego, la Lingüística Aplicada puede ya cruzar sus líneas de acción con los de una política educativa, y entonces producirse situaciones en los que ya se plantee el lugar de una política lingüística también en una teoría política.) No es la misma cosa la «validez» de una «teoría» que su aplicación. Corder, criticando confusiones que ve en Saporta y Halliday, dice: «A description may be of high 'value' (very useful) for linguistic purposes, and yet be of low 'value' (of little use) in application» (p. 16). Creo que está /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-5 Bruselas A. I.M.A.V., París DUDIER,1973. 6 Ibid., 11. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-claro que hay que distinguir la validación empírica de una teoría, como dice Corder, de acuerdo con criterios internos, de su utilidad en la aplicación. Pero la prueba de una teoría es también empírica.

2 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-21 Elisabeth GULICH-WOLFGANG «Texsorten-Probleme~, Linguis- /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-RAIBLE: en /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:tische Probleme des Textanalyse, Jahrbuch, 1973, des Instituts für deutsche Surache.--.----, 144-188.-. . -.-zz «Linguistic as a Pilot Science~, en Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 12, Linguistic and Adjacent Sciences, 2871-2887. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-guiente: una ciencia A es una 'ciencia piloto' para las ciencias B, C, /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-D, E cuando, sobre la base de isomorfismos entre algunos de los fe

3 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-trabajamos en el campo del conocimiento del lenguaje podamos unir /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-nuestros esfuerzos en eso que llamamos Lingüística Aplicada. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:37 Naturalmente que lo dicho en las últimas líneas se refiere a la mera aplicación practicona, sin verificación de datos inferidos, o de las «dificultades del material,. Hace años repetíamos que no debería haber clases experimentales, sino que toda clase, como toda observación del lenguaje, debería ser experimental. «If the study of human language is to proceed along empirical lines, both theoretical and experimental work must be maintained, and must work hand in hand. Our position is that an experimental approach is not a marginal aspecto of linguistic inquiry but, rather, is of central and functional importance in the attempt to understand the nature and properties of human language learning and uso.» (Experimental Linguistics. Edited byGary D. Prideaux, Bruce L. Derwin, William Baker. Ghent, 1980, p. 13.) /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-TENDENCIAS DE LA DIDACTICA DE LOS IDIOMAS HOY /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-RENZO TITONE Universidad de Roma

4 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Desde el punto de vista didáctico -y lingüístico-la Gramática Generativa, aun siendo la corriente que más trabajos de uno y otro signos ha suscitado a partir de 1965, no puede dar respuesta a las necesidades que el aprendizaje de la lengua materna exige en la escuela. Chomsky mismo apoya esta interpretación cuando reconoce: /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Francamente, soy un tanto escéptico con respecto al significado que para la enseñanza de la lengua puedan tener los logros y conocimientos que han alcanzado tanto la Psicología como la Lingüística. Es difícil creer que la Lingüística /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:o la Psicología hayan alcanzado un nivel de comprensión teórica que pudiera capacitarlos para servir de base a una «tecnología» de la enseñanza de lenguas.. . Estas disciplinas están, hoy en día, en un estado de flujo y de agitación (CHOMSKY, «Linguistic Theory», en Language Teaching: /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-N.: Broader Contexts, Wisconssin, 1966). /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Por la misma razón en el 11 Congreso Internacional para la Enseñanza del Español (Madrid, 1971, pág. 57), una de las Comisiones de Estudio llegó a la siguiente conclusión:

5 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-ADJEMIAN, Christian (1976): «On the Nature of Interlanguage Systernsn, Lan-guage Learning, 26: 297-320. BAILEY,N.; MADDEN, S. (1974): «Is there a 'Natural Sequence' /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-C., y KRASHEN, in Adult Second Language Learning?», Language Learning, 24: 23543. COHEN, A., y ROBBINS,M. (1976): «Toward Assessing Interlanguage Performance*, Language Learning, 26: 45-66. CORDER, /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:S. Pit (1971): ~Idiosyncratic Dialects and Error Analysis», Internatio-nal Review of Applied Linguistic (IRAL), 5: 161-170. CORDER,S. Pit (1973): Introducing Applied Linguistics, Harmondsworth, /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-England: Penguin Books. FREEMAN D. (1975): «The Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-(LARSSEN),by Adult ESL Learnersn, TESOL Quarterly, 9: 409-19. KRASHEN,Stephen (1977): «The Monitor Model for Adult Second Language», en Viewpoints on English as a Second Language, ed. por M. K. Burt,

6 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Larry, y GASS, S., eds. (1982): Language transfer in language Zearning, Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. SHEEN.Ronald (1980): «The imvortance o£ neuative transfer in the s~eech of near-bilin&als»; ZRAL 18, pp. 105-119. STOCKWELL, BOWEN, John (1965): The gramina /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Robert P.; DONALD J., y MARTIN, tical structures of English and Spanish, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:SUNER, Margarita (1982): «On null subjectsn, Linguistic Analysis 9, pp. 55-78. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-TAYLOR, /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-Barry P. (1975): «The use of overgeneralization and transfer learning strategies by elementary and intermediate students of ESLB, LanguageLearning 25, pp. 73-107.

7 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-piensa que no se pueden confundir los métodos de análisis de contrastes con los métodos de la descripción de lenguas: «This confusion results in the implicit conclusion that if languages are describable in terms of certain categoriec, contrastive analysis should be in terms of the same categories. This is a falacious assumption because there need not necessarily be any similarity between descriptive methods and contrastive methods. The two are quite independent processes with different aims in view: one discovers and classifies language elements, the other contrasts meanings conveyed by language elements isolated in various languagess (p. 34). /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-3 Ver, por ejemplo, M. A. K. HALLIDAY /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:et al.: The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching, London, Longman, 1964, o J. C. CATFORD /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-(1968): «Contrastive Analysis and Language Teachingn, en ALATIS (ed.): Contrastive Linguistics and its Pedagogical Zmelications. Washington. D. C.. Geornetown University Press, pp. 15g-173. v, /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-4 Ver, por ejemplo, R. W. LANGACKER

8 /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-7 Zbídem, vol. V, núm. 1, 1979. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-8 Pamela FISHMAN:Interaction: The work women do. Comunicación presentada a la Reunión de la American Sociological Association, San Francisco, agosto 1975. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt:9 Tomado de Women and Language News, vol. 111, núm. 2, 1978. 10 Cheris KRAMERet alia: Perspectives on language and comrnunication. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, spring 1978. 11 Sharon R. VEACH: The linguistic treatment of powerless groups. Papel sin referencia, cortesía de la autora. /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-profundidad. Estudio que, en mi opinión, sería del máximo interés, ya /1983/congresoAESLA_I.txt-que sólo mirándonos en el espejo de los demás seremos capaces de juzgar nuestro propio entorno.

9 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-del sistema de control en cuestión. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-BIBLIOGRAFIA /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:BEVER, T. G. (1970): «The cognitive basis of Linguistic structuresn, en /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-J. R. HAYES, Cognition and the development of language, Wiley, N. Y. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-BRUMFIT/JOHNSON

10 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt---....---., -BENNETT, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-W. A.: Aspects of Language and Language Teaching. Cambndge, 1968. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:-Applied Linguistic and Language Learning. London, 1974. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-B~uows,F. L.: The Techniques of Language Teaching. London, 1977. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-BLOOMFIELD,

11 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-monitorización pueden permitir al investigador detectar autocorreccio9 Esta ilustración ha sido tomada del libro de Stanley M. SAPON: /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-A Pictoriaf /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:Linguistic Znterview Manual (P. L. 1.M.). Columbus. The Ohio State Press, 1957. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-El dibujo ilustrado es el número 8147 (p. 32). /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-

12 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-V. (1968): ~Speculations on Performance Modelsn, Journal of /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Linguistics, 4: 47-68. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:-(1973), ed.: Speech Errors as Linguistic Evidence. La Haya: Mouton. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:-(1980): Errors in Linguistic Performance. N. Y.: Academic Press. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:FRY, D. B. (1969): «The Linguistic Evidence of Speech Errorsn, en Jan FIRBAS /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-y J. HLADKY, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-eds., ~CharisteriaJ. Vachek sexegenario oblatan (= Brno

13 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-D. HYMES,eds., Directions in Sociolinguistics. N. Y.: Holt. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-KAUFER, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:D. S. (1970): «The Competence/Performance Distinction in Linguistic /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Theoryn, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 9, pp. 257-75. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-LAMENDELLA,

14 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-R. (1957): Linguistics Across Cultures. Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-LADO, -Press. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:LAMBERT, R. C. (1959): ~Linguistic manifestations of bilinW. E., y GARDNER, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-gualismn, American Journal of Psychology, 72, 77-82. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-LARSEN-FREEMAN,

15 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-LAKOFF, P. S.: aPhrasa1 Conjunction and Symmetric Predicatesn, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-G., y PETERS, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:en Mathematical Linguistic and Automatic Translation, Report número NSF-17 to the National Science Foundation, Harvard University, Computation Laboratory, 1966. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-J.: /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-MCCAWLEY, «The Role of Semantics in a Grammar*, en BACH,E., y /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-HARMS, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:R. T., Universals of Linguistic Theory. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Nueva York, 1968. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-QUIRK, S.; LEECH, G., y SVARTVIK,

16 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-10 G. LAKOFF: /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Irregularity in Syntax, N. York, 1971. E. BACH: uNouns /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:and Noun Phrases., Universals in Linguistic Theory, ed. por E. Bach y /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-R. Harms, N. York, 1968, pp. 91-122. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-

17 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-reconocido prestigio tienen aseguradas. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-2 Para una excelente descripción de esta situación de eclecticismo en el /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:panorama de la estilística actual, véase la introducción de Ching, Haley & Lunsfords (eds.) a Linguistic Perspectives on Literature, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980: 30-39. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt- /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-un concepto de lengua distinto. Frente a un marco descriptivo 'formal'

18 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-W. (1972): Einführung in die Textlinguistik, Niemeyer, Tübingen. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-FILLMORE, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:C. J. (1968): «The Case for Casen, en Universals in Linguistic Theory, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-eds.: Bach. E.. v R. Harms. Holt. Rinehart & Winston. Nueva York. 1-88. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-FLORIO,R. (1975); initiation a la p~actique du journalisme, Ecole ~u~erieur

19 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-performance model as required by the science of translation. Rather, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-transformational grammar seems to be focused on the clarification /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:of the concept of linguistic competence against the background of /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-idealized monolingual senderlreceptor relations» 5. Palabras muy semejantes, y posiblemente sin tener conocimiento de ellas, repetía el /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-mismo año (1976) Els Oksaar en Estocolmo durante los días de septiembre que duró el Simposio de la Fundación Nobel acerca de la /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Teoría y Práctica de la Traducción: «Any theory of translation and the /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-science of translating cannot draw upon a theory of language that, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:influenced by Chomsky and his followers, has been dwelling in a vacuum of a homogeneous society, focusing on the linguistic competence /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-of an ideal speaker-listener, often in a rather esoteric wayD6. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-No es éste, ni mucho menos, un aserto gratuito: hay que releer los

20 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-The /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-A transformational Analysis*, Linguistics, 58, pp. 5-17. C.!E RICA GARC~A, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:role of theory in linguistic analysis. The spanish pronoun system, Amsterdam, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-North Holland, 1975. S. GILI GAYA, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Curso superior de sintaxis española, Barcelona, Bibliograf, 1969 (9." edic.). C. HERNANDEZ «Del 'se' reflexivo

21 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Cf. James D. MCCAWLEY. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-1972. aThe Role of Semantics in a Grammara. . /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:en Universals in Linguistic ~heori, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 137. /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-6 JESPERSEN 1969, Analitic Syntax, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-en JESPERSEN,

22 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-vol. 3, núm. 1, p. 42, y FILLMORE, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-1972, «The Case for Casen, en Universals /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:in Linguistic Theory, Holt, Rinehart and Winston). /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-11 Este verbo no tiene nada que ver con otro homófono, ACCORD, que /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-es ditransitivo no recíproco: «They accorded him permission to use the

23 /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-En este trabajo nos ocupamos únicamente del texto dramático, no /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-de la representación teatral, a partir de su carácter literario, y en cuanto /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt:tal único e irrepetible. En último término nuestro objetivo no es lin1 Por ejemplo, Jonathan CULLER,en Structuralist Poetics, Structuturalism, Linguistic and the Study of Literature (Cornell University Press, /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-Ithaca, N. Y., 1975), dedica una parte a la poesía, otra a la novela e ignora /1984/congresoAESLA_II.txt-una referencia específica al teatro.

24 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Cfr. T. Sebeok (ed.), Estilo del lenguaje, Madrid, Cátedra, 1974.donde está le contribución de R. Jakobson. «Lingüistica y poétican, pp. 123-173. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Cfr. A. Garcia Berrio, Significado actual del formalismo ruso, cit., pp. 104-110.Se publican en /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:aquellos años, entre otras muy importantes contribuciones: M. A. K. Halliday, "The Linguistic /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Study of Literary Texts., en: H. G. Lunt (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International congress of /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Linguistics, Cambridge. Mass., 27-31de agosto de 1982.La Haya, Mouton, 1964,pp. 302-307;Linguistique et Littdrature, niimero 12 de Langages, 1988;Linguistique et LittBrature, número especial

25 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Entre otros muchos trabajos cfr. R. Jakobson y C. Lévi-Strauss, "Les chats de Charles Baudelaire., /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-en: R. Jakobson. Ensayos de PoBtica, Madrid. Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1977,pp. 155-178;M. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:A. K.Halliday. "Linguistic Function and Literary Style: An Inquiry into the Language of William /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Golding's The Inheritorsu, en: D. C. Freeman (ed.),Essays in Modern Stylistics, cit., pp. 325-360;J. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Culler, La poBtica estructuralista, Barcelona. Anagrama, 1978.

26 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-A. (1979): «A Grammar for Composition: the Grammar of Cohesion,). Paper delivered at the TESOL 30th Annual Conference, Boston, Mass. (Mimeo). /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-SADOCK, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:J. (1974): Towards a linguistic theory of speech acts, New York. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-WIDDOWSON, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-H.G. (1978): Teaching Language as Communication, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

27 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-con tipos o bien con tipos y categorías al mismo tiempo. Aauí el análisis sintáctico se /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-complica, como antes el anhlisis léxico de ranks, con el análisis pragmático. ¿Son /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:realmente sinónimos types y categories? El libro de Catford A linguistic theory of /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-translation, al cual pertenece el texto citado, fue traducido al español por Francisco /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-

28 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-H.C., & HERNÁNDEZ, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-New York: the Psychological Corporation. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:FILLMORE, C. 1975. Santa Cruz Lectures in Deixis, 1971. Indiana Linguistic Club. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt- /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-FKI,.C. 1966. «Developnientul studies ofrriediuted rneniory)J. En H. W. Keose & L. P.

29 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-B.A., & REDIJCH.C.F. 1958. Social Class and Mental Illness: A /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Community Study. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:HYMES.D. 1971. dkrnpetence and performance in linguistic theory~. En R. Huxley /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-& E. Ingram (Eds.), Language Acquisition: Models and Methods. New /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-York: Acadernic Press.

30 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-BEAR,M.V. (1939): ~Children's growth in the use of language writtenn, Elementary /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-English Review, 16, pp. 312-319: /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:BERNSTEIN, B. (1962): «Social Class, Linguistic Codes and Grammatical Elements~, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Languaga and Speech , 5, pp. 221-240. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-BERNSTEIN,B. (1971): Class, Codes and Control, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

31 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-pp. 213-236. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-CATFORD. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:J.C. (19651, A linguistic Theory of Translation, Oxford Uni. Press. 1978. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-CHRISTOPHERSEN, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-P. (1939), The Articles, Copenhagen, Munksgaard.

32 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-lingüistica aplicada. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-En primer lugar, y para no extender demasiado un estudio como éste, que debe caracterizarse por la brevedad, remitimos al lector al libro de Horst GeckelerI3, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:(9) Selected papers of the Second Internotionol Congress of Applied Linguistic. Ed. por G.E. Perren y /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-J.L.MJrimm. Cambridge. 1969. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-(10) Introducción a lo psicologfa del lenguaje. Labor. Barcelona. Edic. en ingl6s 1970.246 pp.

33 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-acumulación de las múltipls desviaciones individuales2. Es evidente que ninguno /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-de estos dos tipos de creatividad tienen relación con la pedagogía de las lenguas. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:(2) Chomsky, Current lssues in Linguistic Theory, La Haye, Mouton, 1964 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-N. Ruwet, Introduction la grammaire g6nérative. Paris, Plon, 1967 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-

34 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-in Etudes de Linguistique Appliquée, 7, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Paris. 1972. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:(30) N. CHOMSKY. ~Linguistic Theory., North East Conference on the Teaching Foreign Languages, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-cf. también la traduccidn comentada: eThéorie Linguistique.. in Le Francois dans le Monde, 88, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Paris. 1972,6-10.

35 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Este criterio de la diferencia permite detectar lo que U. WEINREICH /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-~interferencia~ positivas)) (puntos de relativa coincidencia entre los sistemas) e interferencia~propiamente dichas, «negativas» para el autor citad~~~, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:y se baM.A.K. HALLIDAY -P.D. STREVENS and A. McINTOSH. The linguistic Science and Language /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Teoching, London, 1964. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-K. ROTAETXE. 'qLinguistique théorique -Linguistique Appliquée -Enseignement du basquen (re

36 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-LABOV,W. (1969) ~Contraction, deletion and inherent varaibility of the English /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-copulan, Language, 45, págs. 715-62. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:LABOV,W. (1972) «sime principles of Linguistic Methodology», Language in Society, 1, 1.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-351 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-

37 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Larousse. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-SANKOFF, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:D. (ed.) (1978) Linguistic Variation. Models and Methods. New York: /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Academic Press. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-SANKOFF,

38 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt--D. Sankoff (1975). Documentación inédita. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt--P.Rousseau y D. Sankoff. Linguistic voriation: MOdels and methods, D. Sankoff (ed.], New York, Academic Press, 1978, pp. 57-69. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Una breve y clara exposición de estos modelos probabilisticos fue hecha por H. López Morales. <'Estudio de la competencia sociolingüistica de los modelos probabilisticos~~, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-ASEL, XI (1981),

39 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Corder (1974, 131) /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Richards (1971, pp. 40 s.) /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:-...a separate linguistic system based on the observable out-put which results from a learner's attempted production of a TL norm.... (Selinker, art. cit. en ed. cit. p. 35) /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Váradi, T. 11973) /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Corder en su artfculo «Language-learner language. en J.C. Richards [ed.): Understonding Second

40 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-HARRIS,Z.S. Structural Linguistics, Chicago, U. Chicago Press, 1961. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-HAUGEN, E. Languages in Contact. Findings and Problems, New York, Publications /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:of the Linguistic Circle of New York, 1953. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-HYLTENSTAM, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-K. dmplicational Patterns in Interlanguage Syntax Variationn,

41 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-S., FROMKIN, D., RIGLER. S. 1975 An update /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-CURTISS, V. RIGLER, M., and KRASHEN, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:on the linguistic development of Genie. In D. Dato (Ed.) Developmental /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Psycholinguistics: Theory and Applications. Washington, D. C.: George /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-town University Press.

42 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-6.1. 0:nensions 6.2. lolerance of: /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt- /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:6.1.1. Size: 415 6.2.1. Linguistic error: 3 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt- /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-b.1.2. Conplexity: 4 6.2.2. Stylistic failure: 4

43 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-often leave (Dforeign) advanced learners in the lurch)) Dictionaries and /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-their users. Papers from the 1978 B.A.A.L. Seminar on Lexicography. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:Exeter linguistic studies. University of Exeter. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-PARTRIDGE, /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-R. (1937182). The Penguin Dictionary of Historical Slang. Penguin Books.

44 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-URDANG,L. Meaning: Denotative, connotative, alusive. Dictionaries and their /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-users. Papers from the 1978 B.A.A.L. Seminar on Lexicography. Exeter /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:Linguistic Studies. University of Exeter. 1979. /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-van EK, J.A. (1976-79). The Threshold leve1 for Modern Language Learning in /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Schools. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Longman.

45 /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-Dorada], analiza detenidamente tres tabúes: a) conducta para con los enemigos; b) tabú de los soberanos (jefes, reyes, sacerdotes), y c) tabú de los muertos [Cf. S. Freud (1975). pp. 30-33 y 53-88). /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-(3) ~~Euphemisms /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt:may be classified either according to the various linguistic processes involved or /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-according to the motive that induced the change. This second method of classification will be /1985/congresoAESLA_III.txt-followed in the present discussion. The examples will be grouped under euphemisms of superstition (chap. 1). of delicacy (chaps. 11, 111, IV, VI. and of decency (chaps. VI and V11)~ (Ch. E. Kany

46 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt- /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-BIBLIOGRAFIA /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:CATFORD, J.C. : A Linguistic Theory of Translation. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-.OUP, London, 1965. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-LEDERER-SELESKOVITCH: Interpréter pour Traduire, Didier

47 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-UNIVERSIDAD: Córdoba /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-El fundamento teórico de esta comuriicacióri se encuentra en un seminario que, bajo mi dirección y con el /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:título de "Linguistic Analysis of Ordiriary Language", /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-se desarrolló en la Facultad de Filosofía y LeLr-;is de /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-la Universidad de Córdoba durante el mes de Mayo del

48 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-11.-De los textos publicados por M.A.K. Halliday, /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-seleccionamos los siguientes: /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:-The linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching, /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-1964, London: Longman. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-

49 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt--22 1 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-guistic meaning and sense.. . sense /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:is made up of the linguistic meaning and of a cognitive addition" /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-(2). /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-El estudiante que ha de iniciar el aprendizaje de la

50 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Press 1971). /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-(2) A este respecto veáse el volumen editado por M.L. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:L. Ching, M.C. Haley y R.F. Lunsford, Linguistic Pers /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-pectives of Literature, London: Routledge and Kegan /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Paul 1980, que contiene una primera parte dedicada al

51 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Louis-Jean Calvet en "Linguistique et Coloniali~me~~ /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-(París: Payot, 1974). Vdánse también "Regardles of /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:Frontiers: A Case Study in Linguistic Persecution" por /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Victor Sadler y Urlich Lins, en "Man, Language and Society", ed. Samir K. Ghosh (La Haya y París: Mouton, /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-1972).

52 /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Klincksieck, 1977. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-(9) Véase A. Tomatis, según nota 5. /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt:(10) D.A. Wilkins, Linguistic in Language Teaching, /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt- /1986/congresoAESLA_IV.txt-Ed. Arnold Pub. London, 1972. Ver especialmente, pp.

53 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-profundidad desde el punto de vista del lingüista y sin despreciar las aportaciones de /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Véase A. Martinet, prólogo a U. Weinreich, Languages in Contact. Findings /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:and Problems, Publications of the Linguistic Circle of New York, Nueva York, /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-1953, vii. O también P.H. Nelde, Plaidoyer pour une linguistique des langues en /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-contact, en P.H. Nelde ed., Gegenwartige Tendenzen der Kontaktlinguistik,

54 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-"Word". X, 1954, 365-374; E. Haugen, The Norwegian Language in America. A /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Study in Bilingual Behavior. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954, The /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing, "Language" XXVI, 1950, 210-231. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Schizoglossia and the Linguistic Norm, en E. Woodworth ed., Report of the /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Thirteenth Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Language Studies. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Georgetown Univ. Press, Washington D.C., 1963. 63-69; J.A. Fishman,

55 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Psychological Approaches to the Study of Language, "Modem Language /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Joumal", XLVII, 1963, 114-121; W. Labov, The Refection of Social Processes /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:in Linguistic Structures. en J.A. Fishman ed.. Readings in Sociology of /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Language, Mouton, La Haya, 1968. 240-251; J. MacNamara, Problems of /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Bilingualism, "The Joumal of Social Issues", XXIII, 2, 1967; V. Vildomec,

56 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Kontaktlinguistik. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Véase, por ejemplo, el anuario bibliográfico de la Comisión Permanente /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Internacional de Lingüistas, Linguistic Bibliography for the Year .... M. Nijhoff /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Publ., Dordrecht-Boston-Lancaster. hasta 1984 que, bajo un apartado de /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Sociolingüfstica y Dialectologfa, contiene un epígrafe de Sociolingüfstica y

57 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Methoden. ..71-94. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Plaidoyer pour ...6-8. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Véase V. Ju. Rozenveijg, Linguistic Interference and Convergent Change. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Mouton, La Haya-París, 1976, 2. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Bilinguisme et diglossie... pg. 13.

58 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-comprensión a la formulación, en definir cómo se unen las dos fases del proceso, /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-que puede realizarse o por el paso a través de la realidad, del concepto de la lengua /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Jakobson, On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. Harvard University Press, /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-1959. p. 234. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Vinay y Darbelnet, Stylistique comparée. París: Didier. 1973, p. 23.

59 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-answered in terms of another question: For ~hom?~. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-St. Jerónimo. "De optimo genere interpretandi". Paris, Gallimard, 1946, p. 50. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:J.C. Catford. "A Linguistic Theory of Translation". London, Oxford University /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Press, 1965, p. 36. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Nida. Cf. Georges Mounin. "Les problhnes théoriques de la traduction". Paris,

60 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Bibliografía /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt- /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:J.C. CATFORD. A Linguistic theory of translation. London. Oxford University /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Press, 1965. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-G. MOUNIN, Les problbmes théoriques de la traduction. Paris, Gaílimard, 1963.

61 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-used by nationais of a country to communicate one another. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-"English as un International Language (EJL.)" It has recently been defined as /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:"that English, in al1 its linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects, which is used as a /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-vehicle for communication between non-native speake~ only, as well as between /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-any combination of native and non-native speakers". (Lany Smith and Richard

62 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-En tal sentido, quisiera resaltar el relevante papel que conceden Campbell y /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Wales al "environmental factor" a propósito del controvertido conflicto entre /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:"linguistic competence" (Chomsky) y "communicative competence" que Lyons /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-pone de manifiesto en la siguiente acotación: "They (Campbcll y Wales) que, as /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-olhers have done, that Chomsky and many of the psychologists influcnccd by him

63 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Finalmente, concluyendo esta serie de citas, Revell concreta: "Language /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-does not occur in isolation as Chomsky seems to suggest; it /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:occurs in a social context and reflects social ratlier than linguistic /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-purposes. A child acquires a knowledge of sentences not only as /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-LYONS. J. New Horizons in Lingusitics, Pelican, 1973, pp. 288-9.

64 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-teoría de que: "The successful learner of a second language must be /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-psychologically prepared to adopt various aspects of behaviour /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:which characterize members of another linguistic-cultural /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-group" 14. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-En el mismo sentido apuntan las tesis de Tucker (1973) y de Schumann

65 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-ópticas tan diversas como la retórica, semiología, semántica, morfosintaxis o /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-estilística3. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Véase LEECH, Geoffrey N.: "English in Advertising. A Linguistic Study of /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Advertising in Great Britain". Longman. Londres, 1966, pp. 74-75. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Véase SPITZER, Leo: "American Advertising explained as a popular art" en

66 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-"-1s it true to say that the intention of advertising is not so much to please the /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-eye as to catch it? /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:-What linguistic features affect this issue? /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:-What linguistic devices do advertising men use to get you to remember their /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt- /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-product?

67 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-ROSENTHAL, M. (1974), "The magic boxes: pre-school children's attitudes /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-towards black and standard English", Florida F.L. Reporter, 55-93. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:SCHEIDERMAN, E. (1976), "An examination of the ethnic and linguistic /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-attitudes of bilingual children". I.T.L. Review of Applied Linguistics, 33. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-TRUDGILL, P. (1975), Accent, Dialect and School, Londres, Amold.

68 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Engel, Ulrich y Helmut Schumacher. 1978. Kleines Valenzlexikon deutscher /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Verben. Tubinga: Narr, 2a. ed. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Freidin, R. 1978. Cyclicity and the theory of grarnmar. Linguistic Inquiry 9,519549. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Helbig, Gerhard y Wolfgang Schenkel. 1969. Worterbuch zur Valenz und /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Distribution deutscher Verben. Tubinga 1983: Niemeyer.

69 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-contrastivo del léxico derivado. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada 1, /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-37-54. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Mel'cuk, Igor. 1985. Semantic bases of linguistic communication and a new type /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-of monolingual dictionary. XVIII A.M. Societas Linguistica Europaea. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Toledo.

70 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Perlmutter, David. 1978. Impersonal passives and the unaccusative hypothesis. En /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-J.J. Jaeger et al. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Linguistic Society. Berkeley: B. Linguistic Society, 157-189. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Rall, Dieuich, Marlene Rall y Oscar Zorrilla. 1980. Diccionario de valencias /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-verbales: alemán-español. Tubinga: Narr.

71 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-EMONDS, J. (1985) A Unified Theory of Syntactic Categories, Dordrecht: Foris /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Publ. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:FILLMORE, C. (1968) "The Case for Case" en Universals in Linguistic Theory, /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-edits. Bach y Harms, 1-90, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-FILLMORE, C. (1968b) "Lexical Entries for Verbs", Foundations of Language,

72 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-En: J. Fisiad (cd.): Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Z'eacher. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-London: Pergamon. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:GARCIA, E. (1975) The role of theory in linguistic analysis, Amsterdam: NorthHolland. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-GOFFMAN, E. (1955) On face-work: an analysis of ritual elements in social /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-interaction. Psychiatry, 18,213-23 1.

73 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-SINCLAIR, J. McH. y COULTHARD, R.M. Towards an analysis of discourse. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-London: O.U.P. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:WEINREICH, V. (1953) Languages in contact. N.Y.: Linguistic Circle. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-WHORF, B.L. (1941) Languages and logic. Technological review, 43, 150-272. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-WIDDOWSON, H.G. (1979) Explorations in Applied Linguistics, Oxford:

74 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Cambridge University Press, 1985. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-ULIJN, J.M., "Reading for professional purposes: psycholinguistic evidence in a /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:cross-linguistic perspective". Reading for Professional Purposes (.66-78) /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Heinernann, 1984. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-WIDDOWSON, H.G., "Literary and Sicentific Uses of English", English

75 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-A.V.S. Renck and M. O'Connor (eds.), Disorders of language (pp. 223-246). /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-London: Ciba Found Syrnp. Churchill. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Jakobson, R. (1964). Towards a linguistic topology of aphasic irnpairments. In /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-A.V.S. Renck and M. O'Connor (eds.), Disorders of language. London: Ciba. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Found Syrnp. Churchill.

76 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Kock, J. & Lecours, A.R. (1985). Eléments pour une étude linguistique de /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-langages "néologiques" dórigine aphasique. Geneve: Slatkine. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Lesser, R. (1976). Linguistic investigations of aphasia. New York: Elsevier. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Marascuilo, L.A. & McSweeney, M. (1967). Nonpararnetris post hoc /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-cornparisons for uend. Psychological Bulletin. 67,6,401-412.

77 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-E.S.L. teachers". Comunicación. Teso1 Summer Institute. Universidad de /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Hawaii. USA. 9 Julio 1986. En publicación. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:Cummins, J. "Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Bilingual Children". Review of Educational Research. 49(2), (1979), 222-251. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-----Bilingualism and Minority -Language Children. Ontario Institute for Studies

78 /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Fillmore, L.W. "The language learner as an individual" TESOL'82. Washington /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-D.C. 1982. /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt:----"Instructional language as linguistic input: second language learning in /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-classrooms" en L: Wilkilson (d.) Cornmunicating in the classroom. Academic /1987/congresoAESLA_V.txt-Press. New York, 1982.

79 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Hoffmann (1985): Language acquisition in two trilingual children. Journal of /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Multilingual & Multicultural Development, vol. 6, No 6, 479-495. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:-Hoffmann (de próxima publicación) Linguistic normalization in Catalonia, Proceedings /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-of the IV Nordic Conference on Bilingualism, Copenhagen. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Hoffmann C (1979): (de próxima publicación) "An introduction to bilingualism".

80 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Swain M (1 972): Bilingualism as a first language. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-California, Irvine. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:-Swain M (1 974): Child bilingual language learning and linguistic interdependence, en /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Carey S (ed) "Bilingualism, biculturalism and education". University of Alberta Press, /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Edmonton. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt- /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:-Swain M & Wesche M (1975): Linguistic interation: case study of a bilingual child. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Language Sciences, 37, 17-22. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Tabouret-Keller A (1 962): L'acquisition du langage parlé chez un petit enfant en milieu

81 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-University, 1979. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Schieffelin, B. A development study of word order and casemarking in an ergative /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:language, en Simposio sobre Child Language Development, Department of Linguistic /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Stanford University, 1979. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Slobin, D. Cognitive prerequisites for the acquisition of grammar, en C.A. Ferguson y

82 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Job, B.; Mis, B. y Pissavy, A.M. Comment dire? Grammaire simplifiee. Lucon. CIé /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Internationale. 1986. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:M. Liceras, J. Linguistic Theory and Second Language Acquisition. The Spanish /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Nonnative Grammar of English Speakers. Tübingen. Gunter Narr Verlag. 1986. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Pit Corder, S. lntroducing Applied Linguistics. Harmonds-worth, Middlesex. Penguin

83 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-superficial the better. As a general rule, in the research which /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-underlies this project, it has proved profitable to remain quite /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:superficial in terms of linguistic units through much of the /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-description". /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-"The starting point was a surface grammar of English...

84 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-"We may express the SE condition as follows: the teacher provides certain /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-exemplars of a category, among which the student picks up certain specific /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:exemplars, upon which his linguistic behavior is based. The principie here is this: /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-stick to a particular use(s) of a category (e.g., a word) with which you /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-are familiar". (Tanaka, 1983:171) (1).

85 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 60028. (University Microfilms No. 79-13391). /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Carey, S. (1 978). The child as word learner. In M. Halle, J. Bresnan, & G.A. Miller (Eds.), /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:Linguistic theory and psychological reality (pp. 264-293). Cambridge, MA: The MIT /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Press. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Correa-Geningfield, M.R. (1985). Prototype and language transfer: The acquisition by

86 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-autodefinitorias (como VP 24b, o X7, por ejemplo). Pero ello no debe significar una /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-simplificación de la estructura superficial descrita. (Cfr. Sinclair (1987) p. 107: ... it has /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:proved profitable to remain quite superficial in terms of linguistic units through much of /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt- /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-the description). Tal simplificación, como veremos seguidamente en el caso del verbo,

87 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Kraus-Srebric, Eva et alt. (1981): A six-tier cake: An Experiment with Self-selected /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Learning Tasks, ELT 3611 :19-23. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:Levin, S.R. (1 962): Linguistic Structures in Poetry, The Hague: Mouton. (1 982): /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Estructuras Lingüísticas en la poesía, Madrid: Cátedra. (Traducción española de /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:Linguistic Structures in Poetry). /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-McKay, S. (1 986): Literature in the ESL Classroom, en LLT: 191 -8. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Rinvolucri, M. (1984): Grarnmar Games, Cambridge University Press.

88 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Mounin en Los Problemas Teóricos de la Traducción, Editorial Gredos, Madrid, /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-1 977, pág. 1 53. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:(2) L. Bloomfield. "Linguistic Aspects of Science", en lnternational Encyclopaedia of /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Unified Science, Chicago, 1 939, pág. 260. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-(3) Thedore Savory, The Art of Translation, Jonathan Cape Paperback, London, 1957,

89 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-lingüística como sustitutos coextensos con la noción de competencia. Hymes en /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-concreto ha hablado de "ablities" y de "hábitos comunicativos" (1964); Katz y Fodor de /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:"abilities and skills involved in the linguistic performance of a fluent native speaker" /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-(1 962); Teeter ha utilizado "command" (1 970); J. Rubin ha escrito sobre "adquisition and /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-proficiency" e incluso hay quienes, como Hudson (1980), establecen una relación

90 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Clark, R. 1974. Performing witohout competence, Journal of Child Lang. 1, pp. 1-10. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Carnbridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:Press. 1966a: Cartesian Linguistics Harper & New York. 1966b: Linguistic theory en /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Language Teaching: Broader Contexts. Report of N.E. Conference on the Teaching of /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Foreign Languages. Menasha. Wisconsin, pp. 43-49. (Recogido en Readings for

91 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-(14) Según J. Lyons, los tbrminos hiperonimia e hiponimia (basados en el modelo /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-de sinonimia, antonimia, homonimia, etc.) fueron utilizados por primera vez /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:por Ch. E. Bazell en Logical and linguistic syntax, Litera (Estambul), 2 (1955), /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-pp. 32-34. Como se sabe, estas etiquetas vienen a ser correlativas de las de /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-extensión e inextenxión, respectivamente, utilizadas en la lógica de clases. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:(15) Vid. B. Bernstein, A public lenguage: come sociological implications of a linguistic /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-form, en Class, codes and Control, Vol. 1, apud Miguel Siguán, Lenguaje /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-y clase social en la infancia, Pablo del Río Editor, Madrid, 1979, pp. 30 y SS.

92 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt--Kelly, J.P. 1982. lnterlanguage variation and social/psychological influences wiihin a /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-developmental stage. Tesis doctiral no publicada. UCLA TESL Program. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:-Labov, W. 1981. Field methods of the project on linguistic change and variation, /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Sociolingulstlc Working Paper, No. 81. Southwest Educational Development /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-Laboratory, Austin: Texas.

93 /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-1972). Aquí, el tema enfoca diferentes áreas de la investigación, mientras que es en el /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-rema donde se evaluan los trabajos realizados en cada campo. Los temas son: /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt:1) lt has becorne abundantly clear in the psycho-linguistic research of recent /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-years. /1988/congresoAESLA_VI.txt-2) Studies oí the physical form of the speech signal.

94 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-teaching: /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-[a communicative approaclil represents what is to be learnt not /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:simply in terms of formal linguistic units, but also in ternis of the /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-comni~inicative functions tliey fulfil. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-(Henry Widdowson, Explorations in Applied Linguistics, 1979)

95 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-OYL (f<;tu~~durdj?onr /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Teaching"; toclo en: Nickel, G. y Stalker, 1.C. eds., Problems of Standardization and /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:Linguistic Variation in Present-Day English (Stiidies in 1)escriptivc Linguistics Series, /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-ctlitaclo por 1). Nelils). 1 lcidrll> erg. 1085. En prensa. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-(1 hickt.1, (r , 'Pitlgclínrrdte Izrzgui\tzk zltrrl I~icrncl~~~vc~chc~z~~i~~t~tr-zch~

96 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-RAILEY, Ch.-J.N. (1985): "Remarks on Standardization, English, and Possibilities in /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Developed and Developing Countries': en NICKEL, C., STALKER, J.C., eds. Problems of /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:Standardization and Linguistic Variation in Present-Day English. (Studies in /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Descriptive Linguistics. Series ed. by D. Nehls). Heidelberg. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-RRUMFIT, C.J. ed. (1982): English for International Communication.

97 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Releuance for Language Planning", en Proceedings of the XIIIth International /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Congress of Linguists, Aiigust 29 -\epteiiil)ei 4 1982 'Iokyo 1160-1163 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:NICKEI.. (;. , S'I'AI,KEI<.J.C., cds. ( 1985): Problems of Standardization and Linguistic /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Variatíon in Present-Day English. (Shiclies in Ikscriptive 1.ingiiistics. Scries ed. 1)). 1). /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Nelils). Heidcll> erg (en preiiw).

98 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Applied Linguistics 4:126- 14 1. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt- /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:LONG, M.H. (1983)b) "Linguistic and conversational adjustments to NNStl, Second /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Language Acquisition, 5, NQ2,1983: 177-193. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-LONG, M-SATO, Ch (1983) "Classroom foreigner talk discourse: Form and function of

99 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-PALMEK, F.R. (1974): The English Verb, Long~nan /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-QUIKK, R. et al. (1972): Grammar of Contemporary English, Longman, Lonclon /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:SIEWIEIISKA, A. (1984): The Passive a Comparative Linguistic Andysis, Croom Ilelm, /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Lonclon. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-STEIN, G. (1981 ): '!Ytudic.s ir1 the Fz4nction qf the Passive", Gunter Narr Verlag, ?'übingen.

100 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-se pueden disociar. Sus 'performances' no revelan toda su 'competence', y toda su /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-'cornpetence' no aparece en su 'performance'. De ahí el término citado. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:4.RONDAI,, J.: "On the nuture of linguistic input to Ianguage-learning children': en Int. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-J. Psycholing. 8, 75-107, 1981. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-SNOW, C. E. y FERGUSON, C. (eds.): Talking to Children. Cambridge: Cambridge

101 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-MUI.I.ER, 11. (1979), tY~.~ycholinguistiche /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Argumente zugunste der Wortfeldtheorie': en /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:Linguistic Agency, IJniversitat Trier. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-OGDEN, C.K. & RICHARDS, LA. (1923), The Meanhg of Meaning, Londres. (loa /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-ed., 1952).

102 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-DE BEAUGRANDE , K. Sr DKESSLEK, W. (1981) Introduction to Text Linguistics, /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-London, Longman. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:BEVER, T.G. (1970) "The cognitiue hasis for linguistic structures". In Hayes, J.K. (ed.), /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Cognition and the Development of Language, Wiley: New York. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-CARREL, P.L. (1983) "Some issues in studying the role of schemata, or background

103 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-BRUMFIT, C.J. 1981. Commudcative Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-C.U.P. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:CI IAFE, W.L. (ed.) 1980. The Pear Stories: Cognitive, Cultural and Linguistic Aspects /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-of Narrative Production. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-CIIAFE, W.L. 1979. "7heflow of thought and tbeflow of language'! In T. Givón (ed.) 1979.

104 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Academic Press. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-GIBBONS, J. "7he siht period: an examination '! Language Learning. 35/2 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:KRASHEN, STEPHEN, D. 1976. 'Formal and informal linguistic enuironments in language /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-learning and ianguage acqu8zlion'! TESOL Quarterly. 10/2 pp. 157-1 68. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-OCHS, S. 1979. 'Phnned and unplanneu' discourse'! In T. Givón (cd.) 1979. Syntax and

105 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-CARRELL, L.P. & B. KONNEKER, 1983. "Politeness: Comparlng natiue and nonnative /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-judgementsl! Ianguage Leaming, 31. 17-30. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:FRASER, B. & W. NOLEN, 1981. Tbe acquisition of defwence with linguistic formt! /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-~nternational /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Jod of the Sociology of Language, 27. 93-1 11.

106 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-semejante, 1. Pinchuck (1977) establece, a partir de la noción "conceptual equivalentl: una /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-escala de posibles unidades de traducción: "The procedure should be to seeb the /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:conceptual equivalent (...) and then to render it in the linguistic terms of the T.L. (Target /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Language). In the hierarcl~y of tmnshtion equivalents, the top ranb is that of the concept, /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-followed by the lexical and syntactic equivalents on the lez~el qf the sentence, and then the

107 /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-Science of Texts. Norwood, N.J. Ablex. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-BROWN, G. 8 G. YULE (19831, Discourse analysis, C.U.P /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt:CATFORD, J.C. (1969, A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford, U.P. /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-COHEN, R. (19841, 54 computational theory of the function of clue words in argument /1989/congresoAESLA_VII.txt-undersatnding'.En Proceedings of COLLING-84, pp. 251-258.

108 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Bornstein, M. (1984). Descriptive taxonomy of psychological categories used by infants. In C. Sophian (Ed.), Origins of cognitive skills. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Bybee, J., & Moder. C. (1983). Morphological classes as natural categories. Language,59(2), 251 -270. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Garey, S. (1978). The child as word learner. In M. Halle, J. Bresnan, & G. A. Miller (Eds.), Linguistic theory and psychological reality (pp. 264-293). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Coleman, L., & Kay, P. (1981). Prototype semantics: The English word "lie". Language,57(1), 26-44. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Correa-Beningfield, M.R. (1985). Prototype and language transfer: The acquisition by native speakers of Spanish of four English prepositions of location. Dissertion Abstracts International, 46, 3635A. (University Microfilms NO. 86-02042). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Gundel, J., Houlihan, K., & Sanders, G. (1989). Category restrictions in markedness relations. In R. Corrigan, F. Eckman & M. Noonan (Eds.), Linguístic categorization (pp. 131 -1 47). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Hopper, P., & Thompson, S. (19849. The discourse basis for lexical categories in universal grammar. Language,60(4), 703-752. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Iverson, G., & Wheeler, D. (1989). Phonological categories and constituents. In R. Corrigan, F. Eckman & M. Noonan (Eds.), Linguistic categorization (pp. 93-1 14). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Jaeger. J. (1980). Categorization in phonology: An experimental approach. Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Kellerman, E. (1977). Towards a characterisation of the strategy of transfer in second language learning. lnterlanguage Studies Bulletin, 2(1), 58-145.

109 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Markman, E. (19839. Two different kinds of hierarchical organization. In E.R. Scholnick (Ed.), New trends inconceptual representation: Challenges to Piaget's theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Rosch, E. (1973). On the internal structure of perceptual and semantic categories. In T. E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (pp. 11 1-1 44). New York: Academic Press. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Rosch, E. (1974). Linguistic relativity. In A. Silverstein (Ed.), Human communication: Theoretical explorations (pp. 95 -121). New York: Halsted Press. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Bosch, E. (1975). Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 192-233. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Rosch, E., & Mervis, C.B. (1975). Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 573-605. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Rosch, E., Mervis, C.B., Gray, W.D., Johnson, D. M., & Boyes-Braem, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 382-439. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Ross, J.R. (1972). The Category Squish: Endstation Hauptwort. Papers from the Eighth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (pp. 316-328). Chicago Linguístic Society. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Ross, J.R. (1973a). A Fake NP Squish. In C.-J. Bailey & R. Shuy (Eds.), New ways of analyzing variation in English (pp. 96-140). Washifigton, D. C.: Georgetown University Press. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Ross, J. R. (1973b). Nouniness. In O. Fujimura (Ed.), Three dimensions of linguistic theory (pp. 137-258). Tokyo: TEC Corporation. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Ross, J. R. (1974). There, There, (There, (There, (There 4)).Papers from the Tenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (pp. 569-587). Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Tanaka, S. (1983). Language transfer as a constraint on lexico-semantic development in adults learning a second language in acquisition-poor environments. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44. 3675A. (University Microfilms No. 84-03288). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Wittgenstein, L. (1953). Philosophical investigations. New York: Macmillan.

110 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-CHAPIN, P.G. (1972) Review of "Integration of transformational theories on English syntax" by Robert P. Stockwell, Paul Schachter and Barbara Hall Partee, 2 vols. L.A.: Univ. of California, 1968. Language 48, 645-67. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-COOK. W. A. (1979) Case Grammar: Development of the Matrix Model (1970-1978), Washington D.C.: Georgetown U. P. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:FILLMORE, C. (1968) "Ttie case for case", Bach, E. and Harms, R. (eds.) in Universals in Linguistic Theory, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1-88. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-FILLMORE, C. (1971a) "Types of lexical information", Steinberg, D. and Jakobovits, L. (eds.) in Semantics: An lnterdisciplinary Reader inPhilosophy, Linguistics and Psychology, Cambridge: C.P.U., 370-92. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-FILLMORE. C. (1971b) "Some problems for case grammar," O'Brien, R. J. (ed.) 22nd Annual Round Table. Linguistics: developments of the sixties -viewpoints of the seventies, Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 35-56.

111 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-2. El estudio de la lengua en relación con su uso /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Para las teorías comunicativas, el factor que merece mayor atención es el uso de la lengua. Este estudio de la lengua en relación con su uso ha llevado a muchos profesores de L2 a promover las enseñanzas de lo que Alwright llama "comunicación a través de la lengua", en vez de "lengua dirigida a la comunicación". Esta distinción se ve claramente si comparamos los conceptos contrarios pertenecientes a las dos categorías (la enseñanza de la lengua como un sistema formal o cerrado, frente a un sistema comunicativo o abierto): lengua correcta vs lengua apropiada; tratamiento de la lengua vs uso de la lengua; significado vs valor; oración vs expresión; proposición vs acto ¡locutorio; cohesión vs coherencia; técnicas lingüísticas vs competencia comunicativa. Como indica Allwright: /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:... if we really have comunication as the major aim of our language teaching, we would be well advised to focus on communicative skills, in the knowledge that this will necessarily involve developing most areas of linguistic competente as an essential part of the product rather than /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:focus on linguistic skills and risk failing to deal with a major part of /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-whatever constkutes communicative ~om~etence(~). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Si la competencia comunicativa no concede primacía al lenguaje "estructuralmente correcto", sino al lenguaje "apropiado", habrá que adaptar los programas de aprendizaje para que estén debidamente representadas las tecnicas comunicativas, pues a pesar de que se considere la comunicación un factor esencial del "producto" del aprendizaje de la U,todavía no está presente en el "proceso".

112 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-En la 1 característica, teacher se refiere tanto a la persona que enseña como a cualquier otro que asuma ese papel directico; student, a los que asisten a una clase, escuchan u obedecen en otra situación y para designar a uno que es "Igual". Si hay un profesor, suele haber varios alumnos -t/sl, S*, s3...un grupo de alumnos t/SC, los alumnos de la case t/SC-, pero también pueden estar dos amigos cambiando impresiones al mlsmo nivel s11s2; y other, cuando la fuente de la comunicación que recibimos no es una persona, sino ruidos, las etiquetas de un prodecto, señales de tráfico, libros, etc. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-En la 20 característica, structuring moves es la explicación de lo que se va a hacer o la recapitulación de lo que se ha hecho: soliciting moves, cuando se fijan las tareas por medio de preguntas, órdenes, ruegos o peticiones; responding moves, la contestación a esas preguntas, en un sentido amplio, y reacting moves, cualquier comentario que se haga. A veces es difícil clasificar el tipo de acción a que pertenece una frase, porque comunicamos dos propósitos diferentes al mismo tiempo o porque no se ajusta claramente a una categoría determinada. Si decimos "¿Una radio?" después de haber recibido la respuesta "Una radio" a la pregunta "¿Qué quieres que te lleve para el viaje?", puede ser reaction si queremos decir "No se para qué necesitas una radio" o solicit si preguntamos simplemente "¿Para qub necesitas una radio?". /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:38 característica: además del lenguaje, hay otros medios diferentes que suponen una ayuda imprescincibie para la comunicación en la clase de lengua y fuera de ella; palabras como "éstos", "allí", "uno de ésos", sólo tienen sentido cuando podemosver, oír o sentir los medios a que se refieren: linguistic, letra escrita y palabras que oímos o decimos; non-linguistic. dibujos, objetos, la música, el ruido; paralinguistic, gestos, lenguaje corporal y el tono de voz, y silence, carencia de los tres anteriores, o el tiempo. Cualquiera de estos medios, excepto el silencio, puede subdividirse en auralloral si se dirigen al oído; visual los que afectan en primer lugar a la vista, y other los que corresponden a más de un sentido o a cualquier otro, como el tacto, el olfato. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-La 49 características se refiere al uso. ¿cómo se usan los medios para comunicar el contenido? Podemos hacerlo de forma pasiva o activa: characterizing, cuando decimos que algo está bien o mal, y hacemos cualquier comentario; setting, cuando aclaramos, los elementos á que se refieren palabras como "éste", "aquéllos", etc. Hay conversaciones en las que nunca se pronuncian los referentes, pero hay que identificarlos para comprender el significado. reproducing, cuando otra persona copia o repite un modelo o ejemplo; relating, cuando hacemos inferencias o generalizaciones; presenting, cualquiera diferente de los anteriores: incluye hacer preguntas, responder y comunicar directamente una información. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-La 50 característica trata del contenido que comunicamos por el medio usado de diferentes maneras: study, que puede ser estudio de la lengua u otras áreas diferentes: life abarca los sentimientos, información personal, fórmulas de saludos o despedidas, expresiones de cortesía, etc. También puede referirse a conocimiento general, como fechas históricas, precios de productos o el grado de inflacción de un país, procedure se refiere a la explicación de cómo se ha de realizar un ejercicio determinado, comunicar información u orientar a los alumnos.

113 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Teacher /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Structure /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Linguistic /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Present /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Life

114 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Teacher /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Structure /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Linguistic /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Present /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Lif e

115 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Yes T Rs L P S /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Source and Moveiype Medium Use Content Tanget /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Teacher Structure Linguistic Present Ufe Student Solicit Non-ling Attend Prowdure Other Respond Paraling. Characierize Study /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-React Silenco Relate Reproduce Set /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-(He shows the S St NI Ch S

116 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-2. La homonimia: aspectos de multifuncionalidad adjetiva /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-1.1 Palabras, palabras, palabras /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:'7he main function of the dictionary is to identify each word with its meaning or meanings, and give the details of its linguistic use as far as they do not fall entirely and exclusively under the province of grammar" (SWEET (1 899:141)) /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Estas palabras de SWEET manifiestan lo que hoy en día es una práctica común en toda producción lexicográfica pedagógica: la hermandad entre los contenidos semánticos y los sintácticos. Asimismo, SWEET hace mención de una identificación entre 'cada palabra con su significado o significados' ("each word with its meaning or meanings"), pero ¿a qué se refiere cuando utiliza el término 'palabra' ("word")? No es descabellado pensar -puesto que esto es también común en aquellos diccionariosque nuestro autor alude a la extendida práctica lexicográfica de una entrada Iéxica que aglutine todo un heterogéneo conjunto de matices semánticos y sus correspondientes funcionamientos sintácticos, separados por un índice numérico -las denominadas accepciones-. En muchos casos la disparidad entre los contenidos sintácticosemánticos entre los índices es tal que, a veces, sólo les une la identidad formal(3). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-El término 'palabra' utilizado por SWEET, puede decirse, está basado en las unidades gráficas -letrasque constituyen el elemento léxico y no en los diferentes valores sintácticos y semánticos que puedan acogerse bajo dicha forma. Así, por ejemplo:

117 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-BRUMFIT, C.J. & JOHNSON, K. 1981. The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. O.U.P. Oxford. BYRNE, D. 1969. English Teaching Extracts. Longman. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-CUEVAS, J. Consideraciones sobre la incidencia del E.S.P. en la actividad escolar. Factores psico-sociolingüísticos y culturales. Actas del V Congreso Nacional de Lingüistica Aplicada. Pamplona. pp. 191-197. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:FIRTH, JR. 1975. Papers in Linguistics Oxford. Ver BALET, S. 1983 p. 22. HALLIDAY, MARK, Mc.lNTOSH, A STREVENS, P. 1964. The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. Ver By RNE, D. 1969. pp. 14-1 5. HALLIDAY M.A.K. 1981. "Towards a Sociological Semantics" Ver BRUMFIT. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-C.J. 1981. P. 27-47. HYMES, D.H. 1981. On Communicative Competence. Ver BRUMFIT, E.J. & JOHNSON. K. 1981. iABOV. W. "The study of language in its social context". Studium Generale, /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-23 p. 206-7. Ver BRUMFIT 1981. p. 52. LYONS, J. 1973. New Horlzons InLlnguistics. Pinguin Books. Harmondsworth. PALMER, H.E. 1968. The Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages. Ed.

118 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Julia María Fernández Cuesta (Universidad de Sevilla) /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Durante las últimas décadas se ha publicado numerosa literatura sobre paralingüística "paralanguage", generalmente asociada a la comunicación no verbal; NVC son las siglas normalmente utilizadas. Uno de los mayores problemas de este campo, relativamente nuevo, estrechamente relacionado con la psicología, la socidogía y la antropdogía, es la difilcultad que encontramos a la hora de definir lo que engloba el término PL, o cuáles constituirían los elementos paralingüísticos. D. Crystal (1974: 265-295), alude a esta confusión en cuanto a lo que debe ser incluído en la paralingüística; señala que el hecho de que existan al menos seis definiciones básicas del término, por ejemplo, puede hacer que muchos no consideren el tema digno de un estudio serio. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Algunas de estas definiciones son, además, muy vagas. Para Abercrombie (1968: 55-59), "Paralinguistic phenomena are non linguistic elements in conversation." Según este autor, los elementos paralingüísticos tienen que reunir dos requisitos: capacidad de comunicar algo, y formar parte de la conversación entre dos individuos (1 968: 56). Abercrombie distingue entre los elementos paralingüísticos dependientes: "laudness, tempo, tessitura, sobs, yawning, laughter, & so on" (58), y los independientes, entre los que, como otros autores: Trager (1 958: 1 12), Poyatos (1 975: 285-31 4), Stankiewicz (1964), incluye curiosamente las interjecciones, y demás 'sonidos humanos' que no se ajustan a las normas fonológicas de la lengua. Austin (1 965: 31 33) ofrece una definición similar: "paralanguage is here defined as significant noises made by the non articulate vocal tract," e incluye también las interjecciones, que él denomima "vocal segregates," y aduce como ejemplos algunas tan comunes como tsk tsk, hm hm, haha, etc. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Fernando Poyatos (1977: 296-337) sitúa dentro del campo de la paralingüística las llamadas vocalizaciones "vocalizations", o utilizando la terminología del autor "alternants," término que abarca desde formas apenas lexicalizadas como hm, que mencionábamos anteriormente hasta interjecciones con una larga tradición dentro de la lengua, del tipo haha!, que tienen una grafía fija, y aparecen como entrada en los diccionarios (302). Después de hacer una recopilación de los alternantes más importantes en inglés, Poyatos reclama para ellos un estudio serio, y una descripción y transcripción fonetlca adecuadas. Señala el hecho de que muchos de estos alternantes carecen de una grafía fija, por lo que se deberían buscar nuevos símbolos para su representación por escrito (331). Estamos de acuerdo en todo, menos en considerar lo que Poyatos denomina "alternants" como elementos paralingüísticos. A nuestro entender, hay que distinguir muy claramente entre los sonidos instintivos y las interjecciones (llámense éstas "alternants" o "vocalizations") que proceden de ellos. Estas últimas están fijadas ya en la lengua, y son utilizadas en el proceso de comunicación de un modo intencionado. Corresponde a la lingüística ocuparse de su estudio. Así, una cosa es la tos como índice de un catarro, y otra la interjección hem! utilizada para indicar nuestra presencia en un determinado lugar. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Shirley Weitz (1974: 93-98) considera también algunos 'sonidos extralingüísticos' incluidos dentro de su concepción de paralingüística:

119 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-I.B. "Antonio Gala", Coslada, Madrid /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-La importancia tanto para el lingüista como para el crítico literario de estudiar los nuevos términos que aparecen en poesía deriva del carácter profundamente innovador del lenguaje poético (PL). ¿Por que determinadas palabras compuestas que d hablante nativo intuitivamente considerarla como no aceptables en el lenguaje estándar (SL) aparecen con frecuencia en posesía?. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Tomando como punto de partida el concepto de "deviation" definido por Leech, "a linguistic form is deviant if it cannot be generated by the grammar of SL"('), una forma poética se "desvía" del lenguaje estándar, y esta desviación se plantea en términos de "productivity" y "acceptability" (formas que no son productivas ni aceptables en el SL sí lo son en el PL). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Nuestro objetivo es demostrar que la desviación poética en las palabras compuestas dentro de la poesía moderna en lengua inglesa no ocurre al azar, sino que se rige a partir de una serie de principios y que estos principios se pueden además aplicar a las estructuras poéticas en general. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Edwin Williams formula en 1981 una regla válida para la formación de palabras compuestas en lengua inglesa, "the Righthand Head Rule" (RHR): "... In morphology we define the head of a morphologically complex word to be the right-hand member of that wordu(*). De. esta manera, estructuras que podrían parecer compuestos cuyo núcleo es el término de la izquierda como "eat out" no se considerararían compuestos aunque autores como E. Selkirk difieran a este respecto(3).

120 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-1.-Leech,G. 1966. "linguistics and the Figures of Rhetoric". In R. Fowler, ed. 1966, /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-p. 135. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:2.-Williams, Edwin. 1981. "On the Notions "Lexically Related" and "Head of Word". Linguistic lnquiry 12, p. 256. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:3.-Selkirk, E. 1982. The Syntax of Words. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. (Linguistic lnquiry Monographs, 7). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:4.-Lieber, R. 1983. "Argument Linking and Compounds in English". Linguistic lnquiry 14, p. 251 -285. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-5.- Terence Tiller, from "Adam out of Eden" /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-6.-Charles Causley, from "Ballad of the Frog Princess"

121 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Leech. Geoffrey. 1966."Linguistics and the Figures of Rhetoric". In R. Fowler, ed., 1966,p. 135-156. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Leven, Samuel R. 1971."The Analysis of Compression in Poetry". Foundations of Language 7,p. 38-55. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Lieber, Rochelle. 1980. On the Organization of the Lexicon. Doctoral dissertation. Massachusetts lnstitute of Technology. -1983. "Argument Linking and Compounds in English". Linguistic lnquiry 14, p. 251-285. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Selkirk, Elizabeth 0. 1982.The Syntax of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (Linguistic lnquiry Monographs, 7). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Williams, Edwin. 1981. "Argument Structure and Morphology". The Linguistic Review 1. p. 81-1 14. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:-"On the Notions "Lexically Related" and "Head of a Word". Linguistic lnquiry 12, p. 245-274. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-LA EDAD COMO FACTOR EN EL APRENDIZAJE DE LA L2 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Teresa Gibert

122 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Aragonés, M. "La edad óptima en el aprendizaje de idiomas y su interpretación". EPOS, V (1989), 427-37. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Asher, J. 8García, G. "The Optimal Age to Learn a Foreign Language". Modern Language Journal, 53 (1969) 334-41. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Clahsen, H. "Parameterized Grammatical Theory and Language Acquisition: A Study of the Acquisition of Verb Placement and lnflection by Children and Adults". Linguistic Theory in Second Language Acquisition. Ed. S. Flynn and W. O'Neil. Dordrecht, Boston & London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988, 47-75. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Cook, Vivian, ed. Experimental Approaches to Second Language Learning. New York: Pergamon, 1986. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Fathman, A. "The Relationship between Age and Second Language Productive Ability. "Language Learning, XXV (1975), 245-54.

123 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-MARK Halliday recogió este concepto de 'colocabilidad" para postular un nivel descriptivo independiente en la teoría gramatical que comenzaba a esbozar (a principios de los años 60), la "Scale and Category Grammar", precursora de la actual" "Sistémica". (Butler 1985). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Al pasar de la abstracción algorítmica que suponen las categorías gramaticales a la pérdida de generalización que supone un conjunto abierto de elementos léxicos, Halliday trata de tender un puente que articule ambos polos: /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:"The grammarian's dream is (and must be, such is the nature of gramrnar) of constant territorial expansion. He would like to turn the whole of linguistic form into grammar". The exit to lexis would then be closed and al1 exponents ranged in systems" (Halliday 1961 :267). /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Esta ha sido desde esa fecha la preocupación constante de los adherentes a la SG, es decir, buscar cada vez más sutiles clasificaciones de rasgos léxicos en la inmensa retícula de opciones expresivas que es una lengua. En el polo más general se encuentran las opciones gramaticales, en el otro extremo, más sutil, se encuentra el léxico, relativamente libre de ataduras formales. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-A modo de ejemplo, veamos cómo una misma estructura sintáctica a la que corresponde un mismo contenido sernántico puede expresarse con distintas opciones Iéxicas:

124 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-HAMMARBERG, B. 1985. Learnability and learner strategies in second language syntax and phonology. En K Hyltenstam & M. Pieneman (ed.). Modelling and assessing second language acquisition. Clevedon, Avon (England): Multilingual Matters, pp 153-75. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-JAKOBSON, R., 1941168. Child language, aphasia and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:JAMES, A.R., 1989. Linguistic theory and second language phonological learning: a perspective and sorne proposals. Aplied Linguistics, 10: 63-82. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-MAJOR, R.C., 1987. Phonological sirnilarity, rnarkedness and rate of L2 acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9:63-82. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-MARTIN URIZ, A. & J Siles Artes, 1988. La pronunciación del inglés para hispanohablantes.Madrid: ED16.

125 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Referencias Bibliográficas /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Bolinger, D. (1971) The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Brown, E. K. y J. E. Miller (1980) Syntax: A Linguistic lntroduction to Sentence Structure. London: Hutchinson. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Curme, G. 0. (1931) A Grammar of the English Language, 3 "Syntax". Boston: Heath & Co. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-De la Cruz, J. M. (1969) "Rasgos tipológicos del inglés en el desarrollo histórico de los "verbos con partícula"", Filología Moderna 35-36. 265-285.

126 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-William Collins Sons 8Co. Ltd. Maetzner, E. (1874) An English Grarnmar III. London Quereda, L. (1975) Metodología de los Verbos Compuestos Ingleses. Madrid: /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-SGEL. Quirk, R. et ali~. (1985) A Cornprehens~ve Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Williams, E. (1980) "Predication",Linguistic Inquiry 11, 203 238. Young, D.(1 980) The Structure of English Clauses. London: Hutchinson & Co. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-CONOCIMIENTO METALINGUISTICO Y /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-

127 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-FAERCH, C., K. HAASTRUP & R. PHlLLlPSON (1984) Learner Language and Language Learning. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-LONG., M.H. (1983) "Does Second Language lnstruction Make a Difference? A Review of Reseach", TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 17, N". /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:MacLAREN, R. 1. (1989) "The Distinción between Linguistic Awareness and Metalingüístic Consciousness: An Applied Perspective", Rassegna Italiana di Lingüística Applicata, Vol XXI, N"2. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-MANCHON RUIZ, R.M. (1988) "El uso de Estrategias de Comunicación por aprendices de una lengua extranjera: consideraciones pedagógicas", ACIS Journal, Vol. 1, No 2. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-NANSY, D. (1987) "The Role of Language and Cognition in Second Language metalingüístic Awareness", en J.P. Lantolf & A. Labarca (eds.) Research in Second Language Learning: Focus on the Classroom. Norwood, Nueva Jersey, Ablex Publishing Corporation.

128 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Skehan P. Individual Differences in ~econd Language Learning, London: Edward Arnold, 1979. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Smith A. "The lmportance of Attitude in Foreign Language Learning", English Teaching Forum, 10, 1, 1972, pp.15-20. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Trevise A. y Noyau C. "Adult Spanish Speakers and the adquisition of French Negative Forms: Individual Variation and Linguistic Awarenessn, en Anderser R. (ed.) Second Languages. A Cross-Linguistic Perspective, Rowley: Newbury House, 1984. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-LA LINGUISTICA COMO BASE DEL APRENDIZAJE /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-

129 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-BLACK, M. COLTHEART, M. & BYNG, S. (1987), "Forms of coding in sentence comprehension during readin". En M. Coltheart (Ed.) 655-672. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-BRANSFORD, J.D. & JOHNSON, M.K. (1972), "Contextual prerequisites for understanding. Some investigations of comprehension and recall". Journal of Verbal Learning 8 Verbal Behavior, 11, 71 7-726. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:CAPLAN, D. (1 987), Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Aphasiology. An Introduction. Cambridge: C.U.P /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-CLARK, E. & CLARK, H. (1977), Psychology and Language. An lntroduction to Psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt. Brace & Jovanovich. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-CLIFTON, C.& FERREIRA, F. (1987), "Discourse structure and anaphora: Come experimental results" en M. Coltheart (Ed.) 635-654.

130 /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-31-50. Barraquer-Bordas, L. (1 976). Afasias, Aprasias y Agnosias. Barcelona: Toray. Benson, D.F. (1979). Aphasia, Alexia, and Agraphia Livingstone. Nueva York. Benton, A.L. (1 974). The Revised Visual Retention Test. Psychological Corporation. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Nueva York. Brown. R. (1981). Psicolingüística. Trillas. Méjico. Brown, J.W. (1977). Mind, Brain and Consciousness. The Neuropsychology of /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Cognition. Academic Pres. ~uelo York. Dejerine, J. (1906). L'aphasie sensorielle: Sa localisation et sa physiologie pathologique. Press. Médic. 55, 437. Dejerine, J. (1906). L'aphasie motrice: sa localisation et son anatomie pathologique. Press. Médic. 55, 453. Ferrero, J. González-Tablas, M.M. Ladera V. y Perea, MV. (1988). Protocolo de Exploración Neuropsicológica. Salamanca: PM. Salamanca. Geschwind, N. (1971). Current concepst in aphasia. New England Journa, Medicine. 284, 654. Goodglass, H. & Kaplan, E. (1983). The Assement of Aphasia and Relatec Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Hecaen. H. & Angelergues, R. (1964). Localisation of syntoms in aphasia. In A.V.S. Renck y M. O'Connor (eds.), Disorders of languaje (pp. 223-246). Ciba Found Symp. Londres. Jakobson, R. (1964). Towards a linguistic topology of aphasic impairments. En /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-A.V.S. Renck y M. O'Connor (eds.), Disorders of language. Ciba. Found Symp. Londres. Kock, J. & Lecour, A.R. (1985). Elérnents pour une étude linguistique de angages 'héologiques " d'origine aphasique. Slatkine. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt:Lesser, R. (1976). Linguistic investigations of aphasia. Elsevier. Nueva York. Morrison, D.F. (1976). Multivariate Statistical Methods. McGraw-Hill. Londres. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Perea, M.V. (1983). Correlaciones Psicofisiológicas de las Disfasias. Estudio clínico-experimental, con especial aplicación de la técnica T.A.C. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Salamanca. Facultad de Medicina. /1990/congresoAESLA_VIII_mejor.txt-Perea, M.V. (1 985): Localizacion cerebral del Lenguaje: A Propósito de dos casos de Afasia cruzada. Reunión Extraordinaria de la Sociedad Española de Neurología Univ. de Navarra. Pamplona. Julio.

131 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Linguistics,pp. 3-20. Bloornington & London: Indiana University Press. FERGUSON, C.A. (1959): Diglossia. Word 15, 325-340. KREMNITZ, Georg (1983): Francais et créole: Ce qu'en pensent les enseignants. Le conflit linguistique a la /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Martinique. Hamburg: Buske Verlag. LAFONT, Robert (1980): La spectacularisation de l'occitaphonie dans l'enquzte linguistique: la fonction du 'retour'. Lengas 17, 7 1-77. LAFONTAINE, Dominique (1986): Le parti pris des mots: norrnes et attitudes: linguistiques. Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga, editor. LAMBERT, W.E., HODGSON, R.C., GARDNER, R.C. & FILLENBLAUM, S. (1960): Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Jol~rnal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60: 44-5 1. LOCHER, Uli; MALAN, Thieny & PIERRE-JACQUES, Charles (1987): Evaluation de la réforme éducative /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:en Hai'ti. Geneva: World Bank. NNYOLES, Rafael L. (1969): Conflicte linguistic Valencia. Barcelona: Edicions 62. PA'ITERSON, Orlando (1982): Slavery and social death. Carnbridge: Harvard University Press. SCHUMANN, J. (1978): The pidginization process: A model for language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-House. SINGLER, John V. (1992): African influence upon afro-arnerican language varieties: a consideration of sociohistorical factors. Solikoko Mufwene, ed. (in press). VALDMAN, Albert (1987): Le cycle vital créole et la standardisation du créole haitien. Etudes Creoles 10, 107-25. VALDMAN, Albert (1991): Decreolization of dialect contact in Haiti? In F. Byrne and T. Huebner (eds.). /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Development and structures of creole languages. Amsterdarn; Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 75-88. VALLVERDÚ, Francesc (1979): La normalizacio linguistica a Catalunya. Barcelona: Ed. Laia. ZÉPHIR, Flore (1990): language choice, language use, language attitudes ofthe Haitian bilingual communily.

132 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Este estudio nos proporciona aún más datos en apoyo de la opinión de Kovecses, Lakoff y otros cognitivistas de que los conceptos emocionales se entienden y se construyen mediante modelos metafóricos y metonómicos. Los datos aquí proporcionados y otros más se analizarán en un estudio posterior (ver nota 1). /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-BARCELONA, A. (sin fecha): «El lenguaje del amor romántico en inglés y en español». CASARES, J. (1975): Diccionario ideológico de la lengua española. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili. GIBBS, R. W. jr (1990): «Psycholinguistic Studies on the Conceptual Basis of Idiomaticity*. Cognitive /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:Linguistics, vol. 1-4, 1990, pp. 417-451. GOOSSENS, L.: «Metaphtonymy: the interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action». Cognitive Linguistics, vol. 1-3, pp. 323-341. KOVECSES, Z. (1986): Metaphors of Angel; Pride and Love. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1988): Lunguage of Love. Semantics of Passion in Conversational English. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1990): Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer Verlag.

133 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-LAKOFF, G. (1987): Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: 1 University of Chicago Press. 1 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1990): «The Invariance Hypothesis: is abstract reason based on image-schemas?~. Cognitive Linguistics, vol. 1-1, 1990, pp. 39-75. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:LAKOFF, G. y JOHNSON, M. (1980): Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Chicago University Press. TAYLOR, J. R. (1989): Linguistic Categorization. Oxford: Clarendon. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Nuevas reflexiones sobre la enseñanza del español en la universidad /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Juan Alfredo Bellón Cazabán Departamento de Filología Española y Grupo de Lingüística Aplicada de la Universidad de Granada

134 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Vistos los resultados arriba mencionados, la respuesta a la tercer pregunta de investigación es que, para el grupo de procesamiento, el efecto de la instrucción se mantuvo durante un mes tanto para las actividades de interpretación como de producción, mientras que para el grupo de enseñanza tradicional, los efectos de la ins- trucción se mantuvieron solamente para la actividad de producción. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Los resultados de la presente investigación se corresponden con los obtenidos en el estudio de VanPatten y Cadiemo (1993), y ambos indican que la enseñanza en el procesamiento del input parece tener un mayor efecto en los sistemas lingüísticos en desarrollo de los estudiantes que el que tiene la enseñanza tradicional enfocada a la producción. La instrucción de procesamiento parece haber alterado la manera en que los sujetos procesaron el input, lo cual a su vez tuvo un efecto en sus sistemas en desarrollo y en su habilidad para la producción. La enseñanza tradicional, en cambio, tuvo un impacto positivo en la habilidad de los estudiantes para la producción, pero parece haber tenido muy poco efecto en la manera en que los estudiantes procesaron el input. En otras palabras, la instrucción de procesamiento parece haber proporcionado a los estudiantes un conocimiento disponible tanto para la comprensión como para la producción, mientras que la enseñanza tradi- cional parece haber proporcionado un conocimiento disponible tan sólo para la producción. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:Estos resultados concuerdan con las predicciones hechas anteriormente según las cuales un tipo de ense- ñanza que tuviera como objetivo alterar la manera en que los estudiantes perciben y procesan el input sena más efectivo que un tipo de instrucción cuyo objetivo fuera manipular el «output» de los estudiantes. Como se sugirió en VanPatten y Cadierno, las explicaciones gramaticales de tipo tradicional no parecen integrarse den- tro del sistema lingüístico del estudiante, sino que parecen resultar en otro tipo de sistema de conocimiento. Esta noción de dos sistemas lingüísticos de conocimiento ha sido defendida por Krashen (1987), quien ha dis- tinguido entre «conocimiento adquirido» y «conocimiento aprendido». Según Krashen, dado que la adquisi- ción sólo puede tener lugar si se recibe lo que él llama «input comprensible*, la enseñanza gramatical tradicio- nal sólo puede resultar en competencia aprendida. Más recientemente, Schwartz (1991) ha distinguido también dos tipos de sistemas lingüísticos de conocimiento: uno, que ella llama «competencia», basado en los princi- pios de la Gramática Universal (en el sentido de Chomsky, 1976, 1981) y el otro, el llamado Conocimiento Lingüístico Aprendido (Learned Linguistic Knowledge), el cual no sigue dichos principios universales. Según Schwartz, la práctica gramatical explícita y la data negativa solamente pueden resultar en el Conocimiento Lingüístico Aprendido, y no en la Competencia. Los resultados del presente estudio parecen confirmar estas creencias. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-CONCLUSIONES /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Para concluir, la presente investigación examinó el efecto de la instrucción formal en la manera en que los estudiantes de segundas lenguas procesan el input de la L2. Los resultados del presente estudio, así como los del de VanPatten y Cadiemo, sugieren que la instrucción parece ser más beneficiosa si ésta está dirigida a alterar la manera en que los estudiantes procesan el input que cuando está dirigida a alterar la producción de los estudiantes. Estos resultados tienen tanto implicaciones teóricas como pedagógicas. En cuanto a las prime- ras, el presente estudio no sólo contribuye a la discusión actual sobre los efectos de la enseñanza formal en la adquisición de segundas lenguas, sino que que también apoya el importante papel que el procesamiento del input juega en la adquisición de segundas lenguas. En cuanto a las implicaciones pedagógicas, los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que en vez de discutir si la enseñanza formal «per se» hace una diferencia en la adquisición de segundas lenguas, sería más apropiado considerar qué tipo de instrucción sena más efectiva. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-TERESA CADIERNO LÓPEZ /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-BIBLIOGRAF~A /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:BEVER, T. G. (1970). The cognitive basis for linguistic structures. In J. R. Hayes (Eds.): Cognition and the development of language (pp. 279-362). New York: Wiley and Sons. CHOMSKY, N. (1976). Reflections on language. London: Temple Smith. CHOMSKY, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris. ELLIS, R. (1984). Can syntax be taught? A study of the effects of formal instruction on the acquisition of WH questions by children. Applied Linguistics, 5, pp. 138-155. GASS, S. (1979). Language transfer and universal grammatical relations. Lunguage Learning, 27, pp. 327- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-344. KRASHEN, S. (1987). Principles andpractice in second language acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice- Hall International. LIGHTBOWN, P. (1983). Exploring relationships between developmental and instructional sequences in L2 acquisition. In H. Seliger & M. Long (Eds.): Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition. (pp. 217-245). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. LOCOCO, V. (1987). Learner comprehension of oral and written sentences in German and Spanish: the importante of word order. In B. VanPatten, T. Dvorak & J. F. Lee (Eds.). Foreign language learning: A research perspective (pp. 119-129). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. LONG, M. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? Areview of research. TESOL Quarterly, 17(3),pp. 359-382. NAM, E. (1975). Child and adult perceptual strategies in second language acquisition. Paper presented at the annual TESOL Convention, Los Angeles. 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135 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-What was interesting was how many things they indicated having on their rninds while responding. For example, they reported analyzing the situation, which included noting the interlocutor's age and status. They also reported thinking the utterance through quickly in Portuguese native language and then coming back to English, the foreign language. Subjects said that they womed about whether they were producing their utterances correctly in terms of the choice of vocabulary and grarnrnar. There was also some concern expressed by subjects as to whether they pronounced their English utterances correctly (Motti 1987). /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-One recent study of speech act production using verbal report (Robinson 1991) had twelve Japanese ESL students complete a discourse questionnaire with six refusal situations to which they were to respond in writing (without rejoinders from the interlocutor as in the Discourse Completion Test; see Blum-Kulka 1982). The respondents were also requested to provide think-aloud data which was tape-recorded as they completed the situations. Although they were invited to think aloud in Japanese, they al1 did so in English, most likely because the investigator knew no Japanese. After they had completed their responses along with the think aloud data, the investigator interviewed the respondents regarding the content of their utterances from the think aloud session, playing back the tape-recording to remind subjects of specific thoughts. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:Whereas one interest was in obtaining cognitive data on linguistic processing, the researcher did not obtain much data of this nature. Rather, the data dealt with cultural and personality issues. For example, respondents sometimes accepted the request rather than refusing it as they were instructed to do because their cultural background taught Japanese girls to say «yes», or at least not to say «no». There were also specific instances in which the respondents indicated in the retrospective interview that they did not have experience with the situation (Robinson 1991). /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-The current study set out to investigate more fully the processes whereby nonnative speakers produce speech acts in an elicited role-play situation, and then to relate these processes to the products. The study was designed so as to arrive at a description of the ways in which nonnative speakers assess, plan, and execute such utterances. A second interest was in exploring the sources for positive and negative transfer of forms from native to target language by attempting to describe just when the thinking was taking place in one or the other language. Whereas the literature on language transfer pays a good deal of attention to the transfer of structures (e.g., Gass & Selinker 1983, Ringbom 1987, Dechert & Raupach 1989), little attention has been paid to the shift in language of thought between and among languages (in the case of trilinguals) during the process of assessing, planning, or executing a given utterance. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Another purpose of the study was to examine ways that verbal report could be used as a research methodology for collecting thought processes during oral elicitation situations'. The ultimate aim of the study was to yield insights for less successful nonnative speakers as to how to produce speech acts more effectively. Such insights may well be deemed useful in preparing learners for oral elicitation situations in which their communicative language abilities are being assessed.

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137 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-i /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-FACTORES PRAGMÁTICOS EN LA ADQUISICI~NDEL ESPAÑOL: LOS RASGOS PROS~DICOS DEL «BABY TALKu /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:BLOUNT, B. G. y PADGUG, E. J. (1976): Mother and Father Speech: Distribution of Parental Speech Features in American, English and Spanish. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 12: 47-59. BROEN, P. (1972): The Verbal Environment of the Language Learning Child. Monograph of the American Speech and Hearing Association, 17. BROWN, R., CAZDEN, C. B. y BELLUGI, U. (1969): The Child's Grammar from 1 to 111. En: J.P. Hill (ed.) Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, vol. 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. CASAGRANDE, J. B. (1948): Comanche Baby Language. International Journal of American Linguistics, 14: 11-14. CHEW, J. J. (1969): The Structure of Japanese Baby Talk. Joumal-Newsletter of the Association of Teachers of Japanese. 6: 4-17. CAZDEN, C. B. 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138 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-MARCIANO ESCUTIA /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-CLASHEN, H. (1987): {{Connecting theories of language processing and (second) language acquisitions. En /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:C. Paff (ed.). First and Second Language Acquisition Processes: 103-1 16. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. ESCUTIA, M. (1990): Aspects of Second Language Leamers'Knowledge of Spanish Reflexive Pronouns. Tesis de Máster no publicada. University of Illinois at Chicago. GASS, S. M. (1989): «How do learners resolve linguistic conflicts?~. En S. Gass y J. Schachter (eds.) Linguistic /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition: 183- 199. KLEIN, W. (1986): Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. LICERAS, J. (1985): «The value of clitics in non-native Spanish~. En J. N. Pankhurst y M. A. Sharwood /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Smith (eds.) Second Language Research 1: 151-168. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

139 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:DUCROT, Oswald (1972): Dire et nepas dire, edición española: Decir y no decir, Barcelona, Anagrama, 1982. GRICE, H.P. (1975): «Logic and conversation~, en Cole, P. y Morgan, J.L. (eds.); Syntax and Semantics, vol. 3, Speech Acts, Nueva York, Academic Press, pp. 41-58. LAKOm Robin (1971): «If's, and's and but's about conjunctions~, en C.J. Fillmore y D.T. Langendoen (eds.), Studies in Linguistic Semantics, Nueva York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston. LYONS, John (1981): Lunguage, Meaning and Context edición española: Lenguaje, significado y contexto, /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Barcelona, Paidós, 1983. MOSTERÍN, Jesús (1983): Lógica de primer orden, Barcelona, Ariel. MOYA CORRAL, Juan Antonio (1985): «Aspectos semánticos de la relación adversativan, en Estudios /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Románicos dedicados al Prof Andrés Soria Ortega, vol. 1, Granada, Universidad, pp. 221-238.

140 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Análisis retórico contrastivo inglés/español de un articulo de carácter cientifico-técnico /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Luz Gil Salom y Asunción Jaime Pastor (Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad Politécnica Valencia) /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:El análisis que presentamos se basa en el estudio lingüístico del artículo escogido de la revista Scientific American: «Amorphous-Semiconductor Devices~,con una extensión de 10.763palabras1. Dicho artículo, jun- to con su correspondiente versión en castellano2, no son más que una muestra que nos ha servido de base para sistematizar los rasgos discursivos propios del lenguaje científico-técnico en ambas lenguas. Hemos partido de la definición de registro que Halliday y Hassan presentan en su libro Cohesion in English: «The linguistic features which are typically associated with a configuration of situational features -with particular values of the field, mode and tenor- constitute a register.»' Y precisamente de entre los diversos registros de la lengua inglesa hemos estudiado el tipo de lenguaje adecuado a nuestra situación concreta, analizando las especificidades del registro científico-técnico a nivel discursivo. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-El objeto del presente estudio ha sido, pues, el análisis en inglés y español del aspecto discursivo propio del lenguaje científico-técnico que junto con las especifidades léxicas y sintácticas confieren a este lenguaje unas rasgos propios que lo distinguen del inglés de carácter general. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-La coherencia discursiva depende de muchos factores, entre los cuales destaca la secuencia en que las oraciones están dispuestas, es decir, la forma en que está organizado el mensaje. El modo de expresar dicho mensaje reflejará la coherencia mediante la utilización de elementos lingüísticos de cohesión. Junto a elemen- tos de cohesión como la referencia textual, la sustitución, la elipsis y las relaciones léxicas, el escritor puede también utilizar en su discurso indicadores o nexos discursivos, cuya función consiste en mostrar el valor retórico del discurso emitido. De esta forma, tras el indicador discursivo thus el lector espera encontrar una finalidad o tras however un contraste. En el caso de que el discurso presente dificultad de comprensión o com- plejidad de conceptos, el autor recurre a dichos indicadores que le sirven para aclarar los conceptos. El discur- so científico-técnico tiende a describir, definir o ejemplificar procesos haciendo uso, como veremos, de estos nexos discursivos. Estos nexos de unión son de gran utilidad para el lector, ya que le sirven de ayuda para descubrir aquello que ha querido decir el autor, al mostrar el valor funcional de las oraciones en las que apa- recen. Esta ha sido una de las razones de la elección de este tema como objeto de estudio, ya que en ocasiones el discurso científico-técnico, tanto en L1 como en L2 es difícil de entender.

141 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-s.states and six higher-energy, or p. states. (p. 37) Ej: Los ocho estados de esta capa pueden subdividirse ulteriormente en dos grupos: dos estados de energía más baja, o estados S, y seis estados de energía más alta, o estados p. (p. 24) /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-CONCLUSIONES /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:Basándonos en el análisis efectuado podemos concluir que la retórica discursiva del presente artículo uti- liza con más frecuencia las técnicas de la causalidad y resultado, así como de contraste. Es característica la abundante presencia de apoyo visual. Respecto a las funciones retóricas resaltan el uso de la definición formal y la descripción. Cabe destacar una similitud funcional en el registro técnico del inglés y el español. Dicha similitud responde a una forma común de razonamiento y organización de la información. Así lo señala Widdowson al afirmar que «EST is at one and the same time a variety of English, and a particular linguistic realization of a mode of communicating which is neutral with respect to different lang~ages»~. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & HASSAN, R. (1976): Cohesion in English, London, Longman, p. 22. MASTER, P. A. (1986): Science, Medicine and Technology, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Regents. NUTTHAL, CH.: Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Languaje, Oxford, Heinemann, p. 102. QUIRK, R. et al (1973): A Comprehensive Grammar of Englixh, London, Longman. TRIMBLE, L. (1985): English for Science and Technology. A Discourse Approach, Cambridge, CUP, p. 10. WIDDOWSON, H. G. (1975): «EST in Theory and Practice~, E.TI.C. Occasional Paper, The British Council, /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-p. 8.

142 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Actas del 1 Congreso Nacional de Lingüística Aplicada. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1989): «Supuestos dudosos en la enseñanza del ritmo inglés a hispanohablantes». Actas del VI1 Congreso Nacional de Lingüística Aplicada. Universidad de Sevilla, pp. 265-273. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:-(1995): La función demarcativa de la entonación en inglés, castellano y catalán. Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. HOEQUIST, CH. (1983): «Durational correlates of linguistic rhythm categories». Phonetica 40, pp. 19-31. HUGGINGS, A.W. (1975): «On isochrony and syntax». En G. Fant and M. Tatham (eds.) Auditory Analysis and Perception of Speech, pp. 455-464 (London, Academic Press). JASSEN, W., HILL, D.R, y WITTEN, I.H. (1984): «Isochrony in English Speech». En D. Gibbon y H. Richter (eds.) Intonation, Accent and Rhythm. Berlín de Gruyter, pp. 303-225. LEHISTE, 1. (1973): ~Rhythmic units and syntactic units in production and perceptionn. JASA 54, pp. 1228-1234. MAJOR, R. (1987): «A model for interlanguage phonologyn. En G. Ioup y S. Weinberger (eds.) Interlanguage Phonology. Cambridge, Mass., Newbury House, pp. 101-124. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-NAVARRO TOMÁS, T. (1922): «La cantidad silábica en unos versos de Rubén Darío». Revista de Filología Española, 9, pp. 1-29. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1971): Manual de pronunciación española, 16 ed., Madrid, CSIC. NEMSER, W. (1971): «Aproximative systems of foreign language leamers~. IRAL, 9, pp. 115-23. OLSEN, L. (1972): «Rhythmical pattems and syllabic features of the Spanish sense group». Proceedings of

143 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-del I Simposio de Lingüística Aplicada y Tecnología.Valencia, 12-16 febrero de 1990. Valencia: Departa- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-mento de teoría de los lenguajes. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:HAUGEN, E. (1950): «The analysis of linguistic borrowing~, Language 26: 210-231. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-LORENZO, E. (1966): El español de hoy, lengua en ebullición, Madrid: Gredos. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-MARCOS-PÉREZ, P.J. (197 1): Los anglicismos en el ámbito periodístico: algunos de los problemas que plan-

144 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-zana vive sus aventuras a medida que el auctor las escribe. Sin embargo lamentamos, quizá, que este último haya privilegiado (demasiado) el lado acústico en detrimento de lo que los personajes hubieran podido «ver». El itinerario lozanesco por las calles de Roma se asimila al laberinto de la escritura de Delicado, el cual regis- tra los mínimos detalles y los convierte en sonidos-palabras. Es patente que detrás del retrato surge la posibi- lidad de «reconstruir» desde el metatexto, el retrato personal de Delicado como individuo que lleva una vida poco edificante, en el seno de una sociedad que promueve la hipocresía y el cinismo. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Para terminar, vale declarar que lo que hizo Delicado como individuo pertenece a la historia del siglo XVI, mientras que lo que escribió en su obra fascina a la crítica literaria de los albores del siglo XXI. El oído y la vista, incorporados a la grafía del discurso narrativo, nos permiten participar, desde nuestra perspectivas de lectores, en esa fiesta de la comunicación literaria en que el tiempo biográfico ha quedado transformado en substancia de poesía. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:ALLAIGRE, Claude (1980): Sémantique et Littérature. Le «Retrato de la Locana Andaluza». Échirolles: Imprimerie du Néron. BAJTÍN, M. M. (1974): La cultura popular en la Edad Media y en el Renacimiento La obra de Franqois Rabelais. Barcelona: Barral. BERCEO, Gonzalo de (1971): Milagros de nuestra Señora. Londres: Tamesis Books. BUBNOVA, Tatiana (1987): R Delicado puesto en diálogo: las claves bajtinianas de «La Lozana Andaluza». México, D.F.: UNAM. CHEVALIER, Maxime (1981): Folklore y literatura: el cuento oral en el Siglo de oro. Barcelona: Editorial Crítica. DELICADO, Francisco (1975): Retrato de la Locana Andaluza. Eds. B. Damiani y G. Allegra. Madrid: Porrúa. DU BELLAY, Joachim (1948): Défense et illustration de la langue francaise. Edición crítica de H. Chamard, París: Didier. FOWLER, Roger (198 1): Literature as Social Discourse: The Practice of Linguistic Criticism, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. FRENK, Margit (1980): «Lectores y oidores~ VII Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas: La difusión oral de la literatura, Venecia. GILMAN, Stephen (1978): La España de Fernando de Rojas. Madrid: Taurus. HALLIDAY, Michael Alexander Kirkwood (1978): Lunguage as Social Semiotic, London: Edward Amold. IMPERIALE, Louis (1989): «Captación auditiva e imagen visual en la Roma de F. Delicado y P. Aretino,» en Italo-Hispanic Literary Relations, ed. Helí Hernández, Potomac, Maryland: Scripta Humanistica. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--(1991): El contexto dramático de «La Lozana Andaluza». Potomac, Maryland: Scripta Humanistica. KRISTEVA, Julia (1970): Le texte du roman. La Haya: Mouton. MANDROU, Robert (1974): Introduction a la Frunce moderne 15'00-1640. París: Albin Michel. MCLUHAN, Marshall (1972): The Gutenberg Galaxy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. RUIZ, Juan (Arcipreste de Hita) (1970): Libro de buen amor. Vols. 1 y 11. Ed. Julio Cejador y Frauca. Madrid. SAN AGUSTÍN (1945): Obras IV. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. STEINER, George (1975): After Babel, New York: Oxford U.P. TODOROV, Tzvestan (1981): Mikhail Bakhtine: le principe dialogique. París: Seuil. TORRES NAHARRO, Bartolomé de (1943-1951): Propalladia and other Works of Bartolomé de Torres /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Naharro. Ed. Joseph Gillet, Bryn Mawr, Pensylvania: George Bants Publisher.

145 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-FABER, P. (1992): The Architecture of the Lexicon. John Benjamins. En prensa. FELICES Lago, A. M. (1991): El Componente Axiológico en el Lenguaje. Su Configuración en los Adjetivos que expresan emociones y conducta en la lengua inglesa. Granada. Centro de Publicaciones de la Univer- sidad de Granada. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-HALLIDAY, M. A. K. (1978): Language as Social Semiotic. London. Edward Arnold. HYMES, D. (1971): «On Communicative Competente». En: Sociolinguistics. Ed. por J.B. Pride and Janet Holmes. Middlesex. Penguin Education. 269-293. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:HYMES, D. (1985): «Toward Linguistic Competente*. In: AILA Rewiew, 9-23. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-JOHNSON, M. (1987): The Body in the Mind. The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination and Meaning. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-LAKOFF, G (1987): Women, Fire and other Dangereous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago and London. University of Chicago Press.

146 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-MARTÍN MINGORANCE, L. (1992): «La Lexicografía Diacrónicap. Curso Dirigido por el prof. Martín Mingorance: El Cambio Lingüístico. Almuñécar, Septiembre 1992. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-MARTÍN MORILLAS, J. M. (1986): «De la lexicología a la lexicografía: Muestra de la elaboración de un diccionario contrastivo inglés-español de los campos léxicos». Actas del 111 Congreso Nacional de Lin- güística Aplicada. Valencia: AESLA-Universidad de Valencia, 703-7 16. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:MARTÍN MORILLAS, J. M. (1986b): «The Lexical Constellation 'Onset, State and Cesation of Sleep': A Sample of a Verb Valency Lexicon.» Anglo-American Studies. Vol. 6, No 1. 19-3 1. SNELL-HORNBY, M. (1983): Verb-descriptivity in German and English. A contrastive Study in Semantic Fields. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Universitats Verlag. VERSCHUEREN, J. (1987): ((Pragmatics as a theory of Linguistic Adaptationn. En: IPRA Working Document /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-1. Antwerp: IPRA-University of Antwerp. WIEGAND, H. E. (1981): «Pragmatische Informationen in Neuhochdeutschen Worterbüchern, ein Beitrag zur Prktischen Lexikologie~ In: Germanistische Linguistik, 79, 3-4, 139-27 1. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-WIERZBICKA, A. (1991): Cross-Cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin. New York. Mouton de Gruyter.

147 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-LA PASIVIDAD SINTACTICA (SER + PP) DESDE LA CONCEPCI~N MODULAR DE RECCI~NY LIGAMIENTO /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Por todo ello, R.L. se presenta como un modelo que abre muchas perspectivas acerca de los complejos fenómenos envueltos en el lenguaje, pero de una forma razonablemente sencilla. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:BAKER, M.; JOHNSON, K. & ROBERTS, 1. (1989): ~Passive arguments raised», en Linguistic Inquiry, 20, 1, pp. 219-251. CHOMSKY, N. (1965): Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Trad. esp. de OTERO, C.P.: Aspectos de la Teoría de la Sintuxis, Aguilar, Madrid, 1971. CHOMSKY, N. (1981): Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht. DEMONTE, V. (1989): Teoría Sintáctica: De Las Estructuras a la Rección, Síntesis, Madrid. HERNANZ, M". L1. & BRUCART, J. M. (1987): La sintaxis l.Principios teóricos. La oración simple, Crítica, Barcelona. JAEGGLI, 0. (1986): «Passive», en Linguistic Inquiry, 17, 4, pp. 587-622. LONGA, V. M. (1991): «La gramática generativa en su historia: ¿Un mismo proyecto de investigación?», en Verba, 18, pp. 569-587. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-RIEMSDIJK, H. Van & WILLIAMS, E. (1986): Introduction to the Theory of Grarnmal; The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Cit. por la trad. esp. de Guerra, L. y Martín, P.: Introducción a la teoría gramatical, Cátedra, Madrid, 1990. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-ROBERTS, 1. (1987): The Representation of Implicit and Dethematizated Subjects, Foris, Dordrecht.

148 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-ABKARIAN, G. G. (1983): Dialectic use of causative verbs: you can't 'take' it with you, Applied Psycholinguistics, 4, 1 : 47-67. ALCINA FRANCH, J. y BLECUA, J.M. (1983): Gramática española, Barcelona: Ariel. BUHLER, K. (1967): Teoría del lenguaje, Madrid: Revista de Occidente. BURDACH, A. M. et al. (1984): «Los adjetivos deícticos temporales y su incidencia en la enseñanza de uan segunda lengua», Revista de Linguística Teórica y Aplicada, 22: 7-15. BURDACH, A. M. et al. (1985): «Algunas consideraciones en tomo a los adverbios deícticos temporales en inglés y español*, Revista de Linguística Teórica y Aplicada, 23: 163-173. BUTT, J. y BENJAMIN, C. (1988): A new reference grammar of modern Spanish, London: Edward Amold. CARBONERO CANO, P. (1979): Deíxis espacial y temporal en el sistema linguístico, Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla. CORDER, S.P. (1973): Introducing applied linguistics, Penguin. FILLMORE, C. J. (1966): ~Deictic categories in the semantics of 'come'», Foundations of hnguage, 2, 3: 219-227. GIVÓN, T. (1991): «Isomorphism in the grammatical code: cognitive and biological considerations», Studies in Language, 15, 1: 85-114. HARMER, L. C. y NORTON, F. J.: A Manual of modern Spanish, Cambridge: University Tutorial Press, 1935. HEGER, K. (1974): Teoría semántica, 11, Madrid: Alcalá. HILL, C. (1982): Upldown, frontlback, leftlright: a contrastive study of Hausa and English, In: Weissenbom and Klein: 133-153. LAMÍQUIZ, V. (1967): «El demostrativo en español y francés», Revista de Filología Española, 50: 163-202. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-BII,L RiCHARDSON /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:RAMSDEN, H. (1959): An essential course in modern Spanish, Nelson Harrap. SELINKER, L. (1972): «Interlanguage»,International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 3: 201-231. WEISSENBORN, J.; KLEIN, W.H. (eds.) (1982): Here and there: cross-linguistic studies on deixis and /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-demonstration, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Delimitación de los argots como variedades lingüísticas

149 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-La elección de una variedad u otra no depende sólo de la situación de comunicación, sino también de la estructura social y de la cultura del locutor, del llamado por Malinowski contexto de cultura, que determina la posesión de un código determinado, situado a nivel semióticolO. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Estos códigos, elaborados o restringidos, se unen a los registros en la actividad discursiva; así, el argot del hampa estará conformado por un código restringido, un argumento o tema específico y un tenor personal infor- mal; en los tecnolectos (ej. lenguajes científico-técnicos) están implicados un código elaborado, un tema espe- cífico y un tenor personal formal; algunas lenguas especiales (ej. el lenguaje del ciclismo) están constituidas /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:4 Véase GREGORY, M., CARROLL, S. (1978): <Linguistic Science.~ and Language /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Teaching; Longman, Londres, pp. 75-1 10. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-5 STOURDZÉ, C. (1976): «Les niveaux de languen, Guide pédagogique pour le professeur de FLE, Hachette, París, pp. 37-44.

150 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-NOSOTROS ;PRONOMBRE DE PODER O DE SOLIDARIDAD? /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-BIBLIOGRAF~A /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:AUSTIN, J. L. (1962): How to do things with words. Oxford, Clarendon Press. BENVENISTE, E. (1978): Problemas de Lingüística General 1. México, Siglo XXI. BROWN, P. & LEVINSON, S.C. (1987): Politeness. Cambridge, Cambndge University Press. CAMERON, D., MCALINDEN & O'LEARY, K. (1988): «Lakoff in context: the social and linguistic functions /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-of tag questions» in Coates, J. & Cameron, D.: Women in their speech communities. Harlow, Longman. ENRÍQUEZ, E. (1984): El pronombre personal sujeto en la lengua española hablada en Madrid. Madrid, /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-CSIC. HAVERKATE, H. (1984): Speech Acts, Speakers and Hearers. Amsterdam, John Benjamin. HEAD, B. (1978): ((Respect degrees in pronominal referente». In J. H. Greenberg (ed.), Universals of Human

151 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt--Y segundo: la estructura de la lengua que uno usa habitualmente influencia la manera en la que uno entiende su entorno. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-El dice que la imagen del universo cambia de lengua a lengua. El dice: «A change in language can transform our appreciation of the Cosmos». /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:Es decir, nuestra lengua nos dará un sistema de categorizar lo que percibimos ya construido y que nos conducirá a percibir el mundo que nos rodea solamente dentro de esas categorías. A esta teoría se le ha llamado Linguistic Determinism (Determinismo Lingüístico) y en su versión más extrema sostiene que la lengua determina el pensamiento. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-INCIDENCIA DE LA CULTURA EN EL APRENDIZAJE DE UNA LENGUA /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-En palabras de Whorf: «We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languagesn. La lengua de una comunidad configura y crea la visión del mundo de esa comunidad. Las diferencias cul- turales tienen diferentes perspectivas del mundo debido a su idioma; el mundo se percibe de diferentes mane- ras y sus diferencias son ampliamente explicadas en términos de que poseen diferentes lenguas. Para compartir una lengua uno debe compartir la misma visión del mundo. Estas manifestaciones ponen de relieve la opinión de que la lengua, lejos de ser sólo un instrumento para comunicarse, controla y posiblemente limita los tipos de significado que pueden ser transmitidos. La conclusión que yo saco de todos estos argumentos es que no hay duda de que hay muchas variaciones culturales que corresponden a variaciones en lenguaje, que algunos conceptos pueden ser más familiares a una sociedad que a otra y esos mismos conceptos, por lo tanto, ser mejor expresados o más fácilmente por una sociedad que por otra. No es una coincidencia, sin ir más lejos, el ejemplo ya sabido por todos, de que los esquimales tengan varias palabras para «la nieve» mientras nosotros solo tenemos una «nieve». La nieve juega un papel muy significativo en sus vidas, mucho más que en la nuestra y por eso la clasifican muy diferentemente. Pero en todo esto debemos recordar que no estamos tratando aquí con la percepción o la realidad sino simple- mente con niveles de clasificación; nosotros clasificamos la nieve a un nivel visto por nosotros como básico, los esquimales la clasifican a otros: nieve recién caída, nieve amontonada, etc. y aunque no tengamos una palabra para todos estos tipos de nieve, sin embargo sí podemos observar esa nieve. La diferencia de clasifica- ción por lo tanto no obedece a que percibimos el mundo diferentemente, se trata de una diferencia de especilización provocada por el propio entorno de cada cual. La noción de que la lengua detennina el pensamiento no puede probar en ningún caso el que algún grupo social sea incapaz de conceptualizar o de expresar algún tipo de ideas: de hecho el usuario de una lengua no hereda unos patrones fijos para su uso, lo que hereda es la habilidad para manipular y crear con la lengua, con el fin de expresar todo aquello que percibe. Nosotros aprendemos a entender las palabras usándolas a la hora de hacer cosas, es perfectamente factible hablar de cualquier cosa en cualquier lengua siempre y cuando el hablante esté dispuesto a negociar y a operar

152 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-ARONOFF, M. (1981): Word Formation in Generative Grammar, Cambridge, Massachus setts Institute of Technology. COSERIU, E. (1977): «La Formación de palabras desde el punto de vista del contenido», en Gramática, Se- mántica, Universales. Gredos. GOOCH, A. (1967): Diminutive, augmentative and Pejorative SufJiwes in Modern Spanish, Oxford, Pergamon. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-572 ~osÉLUIS VÁZQUEZ MARRUECOS Y PEDRO A. GÓMEZ PUGNAIRE /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:HALLE, M. (1973): «Prolegomena to a Theory of Word Formation», Linguistic Enquiry, vol. 4, no 1, 3-16, Cambridge, Massachussetts Institute of Technology. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-HALLE, M. and MOHANAN, K.P. (1985): Segmental Phonology of Modern English, Cambridge, Massachussetts Institute of Technology. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-HASSELROT, B. (1957): Etudes sur la formation diminutive dansles langues romanes, UppsalaIWiesbaden.

153 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Barcelona: Ed. Médica y Técnica (ed.cast., 1983). GRODZINSKY, Y. (1990): Theoretical perspective on language defcits. Cambridge: MIT Press. HOFFMAN, R., KIRSTEIN, L., STOPEK, S. y CICCHETTI, D. (1982): Apprehending schizophrenic discourse: /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-A structural analysis of the listener's task. Brain and Language, 15, 207-233. MOYA, J. (1990): Análisis formal del discurso esquizofrénico: Problemas metodológicos. Anuario de Psico- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:logía, 47, 117-144. QUIRK, R., GREENBAUM, S. y LEECH, G. (1972): A grammar of contemporary English. Londres: Logman. QUIRK, R., y GREENBAUM, S. (1973): A university grammar of English. Londres: Logman. RIZZI, L. (1985): Two notes on the linguistic interpretation of aphasia. En M.L. Kean (Ed.): Agrammatism. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Nueva York: Academic Press. ROCHESTER, S. y MARTIN, J. (1979): Crazy Talk. A study of the discourse of schizophrenic speakers. Nue-va York: Plenum Press. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Antropologíá cognitiva y psicología cultural:

154 /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Como conclusión final dina que el alcance de la variante en Barcelona parece indicar que se trata de una situación de variación, y quizás cambio, no completado (in progress), donde parecen estarse dando las dos direcciones que se están apuntando en la literatura sobre variación y cambio lingüístico (Labov (1990). /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-Es evidente que si se quiere llegar a resultados más concluyentes, hay que ampliar mucho más la muestra, analizar un contexto más amplio de situaciones sociales, a través de la observación etnográfica, debemos aunar esfuerzos. Sobre todo porque son necesarias explicaciones más amplias para poder entender el funcionamiento de la variación del Español -que es una realidad- y el proceso que sigue el cambio lingüístico en Español, y así también para entender mejor el funcionamiento de esta lengua, pero también porque con su estudio esta- remos contribuyendo a una mejor comprensión del lenguaje, y a la necesaria formulación de una teoría general del mismo. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt:BERNSTEIN, B. (1975): «Class, Codes and Control», Vol. 3. Towards a Theory of Educational Transmissions, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. BLOOMFIELD, L. (1970): Language, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd (1933). GUMPERZ, J.J. (1990): Contextualization and Understanding, en A. Duranti & C. Goodwing (eds.), Rethinking Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. HASAN, R. (1992): Meaning in sociolinguistic theory, en K. Bolton & H. Kwok (eds.), Sociolinguistics Today, London: Routledge, pp. 80-119. LABOV, W. (1981): Building on empirical foundations, en W. Lehmannn & Y. Malkiel (eds.), Directions in Historical Linguistics 11, Austin: Texas University Press. LABOV, W. (1984): Intensity, en D. Schiffrin (ed.), Meaning, Form, and Use: Linguistic applications, Was-hington, D.C.: Georgetwon University Press, pp. 43-70. LABOV, W. (1990): The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change, Language Variation and Change, Vol. 2, No 2, pp. 205-254. MOLINA, 1. (1992): Estudio sociolingúístico de la ciudad de Toledo. Tesis no publicada de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. ROMAINE, S.: What is a Speech Community? en S. Romaine (ed.), Sociolinguistic Variation in Speech Communities, London: Edward Arnold, pp. 13-24. TURELL, M.T. (1989): La auto-referencia pronominal en el ámbito laboral juvenil, en F. Rodnguez (ed.), Comunicación y Lenguaje Juvenil, Madrid: Ed. Fundamentos, pp. 271-291. /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt- /1992/CongresoInternacional_I.txt-

155 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-research during the last decadc. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Undoubtedly the intcrest in error analysis (EA) was great even before the decade mentioned by the authors and has a long story. Incidentally, onc sl~ould always rcmembcr that thc interest in errors has a long history and is not only connected with contrastive linguistics (CL). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:A number of theoretical linguists have been interested in EA for diachronic, synchronic, historic and non-historic reasons no matter what linguistic concept or grammar modcl thcy adhercd to : M. Bierwisch, N. Chomsky, M.A.K. Halliday, A.A. IIill, C.F. Iiockct, R. ,Jackobson, to name only a few'. Needless to say, also psychologists likc S. Iyrcud and F:,. Kainz showed grcat interest in psychological aspects of errors, an interest also shared by the majority of the linguists mentioned above. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-It is forcsceable that the interfcrcntial rolc of thc mother tongue in language lcarning will play an increasing rolc in cognitivc linguistics where the importance of the mother tongue for cognitive processes lias been re-emphasized. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Errors due to simplifications through wrong analogies and ovcrgeneralisations arc very often responsible for linguistic changes once thcy have been acceptcd by majoritics of spcakers of a givcn languagc. 'I'hus a glimpse at the use of irregular verbs in many languagcs, for instanccs, shows clcarly how simplifications llave contributed towards reducing the number of such verbs. IIere, once more, the closc relationship between parole and language becomes obvious. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-'rhe change of norms and standards is bound to pass through al1 kinds of "zones of errors" before reaching official status. Very often, though by no means exclusively, this led to many simplifications and thus to a highcr dcgree of economy and therefore to a higher degree of perfection, this bcing onc of Jespersen's favouritc, though highly disputcdL, concepts in connection with modern languages as opposed to classical ones. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Applied linguistics, including teachers, have always been interested in EA for many reasons': description of sources of errors, evaluation and marking of crrors, remedia1 reaching to help to "cure" errors, or developing forms of testing to find out about errors dia- and prognostically4.

156 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-(Notice that statistical vagueness in the latter part of the statement.} Error analysis has yielded insights into L2 acquisition process that has stimulated major changes in tcacliing practices. Perhaps its most controversia1 contribution has been the discovery that tlie majority of the grammatical errors second language learners make do not reflect thc learner's mothcr tongiie but are vcry much like those young children make as thcy learn a first language. Researchers have found tliat like L1 learners'crrors most of the errors L2 lcarners makc indicate they are gradually building an L2 rule system. (p.138). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-In contrast to thc latter statcments whose partial acccptance as more or less confined to thc USA, is the following opposing vicw put forward by L. Selinker": /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:In the face of increasing quantity of L2 data, researchers have begun to oncc again focus their attention on language transfer, realizing that the baby has becn mercilcssly thrown out with the bathwater. Thc pendulum in recent years has now begun to settle with language transfer being investigated as a phenomenon in aiid of itself. In in Europe ever thought that "interference", "transfer", "cross-linguistic inf1uence"- however one may choose to term the concept- was the only type of error or even the dominating one. The role of CL was anyway not so much to predict as rather to explain errors that had taken place and to try to explain part of the complexity of FL teaching. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-By using EA for the reasons mentioned above, come non-contrastive researchcrs in the field of applied linguistics (AL) may have given the wrong imprecsion that EA was a main component in CL, which it never was. As early as 1969 L. Duskova (1969:29) stated: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-In conclusion, we shall attempt to answer the last question raisec!

157 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-procedure. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-This statement suggested at a very early point that CL might bc profitably supplemented by the results of error-based analyses, particularly in the preparation of teaching materials' '. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:As shown above, an interest in crrors existed long before CL was establishcd. Researchers also recognized very carly that there were varying degrees of contrastive influences on the phonological levcl being much stronger thaii those on other levels. It was also seen that many other factors of the linguistic, psychological and sociological typc were of effect and these views led to wider definitions of the "transfcr" phenomenon". /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-11. Wekker (1991:97) even sees a re-ernergence on CCL in transfer studies. In his chapter "Language Transfcr Revisitcd" 11. Hammerly: 1991 aptly summarizes some of the main points of the dispute between contrastivists and non-contrastivists: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:The opponents of CA set up a revised CA hypothesis (CAH) as a straw man: they exaggerated its predictive claims (thus the "strong hypothesis" that almost no one belicved in) and then, "disproved" them. Tlien they proposed a "weak hypothesis" that states that CAcan serve only to explain certain errors after they occur. If that wcre al1 CA could do, it would be a nearly useless tool indeed. Most SLA research of the last fifteen to twenty years has followed the anti-CA tendency of the Chomskyan school of linguistics. SLA researchers have been only too ready to assign intralingual, developniental causes such as SL overgeneralization to errors which could just as well be due to interlingual interference. Thus some havc concluded that SLA does not differ much from NL acquisition. But for the errors of SL learners to have thc same developmental causes as the errors of young NL learners, both would have to be in a similar linguistic position as learners. Clearly, this is not the case, one major difference being that SL learners alrcady know a language and young children do not. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-The role of the NL has come to be seen as rclatively uninlportant /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-inSLresearch.Uutisitunreasonab1e to state that previous

158 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-languagelearning but in al1 learning. (p. 62/63). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-He refers to the same contexts to D. Ausubel (1978). Hammerly distinguishes betwecn different aspects of transfcr: intransive interfercnce, imperative interfercncc (here thc native language affects FL learning by inhibiting the learning of specific SI, structures) and differential facilitation knowledge of a closely related language facilities FL learning. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Apart from the methodological reason mentioned above, there was also the insight that "contrastive" errors constituted in toto an clement substantial enough to be of interest to CL rcscarchers. 111 this con~icction something may have happened that always tends to happen in modern CL-indepcndent EA research as well, namely that in come cases an error was claimed for CL, which could have been also claimed by other sources, providing the wcll-known fact that in many domains of research, not only linguistic ones, sometimes scvcral reasons may be responsible for one and the samc phcnomenon, in tliis casc an error. This allowed scholars of differcnt directions to claim errors for their own theory. This may, among other factors of the psychological and sociological typc account for some of the great differcnces within error statistics in present-day controversics. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:The interlanguagc (IL) phenomenon. which is sometimes secn as completely new development, has rather to be seen as an evolutionary phase developing out of CL, though it is also connected with various other theoretical and applied factors. Somc of these are linked with more recent socio- and psycho-linguistic insights, and particularly, though not exclusivcly, with one of the pet ideas of thc recent decades, namely the concept of univcrsals. Another important factor was theattempt to establish as many parallels as possible between L1 and L2 learning. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Many of thc contributions in the field of IL emphasize the important role of L1 in connection with the learning of further languages. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Pit corder himself, but also contributions to his Festschrift Interlanguagc", have differing views, but at the same time they also demonstratc that there is some conncction between CL and IL research . As shown above, one of the main protagonists of thc IL idea, L. Selinker, concedes an important role to language transfer.

159 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-In the author's opinion the cultural, logical, psychological and sociological influences of the native language were overrated by many scholars like W. Von Humboldt, B. Sapir. B.L. Whorf and L. Weisberger. But as discussed today particularly in connection with cognitive linguistics the decisive role played by the mother tongue will undoubtedly lead to a re-assessment of the phenomenon of "interference" in the vast field of EA. It will not only include grammatical (in the widest cense), but also intercultural phenomena. Since, however, at the same time societies, even in Europe tend to become more and more multi-cultural mother tongues can very often no longer be as explicitly defined as they used to be in earlier days in so-called "homogeneous" societies." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-A few more words concerning EA and FL/SL teaching". As already indicated further above there was great, if not an excessive interest at the beginning of American EAL". While the present author as anex-practicing FL teacher was always considering the contrastive element as one of many in thc complex process of FL teaching and learning ha has always been convinced insights into language structures of al1 types, also via translations, shauld have a high status in FL teaching. The present ever increasing interest in the subject "language a~areness"'~ /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:concedes a greater rolc to EA. In a papcr to which some of us linguists including the present author contributcd upon thc request of AILA for submission to UNESCOLX the important role of CL and EA in promoting international stereotypes and even antagonist images is mentioned. Morc understanding for linguistic and cultural differences has to be promoted and highcr degrees of tolerancc have to be promoted. More attention should also be paid to thc possibility of simplifying languages to didactic purposesu. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-NOTAS /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-1 For further bibliograpliical data cf. e.g. Gromkiii (1973) and Legenliauseii (1975)

160 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-5 Dulay/Burt/Krasheii (1982) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-6 GassISeliiiker (1983:7) Cf. also Nehls (1991) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:7 Cf. Iiowever abstract by R.M. Brend (q987: no page indicated) of the AILAWorl Congress at Sydiiey iii 1987: "Contrastive analysis )and closely related theories) lias vluctuated greatly with regard to its status aiid respectability among language tlieories altliough educators have contiually found it useful. The degree of its acceptauce by theoreticiaiis can be sliown to directly correspoiid to tlie popularity of specific linguistic theories at tahe time. Curreiitly, at least soine versions of CA seem to be rising in popularity in contrast to a low ebb of 10-15 years ago." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-8 Fisiak (1983:9-38) CF. also Fisiak [1990:3-22) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-9 DulayIBurt (1983:55): "Tlie CA hipotlihesis rests on the following assumption about tlie proces of language learning: Languagc learning is habit formatioii. Where L23 and L1 differ, the old habit (using L1) Hiiiders thc formation of the new habit (learniiig L2).

161 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2 For this factor cf. for instance Arabski (1979:lOlf). Cf. Also Corder (1978) and Hammerly (1991:64): /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt- /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Transfer therory hepps explain the differences in cross-linguistic influence at tliese three points of the SL learning process. Faced with something to learn (tlie SL) that is similar to something they know and use for the same communicative purpose (the NL), beginners tend to rely initially on their mother tongue -thus the frequent NL intrusioosii in their SL output.As students learn ore of the SL, they base more and more of their output on theyt have learned of tlie new language. Coiisequently, after a while many of their SL errors are due to SL overgeneralization. At the same time, faulty rules resulting in persistent errors tliat are not effectively corrected come to be used liabitually, that is automaticlly, when needed in communication. Thus a higli percentage of proportionately fewer errors made by very advanced of iiear-native SL learners can be traced to NL structure. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-1 There may even be national differences not only based on differences cultures and meiitalities, but also perhaps on different kinds of method used in different countries. Cf. Nichel(1990) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2 They are only referred to very brielfly in tlie authors book in the chapters 5 "Thc role of tlie first language", pp. 96-120, 6"Trnsitional constructions" pp. 121-137, and 7 erors, pp. 138-199. Since erros are seen as plienomena occurring during a verty complex Ieariiing proces witli interna1 as well as externa1 factors, there are also refereiices to erros in other cliapters. Cf., for instance, tlie chapter on "Effects of personality and age". 74-95.

162 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-4 For controversia1 views cf. Kellermeii (1984), Adjémian (1983), Lee (1972) and Fingbom(1983) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-5 Cf. for examples Nicke1(1991:141) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:6 Cf. IIammerly (1991:64) "Morphology is tlie language component that causes the least linguistic interference, for morphology is alot exclusively language specific an thus rarely subjet to transfer." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-7 p. 164: "Researchers have consistently found that, conrary to a wide-spread opinion, the great majority of erros in the language output of L2 learners is of the developmental type. "Cf. also pp. 165-170. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-

163 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-NICKEL, Gerhard (1986). "Climpass into trends of contrastive lingusitics and error analysis at AILA's World Congress from Cambridge (1968) to Brussels (19841." In Dieter Katovsky and Alexander Szwedek. eds. Linguistics across historical and geographical boundaries. In honour of Jacek Fisiak. Vol 2: Descriptiue, contrastive and applied linguistics. Berlin/ New Yorkl Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruvter, 1986. p. 1397-1404. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-NICKEL, Gerhard. "Some controversies in present-day Error Analyisis. "Contrastive" vs. "non- Contrastive" Errors". International Review ofApplied Linguistics, 27(1989). p. 293- 305. NICKEL. Gerhard: "Some Problems of Teaching English in Japan". In J.A. Edmonson et al., eds. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Development and Diuersity: Linguistic Variation across Time and Space: A Festschrift for /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Charles-James N. Bailey. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1990. p. 647-660. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:NIELSEN, Hans Frede. "On Otto Jespersen's View of Language Evolution". In Arne Juul and Hans Frede Nielsen, eds. Otto Jespersen: facets of his life and work (Amsterdam studies in the theory andhistory of linguistic science. Series 111, Studies in the history of the language sciences). Amsterdarn/ Philadelphia: John Bennjamins, 1989. p. 61-78. PAIKEDAY, Thomas M. The natiue speaker is dead! Torontol New York: Paikeday Publishing Inc., 1985. RINGBOM, Hakan, (ed). Psycholinguistics and fore&n language learning. Abo: Abo Akademi, 1983. SAMUELS, Michael Louis. 1972. Linguistic euolution with Special Reference to Enbglish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. SELINKER, Larry. "CAíENIL: The earliest experimental record" In Dietrich Nehls, ed. 1991. p. 1-25. SELINKER, Larry. (1992) Rediscovering Interlanguage. Londoní New York: Longman. SPILLNER, Bernd. forthcoming. Error Analysis: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Arnsterdaml Philadelphia. SRIDHAR, SN. "Contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage: three phases of one goal." In Jacek Fisiak, ed. Contrastive linguistic and the language teacher. Oxford etc.: Pergamon Press, 1981. p. 207-241. WEKKER, Herman "Contrastive Lingusitics and Second Language Acquisition". Abstract in New Departures in Contrastive Linguistics. COCON Contrastive Conference, Innsbruk 10-12 May 1991. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-11. COMUNICACIONES /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-

164 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-1988). En suma, la clase se convirtió, siquiera provisionalmente, en un taller de creación e investigación lingüística, pero también en un modesto foro educativo y cultural. Por otro lado, los contenidos de los materiales textuales originales, procedentes de revistas del corazón, no poseían la menor calidad cultural, pero lo que sucedió es que sufrieron una transformación creativa de manos de los estudiantes: a partir de unos ejemplares de prensa pertenecientes al periodismo más banal del Reino Unido (Alvarez 1992) pudo efectuarse una explotación didáctica óptima. Esa constatación constituye en sí una pequeña esperanza para los enseñantes, que podemos llegar a ser presas fáciles de la desesperación y de la frustración ante la carencia de materiales educativos adecuados, o ante la evidencia de la poderosa contra-influencia de los "mass media" (fundamentalmente la televisión [Comas 19921). Sin embargo, tampoco parece arriesgado sostener que precisamente el mayor reto educativo con el que nos enfrentamos en estos momentos es el de operar transformaciones creativas con los recursos humanos (los de nuestro propio interior y los de nuestros estudiantes, compañeros de trabajo, los chicos y chicas de las escuelas y sus padres y maestros) y materiales, objetos y relaciones, con los que contamos; en términos junguianos el reto consistiría ni más ni menos que en empezar a aceptar nuestra "sombra educativa" para que se transmute y revele toda su plenitud positiva. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Dijimos que después de la primera hora Sonia, Sonsoles, Isaac, Mónica, Paloma y yo mismo, colocamos con satisfacción los textos acabados en las paredes: éstas adquirieron otro "color" de inmediato, y enseguida nos dimos cuenta de la extraordinaria importancia que tiene para los niños el hacer que sientan el "aula" como algo suyo, exhibiendo sus dibujos y sus trabajos, aceptando con reconocimiento lo que son sus expresiones de identidad; pósters, flash-cards, letras del alfabeto, dominós de palabras, cuentos ilustrados, etc., son plenamente valorados solamente cuando se hace en ellos una importante inversión personal, esto es, cuando se trabaja en ellos desde los aspectos sensorial, intelectual y afectivo de una forma equilibrada. Del mismo modo, cuando convertimos el espacio físico de trabajo (aula, laboratorio, seminario o despacho) en algo "nuestro", ese pronombre pierde connotaciones posesivas para ganar otras de identidad y entrañamiento bien diferentes a las primeras. Por tanto, y de una manera muy especial en el caso de la enseñanza del idioma inglés como lengua extranjera, es importante que en la presentación de "lo extranjero" no se ofrezca éste como sinónimo de algo "extraño", "ajeno" y por completo incomprensible, e incluso por eso mismo quizá amenazante. Debemos intentar, por el contrario, que se haga cercano desde el principio a los niños y a los adultos para que a la calidad comunicativa acompañe la calidez humana. De otro modo, todo lo extranjero irá siempre asociado a una mezcla de temor e ignorancia que, en su manifestación más distorsionada y en el extremo opuesto a la razón comunicativa por la que abogamos en nuestro enfoque educativo, puede derivar en sentimientos y acciones irracionales, cuando no en actitudes extremas de abierta xenofobia (Pérez 1992). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Debemos advertir ahora que todo lo que hemos venido exponiendo hasta este punto se ha referido sustancialmente al "contexto" y al clima afectivo/efectivo de la actividad; ha sido así deliberadamente porque los acentos educativo y cultural ocuparon un papel central en el diálogo que siguió al propio ejercicio. Quisiéramos, por tanto, subrayar que la perspectiva "textual", lingüística, no puede ser abordada haciendo abstracción de todos los elementos contextuales que hemos considerado, es decir, que "el texto" sin el contexto de las propias experiencias personales y colectivas carece de significación educativa alguna. Prescindir de esos elementos o no hacerlo es lo que marca precisamente la diferencia entre la enseñanza de idiomas entendida como "linguistic training" o "linguistic education", o lo que es igual, como suma secuencia1 de técnicas sin cohesión educativa o como investigación comunicativa en acción. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Veamos, sin embargo, cómo en esta sesión que ahora relatamos como pequeña /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-muestra paradigmática de nuestra orientación didáctica, también la reflexión

165 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Sneli-Hornby, M. (1983) Verb-descriptiuity in German and English. A contrastiue Study in Semantic Fields. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Universitats Verlag. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Snell-Hornby, M. (1990) "Dynamics in Meaning as a Problem for Bilingual Lexicography" En: Meaning and Lexicography. Ed. by Tomaszcyk, J. and Lewandowska Tomaszscyk, B. Amsterdanl. John Benjamins, 227-253. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Verschueren, J. (1987): "Pragmatics as a theory of Linguistic Adaptation". En: IPRA Working Document /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-1.Antwerp: IPRA-University of Antwerp. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Wierzbicka, A. (1991) Cross-Cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin. New York. Mouton de Gruyter.

166 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-En el discurso científico destacan otros recursos lingüísticos expresión de ese tono impersonal y general pretendido por el autor junto a la utilización del Presente Simple y los grupos nominales o las nominalizaciones; entre ellos, destacamos la utilización de la voz pasiva, comúnmente asociada al lenguaje nominal al suprimir asimismo, el compromiso directo del autor con la acción. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-En variedades del lenguaje que practican una ideología de impersonalidad y generalidad, invariablemente encontraremos dos construcciones sintácticas predominantes: Pasivas y nominalizaciones. Biber (1986:384) apunta : /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:"Features do not randomly co-occur in texts.If certain features consistently do, then it is reasonable to look for an underlying functional influence that encourages their use. Passives and nominalizations tend to co-occur and thus belong to the same linguistic dimension when a text has many passives it also has many nominalizations, as in scientific texts". /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Por lo tanto la inclusión de la voz pasiva en un texto es intencional, manteniendo el científico la distancia con los hechos que nos expone logra el autor la objetividad , impersonalidad y generalidad pretendida. Estas construcciones muestran mayor productividad en este registro y de ahí el predominio de la voz pasiva en inglés y pasiva refleja en castellano. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-El motivo de la gran profusión de las construcciones pasivas sin sujeto expreso responde a la falta de otras estrategias para expresar la generalización y entre ellas la limitada flexibilidad del orden de las palabras en inglés. La omisión del agente en las pasivas responde a distintos criterios:

167 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Con el fin de incorporar en un texto científico la objetividad, la impersonalidad y la generalidad , comúnmente relacionada con el uso de largos y complejos GNs, con nombres abstractos y con nominalizaciones, el científico elige como medio de transmisión, el lenguaje nominal. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-El GN suele ser una estructura morfosintáctica muy empleada en el registro científico, provista de grandes ventajas al ser un procedimiento para aglutinar o reducir una carga informativa y transmitirla de forma más directa, más condensada y producir gran impacto en el lector. Asi afirma Salager (1984): /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:"CNPs are then a very successful, if not the most successful, means of compressing syntactic and semantic information, into a highly compact form ..." Halliday (1988:162-78) al explicar el fénomeno de la nominalización, muy asociado al estilo nominal lo define como un recurso lingüístico: "The linguistic device known as nominalization is mainly applied to a linguistic process which consists of nominalising a verb, using a noun to refer to an action." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Este estilo tiende a ser impersonal en concordancia con la ideología de la ciencia al insistir en la impersonalidad como un indicador de objetividad / generalidad , con lo cual estos rasgos reducen el papel del científico a un mero instrumento al servicio de la verdad establecida de forma objetiva. A su vez añade realismo a las afirmaciones científicas que aparecen como verdades inmutables. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Muchos registros institucionalizados funcionan de modo semejante al registro científico. El sujeto individual está ausente y con él la acción realizada por un ser individual en un tiempo verbal. En su lugar aparecen abstracciones más que acciones. La sintaxis es nominal más que verbal y los tiempos verbales son atemporales. Swales (1985) se expresa así: "Such processes as there are, are about relations and definitions; abstract entities seem to act independently of human causation."

168 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Technology, (eds) Trimble & Trimble, English Language Institute, Oregon State University, 1978. BOMBARDO, C., et al.,"Estudio Pragmático comparativo de las construcciones pasivas del Discurso /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Técnico en Inglés", Actas del VII Congreso AESLA, Sevilla, 1989. EWER, J.R. & LATORRE, G."A Course in Basic Scientific English", Longman,Hong Kong, 1969, HALLIDAY, M.A.K.,(1988).0n the Language of Physical Science. In M.Ghadessy (Ed.), Registers oj' /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Written English.Situationa1 Factors and Linguistic Features. London: Pinter Publishers. HAMP-LYONS,L.,& HEASLEY, B., Study Writing, C.U.P., Cambridge, 1987. LEVI, J.N., The Syntax and Sernantics ofCornplex Norninals, Academic Press, New York, 1978. MARTIN, J.R. (1989).Factual Writing: Exploring and Challenging Social Reality. Oxford: Oxford /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:University Press. MORRIS, J.E., Principles of Scientific & Technical Writing, New York, London, 1966, Preface PINCHUCK,I.,Scientific& Technical Translation, André Deutsch, London, 1977, SALAGER, F."Compound Nominal Phrases in Scientific Writing"(Articu10 no publicado), 1984. SIEWIERSKA, A,, The Passive: A Comparative Linguistic Analysis, Croom Helm, London, 1984. SWALES, J., Writing Scientific English, Nelson, Hong Kong, 1971. SWALES, J.,Episodes in ESP, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1985. TARONE, E., et al.,"On the Use ofthe Passive in Two Astrophysics Journal Papers", Episodes in ESP, /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1985. TRIMBLE, L., English for Science and Technology, C.U.P., London, 1985. TURNER, R.P., Technical WriterS &Editor's Stylebook, Indianapolis, New York, 1964. USON, R., Métodos de la Industria Química Inorgánica, Ed Reverté, Barcelona, 1984. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-TEACHING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION TO SPANISH SPEAKERS: THE ROLE OF APPLIED PHONOLOGY

169 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-In this study we justify updating and modifying the American Contrastive Analysis model for the purpose of teaching English to native speakers of Spanish. In its updated form the Contrastive Analysis of English and Spanish Pronunciation advocates and facilitates the acquisition of specific pronunciation 'parameters' of English (Chomsky, 1981). This approach predicts which problems occur, makes the student aware of the habits acquired in the learning of his/her first language, and shows the student how to overcome habits which, in effect, are impediments to a native-like pronunciation of English. This approach provides the student with the tools to eliminate the habits which single one out as a Spanish speaker who is learning English. Here 1 will briefly outline some of the theoretical background, the basis for a methodology including Applied Phonology, and finally, 1 include some pedagogical strategies. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2. Teaching Frameworks /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:One of the most important checks and balances mechanisms in the development of linguistic theory has been the notion: 'Can a given rule of the grammar be learned?' The term 'grammar rule' refers to a part of the process that is undergone by an individual in his or her judging the grammaticality of an utterance. Included in our judgment, of course, are the rules of the language's syntax, semantics, phonology, etc. If we approach the subject of acquisition of languages as an intrinsic, biological capacity on the part of a human being, it is logical to include that the learning of a second language also falls within our intrinsic capacity. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Just as is happening in the field of first language acquisition, Second Language Learning is a phenomenon that can be studied without leading necessarily to a description of effective teaching methods. Nevertheless, the study of the tactics employed by students in their acquisition of the phonology of a second language (or in the acquisition of L2 syntax, or L2 semantics, etc.) is exactly what should form the theoretical base of our teaching model. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Returning to the notion of '1s a given grammar rule learnable?' We should modify the question a bit for our purposes as teachers of L2 to: is the rule learnable in terms of the strategy employed in the acquisition of a first language and what is its relationship, if there is any, to the strategy used in the learning of a second language by a child or adult?

170 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-As regards phonetics and phonology, what strategy is employed by students learning English? Always, to superimpose the Spanish system onto English, although the student is quite unaware. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-As long as the student superimposes on L2 the phonetic system of the mother tongue, the student will remain handicapped. In reality, the student has managed only, to annex some of the English lexicon to hislher own language system. The usual reaction to this assertion is 'My students read English!' That is exactly the point. Reading English is not speaking the language. In this case the student is not fully competent and remains unable to analyze in-coming messages. The ability to fully comprehend in the task of reading is also doubtable. When is it that we read without assigning, for example, intonation, a necessary element for comprehension of meaning? /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:We advocate here linguistic training in the phonology and phonetics of English, and we insist on PRACTICE. Our role as instructor is to point out the parameters of the phonetics and phonology of Spanish and English and to give detailed instructions as to articulation. By pointing out in detail the characteristics of both languages we can speed up the acquisition process in those students who faithfully practice. Linguistic training in applied phonology creates, in the student, an awareness of errors and their causes but what is more important teaches the technical tools for self correction. The practice, which includes auditory discrimination testing and oral production, focusing on one articulation problem each day in a classroom where attendance is mandatory, allows the student to incorporate the self-correction until it becomes an unconscious and automatic process of linguistic competence. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Another positive off-shoot of self analysis, correction and the use in the classroom of the technical terminology of articulation is that the pronunciation aspect of learning English is no longer a self-conscious embarrassment. The teacher as 'trainer' gives detailed instructions, for example: "Try moving the blade of the tongue back to the alveolar ridge." In the process of listening to this type of objective instruction the students learn to objectify their articulation problems. When the instructor fills the role of 'coach' the students rise to the challenge of becoming a language 'athlete.' /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-REFERENCES /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Adjémian, C. (1976). "On the Nature of Interlanguage Systems." Language and Learning 26, 297-320. Bailey, N,, C. Madden and S. Krashen. (1974). "1s there a 'Natural Sequence' in Adult Language /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Learning?" Language and Learning 24, 235-43. Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. Clahsen, H. (1987). "Parameterized Grammatical Theory and Language Acquisition." In Linguistic /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Theory in Second Language Acguisition.. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Dulay, H. and M. Burt. (1974). "A new perspective on the creative construction process in child language acquisition." Language and Learning 24, 253-78. Eckman, F. (1981). "On the Naturalness of Interlanguage Phonological Rules." Language and Learning 31, 195-216. Flynn, S. (1984). " A Universal in L2 Acquisition Based on A PBD Typology." In Eckman, Be11 and Nelson (eds.), Universals of Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Flynn, S. (1987). A Parameter Setting Model of L2 Acguisition: Experimental Studies in Anaphora. Dordrecht: Reidel. Fries, C. (1945). Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practise in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Press. Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics Across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Mazurkewich, 1. (1987). "The Acquisition of Infinitive and Gerund Complements by Second Language /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Learners." In Linguistic Theory in Second Language Acquisition. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Ritchie, W. (1978). "The right roof constraint in adult acquired language." In Second Language Acguisition Research: issues and implications. New York: Academic Press. Roeper, T., S. Lapointe, Bing and S. Tavakolian. (1981). "A Lexical Approach to Language Acquisition." Language Acguisition and Linguistic Theory. Tavakolian. (ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press. Terrell, T. D..(1982). "The Natural Approach to Language Teaching: an Update." Modern Language Journal61, 121-132. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Weston Gil, R. (1992). "Discrimination and Production of Phonemic Contrasts: Implications for Bilingual and Second Language Acquisition." Paper presented at XIII National Symposium on Spanish and Portiiguese Bilingualism. Amherst, May, 1992. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Weston Gil, R. (1992). "Video Assisted Language Teaching." Paper presented at Massachusetts Language Teachers Workshop. Apri1,1992.

171 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Leecli, G.N. (1969). Towards a semantic description ofEnglish. London: Longman. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Lorenzo, E. (1971).El español de hoy, lengua en ebullición. Madrid: Gredos. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Palmer. F.R. (1965). A linguistic study of the English uerb. London: Longmaii. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Quirk et al. (1985).A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Seco, M. (1986).Diccionario de dudas y dificultades de la lengua española. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.

172 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Philology XXVII1: 174-178. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-HALLIDAY,M.A.K. (1968)."Notes on Transitivity and Theme in English -Part 2". Journal of Linguistics /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:4: 153-308. KEYSER, S.J. & RoEPER, T. (1984). "oii the Middle and Ergative Constructions in English". Linguistic /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Inquiry 15: 381-416. MOLINA REDONDO. J.A. DE (1974). Usos de "se". Madrid: S.G.E.L. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-LYONS, J.(1973). Introducción en la Linguistica Teórica. Versión española de Lyons (1968). Barcelona: Teide. LARSEN-FREEMAN, D.& LoNG, M.H.(1991). An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. London & New York: Longman.

173 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt--Carpenter, B., 1992,The Logic of Typed Feature Structures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt--Copestake, A. ,1992, "The Acquilex LKB: Representation issues in semi-automatic acquisition of large lexicons" en Proceedings 3rd conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, Trento, 1taly.págs 88-95. y Esprit BRA 30-30 Acquilex wp. no 36. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:-Grimshaw, J., 1990 Argument Structure, Linguistic Inquiry Monographs, MIT Press, Massachusetts. -Pustejovsky, J., 1991, "The Generative Lexicon" en Computational Linguistics, vol 17, no4.págs 409- /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-441. -Sanfilippo, A,, 1991, "LKB Encoding of Lexical Knowledge from Machine-Readable Dictionaries", /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Esprit BRA 30-30 Acquilex wp. no 22. -VOX , 1887,Diccionario General Ilustrado de la Lengua Española VOX, Ed.Biblograf S.A.;Barcelona . -Uszkoreit, H. 1986,"Categorial Unification Grammar" Proceedings of the 11th Intentional Conference

174 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Aragonés, M. 1991. "Influencia de la enseñanza sobre el proceso de aprendizaje de las oraciones subordinadas en inglés." BELLS 2: 31-46. Aragonés, M. and M' R. Torras. 1990. 'Za enseñanza formal y su efecto en el uso espontáneo del idioma (el inglés como lengua extranjera)" en Garrudo & Comesaña (eds.). Bestard, J. (1990). 'El sistema aproximativo del hablante español en el aprendizaje de la lengua inglesa" en Garrudo & Comesaña (eds.). Bhardwaj, M., R. Dietrich and C. Noyau (eds.). 1988. Temporality. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants, vol. V. Final Report to the European Science Foundation. Strasbourg. Celaya, M' L. 1991. "The role of the L1 in the acquisition and use of the L2: new perspectives." BELLS /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2: 73-79. Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1974 a. "A new perspective on the creative construction process in child second language acquisition." Language Learning 24/2: 253-278. Dulay, H. aud M. Burt. 1974 b. "You can't learn without goofing" in Richards (ed.). Error Analysis. London: Longman, 1975. Eckman, F. 1977. "Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis." Language Learning 2712: 315-330. Garrudo, F. y J. Comesaña (eds.). 1990. Actas del VI1 Congreso Nacional de Lingüística Aplicada. Sevilla, 1989. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Gass, S. 1988. "Second language acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of language transfer" in Flynn & O'Neil (eds.). Linguistic Theory in Second Language Acquisition. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Gass, S. and L. Selinker. (eds.). 1983. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Kellerman, E. 1983. "Now you see it, now you don't" in Gass & Selinker (eds.).

175 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Apéndice 1. Tipos de transferencia según autores en lengua inglesa: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Chamot, A. 1979. "Strategies in the acquisition of English by a child bilingual in Spanish and French" in Andersen (ed.). The Acguisition and Use of Spanish and English as First and Second Languages. Washington, D.C.: TESOL. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Kohn, K. 1986. "The analysis of transfer" in Kellerman & Sharwood-Smith (eds.). Cross-linguistic Influence in Second Language Acguisition. New York: Pergamon Press. Lado, R. 1957. Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1971 (10th printing). Odlin, T. 1989. Langiiage Trnnsfer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ringbom, H. 1987. The Role of the First Language in Foreign Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Apéndice 2. Algunos ejemplos de la producción oral y escrita de los estudiantes: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SIO, T14: We study now. We can't go shopping.

176 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-5 Consideramos en este momento una "palabra" como el conjunto de caracteres incluidos entre dos espacios gráficos a diferencia de "unidad léxica", que es la unidad de significado. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-6 LIPKA, L. (1990) An Outline ofEnglish Lericology. Lexical Strzicture. Word Semantics and Word -Formation Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingebn, pp. 11-12. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:7 GHADESSY, M. (1988) "The language of written sports commentary": soccer a description" en GHADESSY, M. (ed.) Registers of Written English: Situational Factors And Linguistic Features Neru York, Pinter, p. 21. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-8 LIPKA, L., p. 153. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-9 El campo "DRAW", el del "empatre es prácticamente irelevanteen un deporte dcomo el tenis, donde éste nunca puede ser el resultado final de un partido.

177 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-BIBLIOGRAFIA /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-El idioma espan01 en el deporte. Guía práctica (1992), Gobierno de la Rioja -Consejería de Cultura, Deportes y Juventud, Agencia EFE, p.14. GARCIA FERRANDO, M. (nov.1992) "Presentación" en Sistema 110-111. Deporte y sociedad Madrid, Fundación Sistema, pp.5-7. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:GHADESSY, M. (1988) "The language of written sports commentary: soccer -a description" en GHADESSY, M.(ed.) Registers of Written English: Situational Factors and Linguistic Features New York, Pinter. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-LIPKA, Leonhard (1990) An Outline of English Lexicology. Lexical Structure, Word Semantics and /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Word -Formation Max Nierneyer Verlag Tübingen.

178 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Chomsky,-N,-y Halle, M. (1968) The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Clemente, M. (1989) Actividades para el Desarrollo del Lenguaje. Salamanca: ICE de la Universidad de Salamanca. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Crystal, D. (1980) Introduction to Language Pathology. London: Edward Arnold. [Trad. esp. Patología del Lenguaje. Madrid: Cátedra, 19831. Crystal, D. (1984) Linguistic Encounters with Language Handicap. Oxford: Blackwell. Diez-Itza, E. (1992) Adquisición del Lenguaje. Oviedo: Pentalfa. Edwards, M. L. (1971) One Child's Acquisition of English Liquids. Papers and Reports on Child /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Language Development, 3: 101-109. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Ferguson, C.A. y Garnica, O. (1975) Theories of Phonological Development. En: E.H. Lenneberg y E.L. Lenneberg (eds.) Foundations of Language Deuelopment. A Multidisciplinary Approach. 2 vol. Paris: Unesco. [Trad. esp. Fundamentos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje. Madrid: Alianza, 19821.

179 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2 1 have mentioned that project learning is part and parcel of a task-based, process-oriented curriculum. The deep implication of which is not to be dependent upon a textbook, but to aim at a classroom-ellaborated end-product through the execution of enabling tasks. The end-product is based on thematic objectives not on /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt- /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:linguistic ones. The focus is not on form, but on content. The degree of meaningfulness of that content will trigger the creation of learning spaces, where learners can take initiatives and pursue their own learning goals for their own benefit. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-This picture looks ideal for L1 educational settings (The Be11 School for adults in Bath, etc.) that are not constrained by the burdens and limitations of L2 public institutions. My conclusion is that, to date, in the Spanish school system, it would be utopian to walk into a classroom empty-handed, with no syllabus, no book, and a constructivist project-oriented conception of teachingllearning. Rather, it is far more sensible to start from a stipulated textbook (even the most boring ones have something worth working on), build up from there and then transcend into the area of tasks and projects. Another advantage of learning in projects is its potential applicability to al1 current fields of FLT: from Adult students (The Be11 School), to Secondary Education (Legutke & Edelhoff, Nuria Vidal among many others), to Primary Education (Marion Williams), to ESP (Martin Fierro's case studies), etc., to name just a few. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-1 A good starting point for a future project is the employment of trust-building tasks. By so doing, we will be creating a low-anxiety, stress-free environment conducive to mutual trust, a sense of belonging and a feeling of interdependence. By deploying socio-affective strategies, the path towards self-direction in project learning will be easier to walk.

180 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-De cualquier forma, los encuestadores han conseguido, con mayor o menor fortuna, adaptarse a las condiciones del terreno. En algunos casos, buscan un amigo común que establece el clima de confianza necesario. Enric Guiter explica el porqué de esa necesidad: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-"Los indígenas tienen complejo de inferioridad e intentan "normalizar" sus palabras cuando hablan con forasteros"" /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Otras veces, como se decidió en la elaboración del ALDC (Atlas Linguistic del Domini Catala), el equipo investigador adecúa la procedencia de cada uno de sus miembros con un dominio dialectal concreto. La presencia de un explorador de la misma región que los habitantes cuya habla se recoge les gana su confianza y facilita el trabajo de recogida de datos." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-En otras ocasiones las circustancias obligan a adoptar decisiones que sobre el papel resultan poco científicas. Así justifica Luis Flórez la decisión de repartir el cuestionario entre todos los investigadores, que trabajan simultáneamente y en el mismo lugar: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-"En Colombia ha sido necesario proceder así por motivos prácticos. No es lo mismo hacer encuestas en Europa que en un país de la América tropical, con grandes problemas de toda clase. Los distinguidos profesores españoles y otros estudiosos no colombianos que nos han acompañado en algunas encuestas pueden dar fe de las penosas y arriesgadas situaciones que deben afrontar los dialectólogos en Colombia, las cuales teóricamente enunciadas y oídas simplemente contar, no dicen y no son nada, pero vividas, experimentadas y sufridas representan buena dosis de idealismo, de sacrificio y de buena voluntad"".

181 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-6 ibid. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-7 Alvar, Manuel, "Automatización de Atlas Lingüísticos". Revista de Dialectologia y Tradiciones Populares, no XXXIV, 1978. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:8 Badía-Margarit, A.M. "Atlas Linguistic del domini catalá". IX" Congresso Internacional de linguistica Románica. Actas 111. Centro de Estudos Philologicos. Lisboa, 1962 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-9 cfr. nota 3. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-10 Kuentz, Charles, "Latlas Linguistique de ÉgypteV. Ve. Congrés International des Linguistes (Bruselas, 1939), NIL, 1973.

182 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-21 cfr. nota 9. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-22 cfr. nota 4. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:23 cfr. Dillon, Myles "Report of a linguistic survey recently carried out in Ireland". Atti del 111 congresso Internazionale dei Linguisti (Roma, 1933). NIL, 1972. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-24 Boléo, Manuel de Paiva, "Le matériel de L'1.L.B. et quelques études de comparaison avec 1' A.L.P.I. et l'atlas prévico dos falares baianos". Actes du XIII Congres International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes. Volume 11. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-25 Genre, Arturo, "La situation des travaux de l'atlas linguistique italien". Actes du XIII Congres International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes. Volume 11.

183 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-ARENS, H. (1984): Aristotle's Theory of Language and its Tradition, Studies in the History of Linguistics. vol. 29, John Benjamins, Amsterdam. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-BARATIN, M. (1989): La naissance de la syntaxe a Rome. Editions de Minuit, Paris. BOCHENSKI, 1. M. (1937): "Notes historiques siir les propositions modales", Revue des sciences /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:pholosophiques et théologiquec26, pp. 673-692. BOCHENSKI, 1. M. (1966): Historia de la lógica formal, Gredos, Madrid. GARDIES, J. L. (1979): Essai sur la logique des modalités, PUF. HERNANDEZ PARICIo F. (1985): Aspectos de la negación, Universidad de León. HOFFMAN, T. R. (1976): 'Past Tense Replacement and the Moda1 System", en J. D. McCawley (ed.), Syntax and Semantics 7, Academic Press, New York, pp. 8s-100. KALINOWSKI, G. (1983): "Deux especes de sémantique pour la logique modale", en J. David y G. Kleiber (eds.), La notion sémantico-logique de modalité, Centre d"Ana1yse Sintaxique, Metz. KNEALE, W y M. KNEALE (1962): The Development of Logic, Clarendon Press, oxford. MAIERU, A. (1966): "Tractatus de sensu composito et diviso" di Gugliemo Heyteshury", Revista Critica de Storia della Filosofia, XIII-3, pp. 243- NUCHELMANS, G. (1973): Theories of the Proposition. Ancient and Medieval Conceptions of the Bearers of Truth and Falsity, Amsterdam. PABLO DE PERGULA (1961): Logica y Tractatus de sensu composito et diviso, ed. de M. A. Brown, The Franciscan Institute St. Bonaventure, New York. PINBORG, J. "Classical Antiquity: Greece" en T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 13-1 Historiography of Linguistics, Mouton, The Hague. RIVERO, M. L. (1974): "Modalities and Scope in Scholastic Logic from a Linguistic Point of View", Acta Linguistica Hafniensia XV-2, pp. 133-1S2. RIVERO, M. L. (1975): "Early Scholastic Views on Ambigiiity. Composition and Diuision", Historiographica\ Linguistica 11-1, pp. 25-47. RIVERo, M. L. (1976): "William of Sherwood on Composition and Diuision. A Linguistic Study", HistoriographiaLinguistica 111-1,pp. 17-36. SCHENKEVELD, D. M. (1984): "Stoic and Peripatetic Kinds of Speech Act and the Distinction of Grammatical Moods", Mnemosyne XXXVIIl3-4, pp. 291-353. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-ESTATUS Y APORTACIONESDE LA INFORMÁTICAEN CLASE DE LENGUA EXTRANJERA: LA APLICACI~NDEL ORDENADOR EN EL MARCO DE LOS ENFOQUES COMUNICATIVOS /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Carmen Guillén Díaz, Ana 1. Alario Trigueros, Paloma Castro Universidad de Valladolid

184 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Además de realizar las pruebas con la voz sintetizada, y con el fin de establecer una referencia, las mismas pruebas se realizarán con voz natural. Esta voz puede hacerse corresponder con el informante original con el cual se realizó la parametrización, pero esta condición no es estrictamente necesaria, puesto que el método de síntesis no mantiene las características del hablante. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-BIBLIOGRAFIA /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:AZURMENDI, M. J. y OLARTE F. (1981) "Egungo euskaran silabaren zenbait eitezte ikerketa deskriptitzaile, ordenagailua erabiliaz". IKER-1. Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia, pp. 479-516. BAART, J.L.G. y HEEMSKERK, J.S.M. (1988) "The problem of ambigüity in morphological analysis for a Dutch text to speech system" Proc. 7th FASE Symposium, Edimburg, Vol. 3, pp. 959-966. BARBER, S y otros (1989) "A rule based italian text to speech system" Proc. Eur. Conf: Speech. Comm. and Techn., Paris, Vo1.2, pp. 517-520. BENOIT, C. (1990) " An inteligibility test using semantically unpredictable sentences: towards the quantification of linguistic complexity" Speech Communication, Vol. 9, n.4, pp. 294-304. BEZOOIJEN van, R. y POLS, L.C.W., (1989) "Evaluation of a sentence accent algorithm for a Dutch text to speech system" Proc. Eur. Conj: Speech. Comm. and Techn., Paris, Vol. 1,. pp. 218-221 BEZOOIJEN van, R. y POLS, L.C.W., (1990) "Evaluating text-to -speech systems: some methodological aspects" Speech Communication, Vol. 9, n.4, pp 263-270. CARLSON, R. y otros (1990), "Evaluation and development of the KTH text-to-speech system on the segmentalleve1"Speech Communication, Vol. 9, n.4, pp. 271-278. HOUSE, A.S. y otros, (1965) "Articulation-testing methods: consonantal diferentiation with a closed response set" JASA Vol. 37. pp.158-166. KLATT, D. (1980), "Software for a cascade- parallel formant synthesizer" JASA Vo1.67, pp. 971-995. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-EL GERUNDIO COMO NUCLEO DEL ENUNCIADO. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Gemma Herrero Universidad de Valladolid

185 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-términos comparativos entre diversas lenguas; sin embargo, vamos a prestar mayor /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-atención al inglés. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Dik considera que una estructura estará más o menos marcada dependiendo de si el orden de sus elementos es el que se requiere normalmente a la hora de construir una oración. Así lo expresa el autor (1989:38): "[ ...1 a construction type is more marked if it is less expectable. The less frequent the more rare a linguistic item is, the higher its markedness value." Tal como queda expresado, el fenómeno de "markedness" está en correlación inversa con la frecuencia de aparición de una construcción. De los ejemplos dados líneas más abajo y tomados de Quirk & Greenbaum (1973), podemos deducir que el orden de palabras no marcado en inglés, de acuerdo con los asertos de Dik, es SVX. S sería el sujeto, V representa al verbo y X simboliza uno o más objetos. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt- (4) a. The train had arrived. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt- b. They elected him chairman.

186 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Turning first to language. The students are familiar with the area of General English. Every specialist area has its own specialist terms, and grammar is no exception. As 1 have already mentioned, there are areas common to al1 professionals such as business or industrial organization, business transactions and insurance policies. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-ESP translation /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Now let's move on to ESP translation. Translation is a skill and an activity common to al1 professionals. Our purpose is to try not only to deal with linguistic skills of grammatical accuracy and functional appropriacy but also to introduce ideas on techniques and strategies of translation, and present examples on which to build effectiveness for the totally integrated performance. Translation, according to Catfordl, is the act of "replacing text material in the source language (SL) by an equivalent text material in the target language (TL). No matter how hard we try to stop our students from translating, our students will just continue translating the text, at least, the reading text into Spanish. Therefore, for come, translation is an end in itself or a means not an end. 1 believe that commercial and technical translations belong to one part of what we normally cal1 specialized translation. Therefore, it is to a certain extent non-cultural. In principle, the terms should be translated. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Characteristics /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Commercial and technical translation are primarily distinguished from other forms of translation by terminoloy, although terminology makes up about 5 -10%of a text.2 Their characteristics and their grammatical features are as fo1lows:-

187 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-In brief, we have looked at the irnportance of technical and commercial translation within ESP in our society today. We can therefore say that specialized translation in technology and commerce differs from other forms of translation by terminology, although terminology usually only makes up about 5-10%of a text. Its characteristics and grammatical features tend to overlap and mix with other varieties of language. Its format varies according to the demands. Therefore we dare to say that part of a good ESP translator's job often consists in rephrasing poorly written language and converting metaphors to sense. In trying to achieve completeness as well as variety, much has had to be included in the examples provided; similarly, much has had to be excluded from this paper on technical and commercial translation skills because of the limitations of time and space. Any shortcomings in the paper are my responsibilty. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-NOTAS /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:1 CATFORD, J.C., A Linguistic Theory of Translation, OUP, England, 1965. p. 45. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2 NEWMARK, p., A Textbook of Translation, Prenticer Hall Press, 1988, pp 151-161. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-

188 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Chomsky formulated a theory of innate ideas, based on certain predispositions for language use inhercnt in the human brain, with its attendant formal and substantial universals, but a third sort of universal, typological universals, constitutes a feature of language present in most of thc language families of the world. Ellis (1985) describes typological universals thus: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-"Typological universals are identified by cxamining a representative sample of natural languages, taking care to ensure that the sample is frec from the bias that might result from concentrating on a single language or family of languages." /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:In other words, universal grammar is theory driven and typological universals are data driven. These typological universals are often called implicational: the precence of one linguistic element implies the presence of others. In 1977 Keenan and Comrie published a paper based on a comparison of relative clauses, a feature found in most of the world's languages. They proposed an accessibility hierarchy, that is, that the easiest position for relativization is thc subject, the next easiest the object, and so on, the object of comparison being the most difficult. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SU DO 10 O PREP GEN OCOMP /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-A scale is thus creatcd, reflecting the difficulty of comprehension..

189 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-(Object of comparison) *El hombre que Jaime es más alto que.) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Not al1 languages permit relatives on al1 the positions of the hierarchy. For example, it seems that Thai has no relativization after the indirect object position, while in a large number of languages the hierarchy stops after the genitive postion, among them French, Spanish and Italian. According to Keenan and Comrie, there are three constraints on relativization. The first is that the language in question must be able to relativize the subject position. That is, no language can have object relative clauses without also having subject relatives. Secondly, relativization can only take place in positions which are adjacent on the hierarchy. Thus, a language may relativize the subject, direct and indirect object positions, because they are next to each other on the steps of the hierarchy, but it is impossible to find a language which, for example, has subject and genitive relative clauses, but not clauses on the intervening positions. In third place, strategies which apply to one position on the hierarchy can stop applying at any position lower than it. In this way, a language may have relative clauses in the subject and direct object positions, but no more, or it may relativize as far as the genitive position, like Spanish, and then stop. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Severa1 studies have been carried out to see whether the same order of difficulty with relative clauses is reflected in second language acquisition. Pavesi (1984) found that Italian learners of English had increasing diEculty with English relative clauses the lower they went on the hierarchy. Her findings corroborated Keenan and Comrie's suggestion that the acquistion order of relative clauses is affected by ease of accessibility. She measured the responses of two groups of Italian speakers learning English, one group tutored and the other untutored. She found that the suggested order of acquisition was in fact borne out, although the tutored group retained pronouns on the lower positions, while the untutored group retained nouns.Gass (1979)gave tests to speakers of a variety of languages, over a period of four months. The test consisted of two parts, acceptibility judgements and sentence combination. The results substantiated the two predictions based on the accessibility hierarchy: namely, that the more accessible positions would be produced with greater frequency than the less accessible ones, and the more accessible positions would be produced with greater accuracy than the less accessible ones. She concluded that linguistic universals play a more important role in the acquisition of relative clauses than the L1, and that as a result they can be used to predict the order in which relatives will appear in the interlanguage. The present study sets out to follow Gass, and to evaluate the importance of the influence of language universals compared with transfer from the L1 in second language acquisition. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Despite the effect that universal grammar and language universals have had on theories of language acquisition, language transfer has never lost its importance. Selinker(l972) includes it as one of the five central learning processes, and Faerch and Kasper (1987:130) have this to say about it: "a psycholinguistic procedure by means of which L2 learners activate their /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-LlILN knowledge in developing or using their interlanguage."

190 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. pp101-118. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Bley-Vroman, R. (1986) " The logical problem of foreign language learning" In Gass, /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:S. and Schachter J. (1989)Linguistic Perspectiues on Second Language Acquisition . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Bley-Vroman, R. Felix, S. W., Ioup G. L. "The accessibility of Universal Grammar in adult language learning." to be published. Chomsky, N,. (1971). "Recent Contributions to the theory of innate ideas." Searle,J.R., (ed.) The Philosophy of Language.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 121 129 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Chornsky, N,. (1981). "Principles and parameters in syntactic theory". In Hornstein, N..and Lightfoot D. (eds.). Explanation in Linguistics: the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. London: Longman.

191 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-"Interference versus structure complexity in second language acquisition: language universals as a basis for natural sequencing." In /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Brown,D., Yorio,C., and Cryrnes,R.,(eds.). Teaching and Learning. Washington DC: TESOL /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Keenan E. L. and Comrie B. (1977). "Noun phrase accessibility and Universal Grammar." Linguistic lnquiry 8 nol: 63-99 Krashen, S. D. (1988). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Hemel Hemstead: Prentice Hall International. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Pavesi, M. (1984). "The acquisition of relative clauses in a formal and in an informal setting: further evidence in support of the markedness hypothesis." In Singleton D and Little D. (eds.) Language Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts. IRAAL. Dublin. pp. 151 -163 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Schumann,J. (1980) The Acquistion of English relatiue clauses by second language learners. In Scarcella and Krashen (eds.) Research in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-AWARENESS OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL DIMENSION OF LANGUAGE IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Consuelo Montes Granado Universidad de Salamanca /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:It is my aim in this paper to point to the usefulness of an awareness of sociocultural factors in the teaching of English as a second language at university level. In the first place, teachers should acknowledge the complexity of the nature of language. Due to the influence of sociolinguistics, the code is no longer considered in isolation, since al1 verbal behaviour is embedded in sociocultural and contextual frameworks. In the carne vein, work on communicative competence suggests that knowing a second language implies the mastering of dynamic linguistic and communicative processes rather than a static command of grammar structures. In the classroom, the second language should not be treated as an artifact to be continually scrutinized and formally adhered to, but as an instrument to signal sociocultural meaning. 1 also believe that teaching should not be reduced to the mere acquisition of skills. One way to avoid the artificiality of language in formal instruction is to prornote an understanding of actual communication by means of meaningful tasks, close to their every day experiencc as speakers. 1 suggest, as one possible exercise to work on and assimilate the sociocultural dimension of language, the analysis or comment of the process of production and interpretation of written advertisements from English magazines as a very useful practice for students at university level. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-One fundamental question in second language learning theory and practice is what it means to know a language. A necessary first step is to recognise its complexity and set criteria. However, one of the most severe criticisms (according to Spolsky, 1989, ch.2) that can be levelled against many existing methods and attempts at theories is that they talk about learning a language as a general goal and do no specify exactly what kind of learning of what aspects of language they are trying to account for. As Ellis admitted (1985) work in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) school was generally restricted to the leve1 of sentence-syntax, or, as Gass (1986) remarks, is limited to a single gramatical cornponent: phonology, syntax, semantics or pragmatics. Spolsky concedes that the field remains vigorous, despite some disappointments. He presents, however, some criticisms of the notion of interlanguage, a central concept in this school. 1would like to pinpoint two of them: the tendency to confuse a process and a competence model, and the arbitrary use of the concept of language with minimal regard to questions of psychological or sociolinguistic reality (Spolsky, 1989: 33) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Some other current theories of second language learning, which could be grouped as the dual knowledge approach, have made clear that it is necessary to explore the relation between knowledge of rules and ability to use them, between structure and function, between a competence model, that is to say, declarative knowledge, and a processing model, that is to say, activated procedural knowledge. This complexity has been explored in the psycholinguistic studies of scholars like Sharwood Smith (1985,86) and Bialystock (1982, 1984), who show differences between fluency and accuracy in using a second language. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Finally, a quite separate tradition could be mentioned, according to the analysis Spolsky introduces in his attempt to write a general theory of second language learning (1989), which is fed on work in linguistics, philosophy of language, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, ethnography of speaking. It enlarges the characterization of language which is no longer conceived as just a system of underlying grammatical structures. Del1 Hymes's notion of communicative competence has been crucial. He insisted that linguistics should include pragmatics, discourse, text, social variation (Hymes, 1985). In connexion with second language teaching and testing, Canale and Swain (1980) have made clear, in their review of the issue, the obvious point that rules of grammar are meaningless without rules of use. Learners should acquire a complex of communicative skills and this is what these academics include in their own model of communicative competence. They integrate into it three related components: grammatical competence (lexis, morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics, phonology...), sociolinguistic competence (sociocultural rules of use and rules of discourse) and strategic competence (verbal and non verbal communication strategies) (Canale and Swain, 1980: 29-30). For Spolsky (1989) as well, knowledge of a language can not only be broken down into structural and functional components, since language ability can also be treated and measured as general proficiency. To sum up, what a second language learner needs is not confined to linguistic knowledge but includes performance where that knowledge is made use of in conjunction with other sets of language systems, such as pragmatics, discourse rules, rules of sociolinguistic appropriateness, rules for conversational strategies. A competent performance clearly integrates a sociocultural dimension of language in the process of producing and understanding. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Once 1 have broadly referred to some very general guidelines concerning the dynamic and composite nature of any second language, 1 should consider some factors that impinge on the process of learning. A factor of potential importance, related to each individual learner, is that she or he does not start with a tabula rasa. He or she begins from the previous knowledge already acquired of their first language, which is not under the control of the second language teacher, as well as from his or her ability to retrieve linguistic and sociocultural knowledge in the production of interlanguage output. Another individual phenomenon that 1 also would like to mention in this paper regards the attitudes that the learner brings to the learning task. This, in part, connects in indirect but essential ways with the social context in which the second language learning takes place. On the one hand, it influences the positive or negative view towards the language being learned, its community of speakers, and even the language learning situation and hence their global motivation. On the other, it determines the social provision of language learning situations and opportunities of various kinds (see Spolsky, 1989, ch. 11& 12). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Setting aside these considerations, pertaining to a social psychological domain, it is not out of place to bring again into focus the social nature of language, as Hymes has continually stressed, as a contrast to the social artificiality that we can find in the normal classroom, as Littlewood (1981), Loveday (1982: 132) and Preston (1989: 174), among others, have complained about. It is claimed that in informal or "spontaneous" language learning (as Klein (1986) names it), the language is being used for communication. The learner is surrounded by fluent speakers; their linguistic behaviour is embedded in the context of the real outside world; within this sociocultural framework, attention is paid to the construction and negotiation of meaning; interactional skills are important to achieve different effects; discoursal rules and sociolinguistic appropriateness play an important role in verbal production and reception. Informal learning exposes the learner to a wide range of variation in language use and to the interactive nature of language. However, even though the outcome of these opportunities could well be easy natural communication, there is the risk that "the learner's interlanguage fossilizes at the pidginized stage", a risk that Schumann (1978: 371) observes in his acculturation model as due to social and psychological distance in some second language acquisition situations. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Granted, in spite of the advantages shown above, it cannot be defended that language is only learned in natural social interaction, as come authors have argued (such as Pica, 1987). It is true that formal or "instructed" learning (as Long (1988) calls it) carries with it potential disatisfactions, since language may be used only to teach. In addition to that, second language interaction in the classroom is rather asymmetrical, and as Pica also points out unequal participant relationships lead to limitation in interaction between students and teachers. However, formal instruction does have advantages (see Spolsky, 1989: ch. 12). Even though guided second language learning is itself limited and leads typically to limited outcomes, the attack on formal instruction is not proven. On the contrary, it is claimed to be beneficial, as many authors support (see Long, 1988, Spolsky, 1989). This general statement requires come observations. As Spolsky concludes, formal language learning-teaching is not so much good or bad as it is appropiate or inappropiate and therefore effective or ineffective according to the situation (cf. Sharwood Smith (1985) and Bialystock (1985)). He echoes Candlin and Widdowson's eclectic position (1987), who believe advances in language teaching are not dependent on the imposition of fixed ideas or the promotion of fashionable formulas, but arise from "the independent efforts of teachers in their own classrooms, exploring principles and experimenting with techniques" (Spolsky, 1989: 200). In the same light, it is specially relevant to refer to Michael Swan's articles (1985), which provide a critica1 look at some aspects of the communicative approach. In particular, he critisizes, among other things, what he calls the fallacy of 'the tabula rasa attitude", that is, the fact that this approach so much in vogue "fails to take account of the knowledge and skills which language students bring with them from their mother tongue and their experience of the world". (1985:Z) This is precisely one of the advantages that Spolsky (1989: 200) noted of appropiate formal second language teaching, the fact that the students' previous knowledge can be exploited. This is the /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-foundation for the proposal 1 would like to introduce for students of English Philology at university level: the analysis of advertisements, taken from English magazines, such as Time or Newsweek. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Obviously, 1 don't disagree with Michael Swan when he critisizes another fallacy defended by the communicative approach, the ' real life fallacy' (198532-3). 1 am also of the opinion that the classroom is not the outside world, and that effective learning can involve various types of activities that have no immediate communicative value (translation, rote learning, structural drilling). However, he also questioned the single use of specially written teaching material. Authentic material gives the students a taste of the 'real' language in use. In spite of that, attractive texts are underexploited, and, as he himself recognises, /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-at higher levels, students may perform badly at classroom comprehension tasks (failing to make sense of texts that are well within their grasp) simply because of lack of interest; or because they have been trained to read classroom texts in such a different way from 'real life' texts that they are unable to regard them as pieces of communication (Swan, 1985: 10) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:This leads us to propose texts that promote the awareness of the socio-cultural dimension of language as a very useful practice for students especially at university level. As 1 have just suggested, these "texts" (the term being understood in its wide significance of a piece of written communication) could well be advertisements found in English magazines, where linguistic and extralinguistic elements combine to transmit the message. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-At university level, the second language should not be treated as an artifact to be continually scrutinized and formally adhered to, but also as an instrument to signal sociocultural meaning. In fact, it has been shown (Loveday, 1982: ch.5) that second language students consciously display the 'knowledge-product' when it is demanded by teachers but do not necessarily apply it to their real communication. Therefore, formal conformity should be seen as relevant to the extent that it is needed to achieve effective communication. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Due to the influence of sociolinguistics, the code is no longer considered in isolation, since al1 communication consists of code plus context and this contextual verbal behaviour is inserted in wider macro sociological and cultural frameworks. No doubt, teachers now have altered their view of language in the classroom and come to the realization that it constitutes a means as well as an end itself. In other words, learners have to gain access to the sociocultural functioning of the language they are studying. Since we al1 agree that the final aim is communicative, there should be an awareness of this essential component of language learning throughout the teaching process. The artificiality of language in formal instruction, sometimes needed for pedagogical reasons, as Michael Swan (op.cit.: 82-3) makes clear in his attack at some mistakes of the communicative approach, should be balanced with meaningful tasks, close to their every day experience as speakers of their mother tongue. The exercise 1 suggest is one posible way to work on and comprehend the sociocultural dimension of language, the analysis of the processs of production and interpretation of advertisements from English magazines. The actual communication that takes place in these adverts is the result of a very elaborate process of production on the part of /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:severa1 specialists in advertising in printed material. They exploit al1 the elements at their disposal to the full in order to accomplish a social purpose, to connect with and convince prospective buyers of the product. Linguistic and visual channels are involved and both types of semiotic meaning are subtlely embedded in wider social and cultural parameters that the native speaker of the language is able to perceive thanks to his or her communicative competence, With this practice, we stimulate learners' communicative competence in this second language by making them deepen into the production and reception dynamics that conform different types of adverts. They become conscious of a natural use of language in an authentic medium to achieve real effects . At the same time, they connect with and profit from their knowledge as speakers of their first language as an asset they already possess. In this way, they are more motivated to assimilate the verbal strategies used, in short, to grasp the creative and social nature of the second language. New vocabulary is more easily learnt or acquired, in a contextualized manner. Moreover, words are usually loaded with more than one signification. This constant play with different meaning intertwined in the same word is very revealing of the rich nature of language. But, obviously, what we find in adverts is something more than propositional meaning, what we find is the weightier social significance of language. To conclude, the discourse of advertising in printed materials, where verbal and visual elements combine to produce a composite text, provides a range of different communicative strategies. Understanding, interpreting, commenting on the ideological -social, cultural-, processes of advertising will, no doubt, enhance the language awareness of our students. As a result, their communicative competence to encode and decode real social meaning through the second language can be expected to improve. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-REFERENCES /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Beede, L. (ed.). 1988. Issues in Second Language Acquisition: Multiple Perspectiues. New York: Newbury House. Bialystock, E. 1982. '0n the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms.' Applied Linguistics 3:181-206. Bialystock, E. 1984. 'Strategies in interlanguage learning and performance' in A. Davies, C. Criper, and /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-A.P.R. Howartt (eds)1984. Bialystock, E. 1985. 'The compatibility of teaching and learning strategies.' Applied Linguistics 6:255- /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-62. Canale, M. and M. Swain. 1980, 'Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.' Applied Linguistics 1:l-47. Candlin, C. and Widdowson, H.G. 1987. 'Language teaching: a scheme for teacher education.' Series

192 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Press. Ellis, R. 1985. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power. Essex: Longman. Fries, C.C. 1945. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language. Ann Arbor, Mich: University /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-of Michigan Press. Gass, S.M. 1986. 'An internationalist approach to L2 sentence interpretation.' Studies in Second Language Acquisition 8:19-37. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Hymes, D. 1985. 'Toward linguistic competence.' Reuue de I'AILA: AlLA Reuiew 2:9-23. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Hodge, R.I.V. and G. Kress. 1993. Language and Ideology. London and New York: Routledge. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Kellerman, E. and M. Sharwood Smith. (eds). 1986. Crosslinguistic In2fuence in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Simon and Schuster. Klein, W. 1986. Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lado, R. 1957. Linguistic across Cultures. Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan Press. Littlewood, W.T. 1981. 'Language variation and second language acquisition theory.' Applied Linguistics 2:150-68. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Long, M.H. 1988. 'Instructed interlanguage development' in L. Beede (ed.). 1988, pp. 115-41. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Loveday, L. 1982. The Sociolinguistics of Learnign and Using a Non-natiue Language. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Pica, T. 1987. 'Second-language acquisition, social interaction, and tlle classroom.' Applied Linguistics 8:2-21.

193 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-KEENA, E.L.(1987) "Semantic correlates of the Ergative/Absolutive distinction", en Universal /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Grammar: 15essays, LondonlSydney, Croon Helm. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:KEYSER, S.J. Y ROEPER, T.(1984) "On the Middle and Ergative construction in English", Linguistic /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-lnquiery 15, 382-416. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-LEHMAN, W,P.(Ed.)(1978) Syntactic Typology, Sussex, The Harvest Press.

194 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-JOHN, A.P. (1980). "Approximative Languages and Language Learning Situations", International Reuieiu of Applied Linguistics, XVIII/3. LENNEBERG, E.H. (1967). The Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley. MARTIN, J. (1983). "El fenómeno de la fosilización en los sistemas de interlenguaje". Actas del 1 Congreso de AESLA. Murcia: AESLA. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-MCLAUGHLIN,B. (1987) Theories ofSecond Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:MEISEL, J. (1980) "Linguistic Simplification" iii FEL1X.S. (ed) Second Langi~age Deuelopinent: Trends and Issues. Tübingen: Nar. MUKATTASH, L. (1986) "Persistance of Fossilization" Interiiatioiial Review of Applied Linguistics, XXIV/3, pp.187-203. NAIMAN,N., FROHLICH,M., STERN,H.H. and TODESC0,A. (1978) The Good Language Learner. Researcli in Education Series,7. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. NEMSER, W. (1971) "Approximative Systems of Foreign Language Learners" International Reuieiu of' Applied Lingilistics, 1X/2, pp.115-123. PLANN,S. (1976) The Spanish linmersion Program: 10iuards Natiue-like Projlciency or a Classrooin Dialect. MA- TESL, UCLA. SCHUMANN,J.H. (1976) "Social Distance as a Factor iii Second Laiiguage Acquisition". Langilage Learning, 23, pp.135-143. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SCHUMANN,J.H. (1978a) "Social and Psycliological Factors in Second Language Acquisitioii" iii RICHARDS,J. (ed) Understanding Second and Foreign Language Learning: Issues and Approaclies. Rowley,Ma.: Newbury House. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SCHUMANN,J.H. (1978b). The Pidginization Process: A Model fOr Secornd Langitage Acqnisition. Rowley,Ma: Newbury House.

195 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-3.-Así, tenemos, por ejemplo, las lógicas polivalentes (iniciadas a partir de la trivalente de Lukasiewicz, 1970, que reconocía la necesidad de postular un valor de "indeterminación" para ciertos enunciados), y borrosas (Zadeh, 1987), dirigidas contra las que sostienen la suficiencia de postular dos valores de verdad, o las bien conocidas intuiciones de Wittgenstein (1978) sobre cómo definir la categoría "juegos, término que parece aglutinar un buen número de conceptos dispares (juegos de mesa, de cartas, olímpicos, etc.) sin un claro elemento definitorio en común. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-BIBLIOGRAFIA /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:ALBA, J. W. & HASHER, L. 1983. "1s memory schematic". PsychologicalBulletin, 93. 203-231. BLASS, R. 1990. Releuance Relations in Discourse. A Study with Special Reference to Sissala. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. BRANSFORD, J. D. & FRANKS, J. J. 1971. "Abstraction of linguistic ideas". Cognitiue Psychology, 2, 331-350. BREWER, W. F. & TREYENS, J. C. 1981. "Role of schemata in memory for places". Cognitiue Psychology, 13, 207-230. COHEN, G. 1986. "Everyday memory", en Cohen, G., Eysenck, M. W. & Le Voi, M. E., Mernory. A Cognitiue Approach. Milton Keynes, Philadelphia: Open University Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-CHAFFIN, R. & HERRMANN, D. 5.1988. "The nature of semantic relations: a comparison of two approaches", en M. W. Evens (ed.) Relational rnodels of the lexicon. Representing knowledge in semantic networks, pp.289-334. Cambridge University Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-CHARNIAK, E. 1972. "Towards a model of children's story comprehension". Technical report 266, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Masschussets Institute of Technology. DIK, S. C. 1989. The Theory of Functional Gramrnar, Part 1: The Structure of the Clause. Dordreclit: /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Foris. DONNELLAN, K. 1966. "Reference and definite descriptions", Philosophical Reuiew 75, 281-304. GIVON, T. 1989. Mind, Code, and C0nte.z.t. Essays in Pragrnatics. Hiiisdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. GRICE, H. P. 1975. "Logic and conversation", en Cole, P. & Morgan, J. L. (eds.) Syntax and Sernantics. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Vol 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press. GUTT, E. A. 1991 Translation and Releuance. Cognition and Context. Oxford: Basil Blackweii. HARNISH, R. M. 1976. "Logical form and implicature", en Bever, T. G., Katz, J. J. & Langendoen, D. T. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:(eds.).An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Ability. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. JACKENDOFF, R. 1987. Consciousness and the Cornputational Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:KEMPSON, R. 1988. "Grammar and conversational principles", en Newmeyer, F. (ed.). Linguistics: the Carnbridge Suruey, Vol 11. Linguistic Theory: Extension and Application. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-LAKOFF, G. 1987. Wornen, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reueal about the Mind. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. LEECH, G. 1983. The Principies ofPragrnatics. London: Longman. LUKASIEWICZ, J. 1970. Selected Works. Borkowski, L. (ed.), Amsterdam: North-Holland. MINSKY, M. 1975. "A Framework for representing Knowledge", en Winston, P. H. (ed.). The

196 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SPERBER, D. & WILSON, D. 1986a. Releuance. Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-SPERBER, D. & WILSON, D. 1986b. "Loose talk", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86 (1985-86): 153-171. Reimpreso en Davis, S. (ed.) 1991. Pragmatics. A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:TAYLOR, J. 1989. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:WILSON, D. & SPERBER, D. 1986. "Pragmatics and modularity", en The Chicago Linguistic Society /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Parassession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Theory. Reimpreso en Davis, S. 1991. Pragmatics. A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press. WITTGENSTEIN, L. 1978. Philosophical Inuestigations. Trad. al inglés de Ascombe, G. E. M. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ZADEH, L. A. 1987. Fuzzy Sets and Applications. Selected papers by L. A. Zadeh. Ed. por Yager, R. R. et al. New York: John Wiley & Sons. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Leyre Ruiz de Zarobe Universidad del País Vasco.

197 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-We must point out that we have not confirmed our hypothesis that students tend to use perfective tenses for accomplishment and present tenses for activities. We think that they express activities using perfective forms because the topic of the composition induced them to develop their writing in that way and that our future research on the use of the perfective should take into account more spontaneous production in different contexts. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Use of Pragmatic Deuices /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:In the analysis of the written discourse we tried to find out if the most competent students narrated their stories using both linguistic and pragmatic devices (Trévise, 1986); this would indicate a competence both in reference point operations and narrative structure. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Topic R /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-00.00%

198 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-2. "Suggestopedia", del búlgaro Georgi Lozanov, es otro de los enfoques que han surgido últimamente, y cuya finalidad principal es la de eliminar las barreras que dificultan el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua evitando en los alumnos el sentimiento de que puedan fracasar en su intento a través de la sugestión u otras técnicas muy relacionadas con la psicología soviética (Richards y Rodgers 1986:142- 143 ) y la creación de "an environment that is relaxing and therefore conductive to learning" (Larsen-Freeman 1987:6). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Aquí, el papel del profesor es muy claro. El es la autoridad en la clase y debe conseguir que sus alumnos le respeten al tiempo que confían en él, dado que esto es bueno para que el proceso de aprendizaje se desarrolle perfectamente."The students will retain information better from someone in whom they have confidence since they will be more responsive to her "desuggesting" their limitations and suggesting how easy it will be for them to succeed", como argumenta Larsen-Freeman (1986:81). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Como se desprende de lo anterior, el profesor ha de ser un experto en técnicas de sugestión de grupo, dado que su principal papel es precisamente "to create situations in which the learner is most suggestible and then to present linguistic material in a way most likely to encourage positive reception and retention by the learner", en opinión de Richards y Rodgers (1986:159). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-El papel del profesor en estas clases es básico. "The teacher is no mere bearer of knowledge; s/he is the architect of an environment (...). The teacher's task is to bring about a tension-free and enjoyful atmosphere", como escribe uno de los profesores que han practicado este sistema de enseñanza, Lonny Gold (1985:33). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-3. "Community Language Learning", desarrollado por Charles Curran, está basado en la psicología de Carl Rogers, y es citado frecuentemente como un ejemplo claro de "humanistic approach" (Richards y Rodgers 1986:113).

199 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Si, como escribe Littlewood, existe evidencia de que "many aspects of second language acquisition occur through natural learning mechanisms, which are activated when the learner is involved in communicative activity" (1989:S8), las fotos pueden constituir un medio ideal para conseguir situaciones en las que los alumnos utilicen la segunda lengua como medio de comunicación. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Además, las fotografías se prestan muy bien para la realización de trabajos o tareas en grupos o en parejas a través de "problem-solving and information-gap activities", con lo cual es fácil conseguir lo que Wilga Rivers estima como ideal para una clase de idiomas, y que expresa con estas palabras: "The classroom has to be very active, very interactive, with people learning through performing tasks or performing group activities or whatever, so that they are using the language as much as possible" (Arnold 1991:3). Todo esto casa muy bien con aquel proverbio chino que reza así: "Tell me and 1 forget; teach me and 1 remember; involve me and 1 learn" otro aspecto básico de las fotografías es que favorecen el proceso de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua facilitando la comprensibilidad del "input", como reconocen Krashen y Terrell cuando escriben: "The requirement that input be comprehensible has several interesting implications for classroom practice. First, it implies that whatever helps comprehension is important. This is why visual aids are so useful" (1983:55). Pero hay más a favor del uso de fotografías en la clase. Los mismos autores del "Natural Approach" añaden otro argumento que, si bien indirectamente, también afecta al empleo de las fotos cuando afirman que "language can be acquired best by involving the students in activities in which the focus and attention of the student is on the message being transmittcd during the activity" (Ibid. 127). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Aunque es bien sabido que hay muchas actividades de este tipo que no requieren el uso de fotografías, no lo es menos que éstas sirven de modo excepcional para lograr lo que quieren Krashen y Terrell, y que coincide plenamente con el sentir de Prabhu, quien escribe que "the linguistic code is learnt better if, in the process of learning, learners' attention is not on the code" (1987:145). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Por último, conviene recordar que las fotografías pueden proporcionar "a lowering of the affective filter of the students", con lo cual favorecen el proceso de adquisición de la segunda lengua según Krashen y Terrell (1983:21), al tiempo que sirven para reforzar la memoria, como señala Rijavec: "Receiving information simultaneously through two channels (the auditory and the visual) facilitates the formation of mental pictures that can serve as mental hooks for the acquisition of knowledge" (1991:50). Idea que ratifican las palabras siguientes de Eaton y Jogan, cuando afirman que "current research on learning styles and language acquisition has made clear the value of visual stimuli in the language classroom, not only to appeal to visual learner, but also to "anchor" learning for the audio and kinesthetic learner (1992:24) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Cuando y como utilizar las fotografías

200 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-". .. culture is a deeply ingrained part of the very fiber of our being, but language -the means of communication among members of a culture -is the most visible and available expression of culture. And so a person's world uiew, self-identity, his systems of thinking, acting, feeling and communicating are disrupted by a change from one culture to another" (198634) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Esta afirmación de H.D. Brown asimismo es aplicable al ámbito lingüístico, al cambio de una L1 (lengua materna) a una LE (lengua extranjera). De hecho, el mismo autor constata que el aprendizaje de una LE requiere la adquisición de una nueva identidad. Este proceso de aculturación, e.d. la adaptación a otra cultura implica una reorientación de pensar y sentir aparte de una nueva forma de comunicaci,Ón. Como aspecto importante en el aprendizaje de una LE se conoce este proceso con el nombre de "Acculturation Model" (Schuhmann 1975), según el cual tanto la integración cultural como el aprendizaje de una LE estarían condicionados por el grado de la distancia social y psicológica entre el studiante y la cultura de la LE. W.R. Acton (1986) precisa en este sentido que el proceso de adaptación estará en función de cómo el alumno percibe su propia cultura en relación con la ajena. El mismo dominio de una LE va restringido por la percepción de la distancia cultural que incide en la predisposición psicológica del discente y el proceso de adquisición lingüística. En "An Argument for Cultural Analysis in Second Language Classroom" (1986) George H.Hughes propone un acercamiento psicolingüístico para superar conflictos culturales en el aprendizaje de una LE. En concreto considera este autor ámbitos individuales como motivación, intenciones, deseos en función de sensibilizar al estudiante hacia diferencias culturales, "psychological quests can aid us in sensitizing our students to cultural differences" (1986:162). /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:Un gran número de autores (G.G. Morain 1986, K.H. Osterloh 1986, j.c. Condon 1973c, O.D. Parker 1986) orientaron su investigación hacia manifestaciones concretas de diferencias culturales y su repercusión en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua. Un conocimiento específico de la cultura y la lengua extranjera permitiría predecir areas de conflicto cultural (R. Young 1986) y de interferencia lingüística en el proceso de adaptación cultural. Un trasvase de la hipótesis del análisis contrastivo a este area, nos conduce a una noción interesante: la interferencia cultural. Al igual que se dan transferencias positivas y negativas de la L1 en el aprendizaje de una LE, el individuo sumergido en su cultura transfiere comportamientos verbales o sociales al uso de la LE que pueden dar lugar a graves malentendidos. Si además consideramos en este contexto que todo preconocimiento afecta a cualquier proceso de aprendizaje podemos determinar con Hammerly el impacto cultural en el dominio de una LE, "anything linguistic, communicative, or cultural that language students already know (consciously or unconsciously) is relevant to the task of learning a second language."(l991:19) /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-La asimilación cultural y lingüística incluye según Geertz (1975) la adquisición de conceptos, por lo que su influencia y significado resulte crucial en el crecimiento socio- psicológico del individuo. La cultura entendida como conjunto de redes estructuradas e interconectadas de significados impulsa y modela el desarrollo mental entendido como disposiciones, creencias, destrezas y conocimientos. Con ello creemos que la cultura y la lengua materna condicionan, de modo determinante, las variables psicológicas y afectivas de sus miembros. De ahí que, en consecuencia, la adquisición de una LE se ve restringida por unos esquemas mentales y psiquico-afectivos dependientes de la cultura y la lengua materna. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-En este sentido se ha de subrayar el carácter social de la adquisición lingüística, perspectiva clave en el campo de la sociolingüística. Diversas teorias se centran en particular en el aspecto de las dificultades que emergen en la interacción de individuos de distintos origenes sociales y10 culturales. En Language and Social Identity (1982) J. Gumperz señala que la identidad social y la etnicidad son en gran parte establecidas y mantenidas por la lengua. Con lo cual en la adquisición de una LE, el individuo puede experimentar una amenaza a su identidad de origen. La variedad del contacto interétnico hoy en dia requiere una dedicación sistemática que destaque las areas conflictivas del mismo con el fin de disminuirlas. H. Giles (1978) destaca la lengua como una de las marcas sociales y étnicas mas potentes, que repercute en la auto- definición del individuo. En este sentido el desarrollo de la teoría de la identidad social enfoca la identidad psicológica del individuo desde su contexto social. En "Social Categorization, Social Identity and Social Comparison" (1978) Tajfel entiende desde esta perspectiva la categorización social como un sistema de orientación que ayuda a crear y definir el sitio del individuo en la sociedad. El contexto social y cultural no tan solo define sino también crea la realidad psicológica. Por lo tanto este autor mantiene que la identidad social del individuo, sus creencias, actitudes y acciones adquieren significado en la categorización social.

201 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-GARDNER, R.C. (1979). "Social Psychological Aspects of Second Language Acquisition". En Language and Social Psychology. H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (eds.). Oxford Blackwell /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-GEERTZ, C. (1975). The lnterpretation ofCulture. London: Hutchinson /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:GILES, H. (1978). "Linguistic Differentation in Ethnic Groups". En Differentation between Social Groups. H. Tajfel. London: Academic Press /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-GILES, H. Y BYRNE, J.L. (1982) "An Intergroup Approach to Second Language Acquisition". En Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Deuelopment, 11111, 17-39 GUMPER2,J.J. (ED.) (1982). Language and Social Identity. Cambridge:C.U.P. HAMMERLY, H. (1991). Fluency and Accuracy. Multilingual Matters HUGHES, G.H. (1986). "An Argument for Cultural Analysis in the Second Language Classroom". E. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Merrill Valdés J., Culture Bound. C.U.P. MORAIN, G.G. (1986). "Kinesics and Cross-cultural Understandings". En Merrill Valdés, J. Culture Bound. C.U.P. MCKIRNAN, D.J. Y HAMAYAN, E.V. (1980). "Language Norms and Perceptions of Ethnolinguistic Group Diversity". En Giles,H. Smith P.M. y Robinson, W.P. Language. Pergamon Press OSTERLOH, K.-H.,(1986). "Intercultural Differences and Communicative Approaches to FL Teaching in the Third World". En Merrill Valdés, J. Culture Bound. C.U.P. PARKER, C. (1986). "English Language Teaching from an Intercultural Perspective". En Merril Valdés

202 /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-tertiary and those with secondary-primary ... since after all, this distinction /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-might be no more significant for the generation of nominal compounds than /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt:come orthographic difference, nevertheless this traditional separation does at least afford a useful method of cutting down the wealth of data to be explained. Until further linguistic analysis shows that both types of composite sequence are generated by the same rules (except of course, for some phonological rules which yield the stress-patterns in question), we shall treat them separately as compound ('+') and "nominal phrase" ("+') respectively. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-Esta propuesta cuenta, sin embargo, con una serie de inconvenientes que hacen que se dude de su validez. /1993/congresoAESLA_XI.txt-En primer lugar, las mismas palabras de Lees ya nos hacen desconfiar de este criterio. Así, él reconoce que la decisión sobre el esquema acentual que una determinada construcción presenta es completamente arbitraria. Además, su objetivo al hacer uso de este criterio no es tanto establecer una distinción entre estos dos tipos de construcciones como limitar el número de unidades que constituirán la base de su análisis.

203 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Elosegui Adunz, Knstina /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:A Linguistic Characterisation of the Effect of the First Language on /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Spanish Leamers' Production of English Embedded Interrogative Clauses /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

204 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez, Fvancisco José /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The Lexicographic Treatment of But:A Cognitive-Linguistic Account of its /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Semantic Complexity Sánchez Gavcía, Jesús /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

205 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and simpler, somewhat less "situated, and somewhat more interested in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-form than content. In two words, more manageable; in another two words, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:more linguistic. Indeed, 1 have recently argued (Swales 2000) for the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-use of simple, fallible models of generic structure in applied contexts, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as opposed to the sophsticated ones currently appearing in Ph.D theses

206 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-what we might mean by "genre readiness", and then how we might assess /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-it. 1 will assume that not al1 genres are create equal, but differ in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:importance, in stereotypicality, and in the rhetorical and linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-demands place upon their recipients and producers. Thus in the business /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-world a brief acknowledgment of the receipt of an order is lower on the

207 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kaplan, contrastive rhetoric maintains that, to the degree that language /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and writing are culhual phenomena, different cultures have different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:rhetorical tendencies. Furthermore, the linguistic pattems and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetorical conventions of the first language often transfer to writing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in ESL and thus cause interference. It is important to distinguish this

208 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-As is well-knom, Kaplan's early contrastive rhetoric has been criticized /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as being too ethnocentnc and as privileging the writing of native /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:English speakers, as well as for dismissing linguistic and culhual /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-differences in writing among different languages, e.g., lumping Chmese, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Thai, and Korean speakers in one Oriental group. Kaplan himself (Connor

209 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-organization, was useiül in accounting for cultural differences in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-essays written by college students for academic purposes. It also /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:introduced the linguistic world to a real, if basic, insight: writing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-was culturally intluenced in interesting, and complex, ways. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Nevertheless, the model was not particularly successfd in describing

210 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-three English-speakmg countries, the rhetorician Janice Lauer and 1 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-developed a linguisticlrhetorical system that helped quanti@ both /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic features in essays (such as cohesion, coherence, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-discourse organization) and rhetorical features (including the three /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-classical persuasive appeals: logos, pathos, ethos; and Toulmin's 1958

211 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-who was critical of the "static" theories of texts in contrastive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetoric and proposed a "dynamic" model of L2 writing for examining how /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:writers' and readers' linguistic, cultural, and educational backgrounds /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as well as conventions of discourse communities might be negotiated /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-through interactions mediated by texts.

212 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetoric illustrates the focus of each domain. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: 1. Contrastive text linguistic studies examine, compare, and contrast /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- how texts are formed and interpreted in different languages and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- cultures using methods of written discowse analysis. See Clyne

213 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-tr%g in foreign language skills at universities in the small country of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Fdand. First, Finnish universities, of course, have language departments /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:whch teach language, literature, linguistic and literary theory and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-applied linguistics. Secondly, for the past 25 years, Fdand has had /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language centers at universities whch teach languages for specific

214 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Purves. Newbwy Park, CA: Sage. 138-159. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Connor, U., & Mamen, A. 1999. "Linguistic analysis of grant proposals: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-European Union research grants". English for SpeczJic Purposes, 18 (l), /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-47-62.

215 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Korolija, N. and Linell. P. 1996 "Episodes: codmg and analysing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-coherence in multiparty conversation". Linguistics 34: 799-831. Kuno, S. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and Kaburaki, E. 1977. "Empathy and syntax". Linguistic Inquiry 8: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-627-72. Kuno, S. 1987. Functional Syntax: Anaphora, Discourse and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Empathy. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

216 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Likewise, after conventional clause elements have been exhausted, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:further linguistic matter may arise on the record, as in examples 29 and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-30: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

217 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-still tend to work with transcripts rather than original audio tapes), /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-we urgently need to evolve a shared meialanguage amongst the applied /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic professions that will adequately give form to our /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-understandings of the grammar of evevday ialk. Our ninth criterion for a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-spoken grammar is, therefore, a careful reflection on the meialanguage

218 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-grammar of conversation. Equally, we have to iake into account that, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-whereas in writing language usen tend to strive towards standard norms /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:within any linguistic community (such that in English, for instance, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-there are standard written norms embracing the United Kingdom, rather /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-than a 'northem British', say, or 'west-countv' norm), in informal

219 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-alluded, great care must be iaken to ensure that any entry in the spoken /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-grammar is represented in a wide range of speakers of any broadly based /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic community as defined by the grammarian for practical purposes /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(e.g. north American English, Mexican Spanish, Swiss German, etc.). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

220 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-certainly be uppermost. It is one which corpus linguistics can only /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-parhally solve, and one which raises as many ideological questions as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic mes. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The need to investigate spoken grammars is, we believe, an urgent one

221 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-McCarthy M J 1995 Conversation and literature: tense and aspect. In /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Payne J (ed) Linguistic Approaches to Literature. Birmingham: University /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of Birmingham, English Language Research, 58-73 McCarthy M J 1998 Spoken /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Language and Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

222 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Rivero M 1980 On left-dislocation and topicalisation in Spanish. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Linguistic Inquiy 11 (2): 363-93 Schiffrin D 1981 Tense variation in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-narrative. Language 57 (1): 45-62. Schieppegrell M 1992 Subordination /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and linguistic complexity. Discourse Processes 15 (1): 117-3 1 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Silva-Coryalán, C 1983 Tense and aspect in oral Spanish narrative: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-context and meaning. Language 59 (4): 760-80. Soga, M 1983 Tense and

223 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistics, Writers andReaders. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 140-55 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Schieppegrell M 1992 Subordination and linguistic complexity. Discourse /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Processes 15 (1): 117-3 1 Swan M 1995 Practica1 English Usage. Oxford: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Word University Press.

224 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lingua, 87, págs. 1-2. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Wilson, Deirdre & Sperber, Dan 1993. "Linguistic form ad relevance", /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lingua, 90, págs. 1-25. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

225 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-treating First Nations as nations with internationally recognised /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-juridical rights. Overall, having considered Canada and Bolivia in this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:exploratory study, it is argued that the education and linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-survival of indigenous peoples must clearly /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

226 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-educational services to be provided by the provinces (Gardner and Jimmie /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1989). This paper also indicated a complete tum-around fiom a policy of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:'linguistic imperialism' (Phillipson 1992) that overtly suppressed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-indigenous languages to one where indigenous languages and cultures were /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to be 'valued, encouraged and assisted'. Gardner and Jimmie (1989)

227 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Freedoms (1982). Minority language rights of those speaking the official /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-languages were entrenched, but in spite of intense negotiations, First /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Nations' linguistic rights were not articulated in the final version of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the Canadian Charter (AFN 1990). Speakers of non-official languages have /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-received very little attention in the Canadian Charter and effectively

228 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-positive indigenous language attitudes and behaviow. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The finduigs showed levels of self-reported linguistic proficiency and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-use favowed English overwhelmingly (average: 4.5 on a 5 point scale) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-over Cree or Haida (average: 2.0), but that attitudes to English and

229 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-considered within the broader context of empowerment in indigenous /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-education. Critical theorists (e.g. Cummins 1986) have argued that the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic and educational failure of students can be explained by the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-degree to wh~ch schools reflect or counteract the power relations that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-exist in the broader society. Specifically, empowering students by /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:promoting and valorising their linguistic and cultural talents, actively /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-encouragrng community participation in student development and moving /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-away fiom the dominant "transmission-oriented" teachng model, will lead /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:to sigmficantly better linguistic and educational progress (Cummins /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1986; Hamers and Blanc 2000). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Incompatible cultural assumptions and practices underlying formal study /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and language programs are clearly implicated in aecting linguistic and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-educational outcomes. In the broadest terms, cultural assumptions about /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-schooling and the leaming of languages formally are based on European

230 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-M. J. Valdés y Djelal Kadir. Oxford: OUP. Assembly of First Nations. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:1990. Towards Linguistic Justice for First Nations. Ottawa: AFN /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Education Secretariat. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

231 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Hamel, R. E. 1994. "Indigenous education in Latin America: policies and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:legal fiameworks". Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Discrimination. Eds. T. Skutnabb-Kangas and R.Phillipson. Berlin: Mouton /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-de Gruyter. 271-289.

232 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-colonialism". The Canadian Journal of Native Education 20: 118-128. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Phllipson, R 1992.Linguistic Imperialism . Oxford: OUP. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Rodnguez, N.J., Masferrer, K. E. y Vega, R. V., eds. 1983. Educacion,

233 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-second peviod we began to elabovate tvaining pvoposals to suvpass the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-identi$ed pvoblems. The analysis of an extended covpus obtained fvom the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:application of linguistic tests, affovded us a lavge empivical base on /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-which to postulate some hypothesis about the way ouv mind incovpovates, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-stoves and uses vocabulay. Fvom those data, in this papev we pvesent

234 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-XXXI: 43-59. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Taylor, J. 1995: Linguistic categorization. Oxford: Clarendon. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-EL DESARROLLO DE LA COMPETENCIA PRAGMÁTICA A PARTIR DE LA INTERACCIÓN

235 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-London: Longman /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Long, M. 1996. "The role of linguistic environment in secnd language /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-acquisition". Handbook ofResearch on Language Acquisition. Eds. W. C. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Ritchie y T. K. Bathia. Rowley. New York: Academic Press. 413-468.

236 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. In vecent yeavs, Discouvse Analysis has become an incveasingly /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:populav avea of linguistic study and a numbev of publications have /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-emevged vecommending the incovpovation of an awaveness of discouvse and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-pvagmatics in language teaching (McCavthy 1991; Hatch 1992; Nunan

237 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-writing as interaction and means of communication, andas a process. The /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analysis of these discourse markers may reveal the students' development /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and maturity in the foreign language on dlfferent levels: linguistic, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-textual, cognitive, and rhetorical. Using a taxonomy adaptedfrom /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Crlsmore et al (1993) andDafouz (2000) we analyse a sample of 15

238 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-learners' acquisition and use of pragmatic aspects belonging to a second /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-or foreign tongue. According to Bardovi-Harlig (1999), most research on /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:interlanguage pragmatics has adopted a cross- linguistic or comparative /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-perspective, whereby production of language learners of different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic backgrounds is contrasted. These studies have mainly /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-accounted for language use within a sociolinguistic paradigm, however, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-little research has considered processing issues in the learners'

239 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-understand how second language pragmatic competence develops, we must /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-begin to explore the interlanguage of interlanguage pragmatics. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Therefore, we should focus on those linguistic realisations that reflect /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-our learners' knowledge of the pragmatic conventions belonging to the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-target language. In the present study, we have particularly analysed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisations corresponding to one particular speech act, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-namely that of requests. We have followed Bardovi-Harlig's assumptions /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:(1999) on the connection between cross-linguistic and developmental /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-studies, where the author states that one way of linhng existing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:cross-linguistic studies with acquisitional analysis in speech acts /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:productions would involve the comparison of linguistic formulae employed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-by learners and native speakers. To this respect, we have contrasted /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-English native speakers' and learners' use of conventionally indirect

240 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language learners who are immersed in the target language culture /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(Blum-Kulka and Olshtain, 1986; Blum- Kulka, House and Kasper, 1989). In /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:these studies, learners of various linguistic and cultural backgrounds /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-took part in different tasks, which aimed at eliciting requests' /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-realisation strategies. Results from Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper's

241 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-learners' requests use like those of Rintell and Mitchell (1989) and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kasper (1989) reveal contextual effects in the use of particular /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisations on part of participants from different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic backgrounds. In fact, striking differences in strategy choice /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-were found between native and non-native speakers living in the target /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language community (see Blum-Kulka, 1995). Nevertheless, it may be

242 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-participants were American students, and non-native subjects were /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-European learners of English as a foreign language from different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic backgrounds. Data on the use of requests were obtained by /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-means of written questionnaires. As predicted by prior studies /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(Blum-Kulka and Olshtain, 1986), results showed that conventionally

243 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-learners' output to natural language use, we dealt with British speakers /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-iaking part in spontaneous informal conversations that constitute one of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the the oral subcorpora of the Bank of English. This linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-subcorpus termed British Spoken includes equal numbers of male and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-female participants, from al1 parts of Briiain. The British Spoken

244 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Regarding native speakers, we analysed the occurrence of specific /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisations illustrating conventionally indirect requests in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the Bank of English oral subcorpus by means of both the Bank of English /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and the WordsSmith Tools programmes and also on the basis of Trosbrog's /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(1995) typology quoted above. We employed the occurrence of particular /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisation strategies as a point of reference in order to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-contrast learners' output to natural language use. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

245 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language learners denote a certain degree of variation as illustrated by /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-figure 1 below. The ability type stands as the most widely used /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisation, accounting for forty-nine per cent of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-overall use of strategies. This finding is in line with previous /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-investigation in the field of interlanguage pragmatics (see Cenoz and

246 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Figure 1. Conventionally strategies use by language learners /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The linguistic formulae produced by learners in the realisation of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ability strategies always involved moda1 verbs can and could, as shown /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-by the following examples taken from our transcripts.

247 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Willingness and desire strategies occurrence amounted to fifteen per /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cent, while wishes use accounted for thirteen per cent of the global /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:conventionally indirect strategy use. The linguistic realisations of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-these strategy types may be displayed as follows in these instances /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-taken from learners' recorded output.

248 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-We did not find a great divergence between our subjects' use of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:willingness and wish linguistic realisations; while, in the case of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-native speakers, willingness strategies use amounts to an eighteen per /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cent and wishes only account for a nine per cent on their global /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-strategy use. Besides, permission, desire and suggestory formulae /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-occurrence in the Bank of English oral subcorpus corresponds to our /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:subjects' data, since these were also the linguistic realisations least /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-often employed. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

249 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-After examining the oral subcorpus of the Bank of English, we found that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in most cases downgraders (also termed downtoners) accompanied most /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisations of conventionally indirect requests. The /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-structure can you corresponding to the ability type was often followed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-by downtoner just, hence minimising the possibility of losing face. By

250 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-perhaps. Additionally, the downtoner please was often used in permission /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic realisations as illustrated in example 3 below. Example (3) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Please, mqIhave your attention?

251 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-hearer-oriented strategies needs to be softened by restoring to other /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-expressions, as it is the case of downgraders. Despite this need, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:language learners did not made use of downtoners in their linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-realisations of conventionally indirect strategies. We believe that the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-lack of instances denoting downtoners' presence in learners' output

252 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-speakers' oral production in this study has led us to consider the role /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of a spoken Corpus in developing pragmatic competence. We have observed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:that even though our subjects made use of distinct linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-realisations in different situations their performance does not /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-correspond to natural language use. This point has been illustrated by

253 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-they already know. According to this author by drawing learners' /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-attention to specific features of input will help students make /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:connections between linguistic forms and pragmatic functions, as well as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-their occurrence in different contexts. Therefore, authentic native /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-speaker input is necessary for pragmatic learning.

254 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-requests in real life communication. As we have observed, learners seem /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to restore to strategies of the ability type more often than to other /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:hnds of linguistic realisations and the same happened in native /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-spontaneous conversations. However, the latter included the use of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-downtoners that were missing in learners' output. For this reason,

255 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-usually analyzed mainly from a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:narrow linguistic perspective, and their signfiers are linked to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-communicative problem-solving /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

256 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-elebakarren jarraipena) Tesis Doctoral.Universidad País Vasco. Vitoria. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:A LINGUISTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE FIRST LANGUAGE ON /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-SPANISH LEARNERS' PRODUCTION OF ENGLISH EMBEDDED INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

257 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT.Thispapev tnes to avticulate fvom the point of view of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic theory how Spanish native gvammatical competence of embedded /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-indivect questions, as chavactenzed by the Minimalist Pvogvam (Chomsky, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1990, can influence knowledge and pvoduction of such stvuctuves in

258 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-structure of these non-native sentences from a contrastive analysis /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-perspective using as a reference frame the Minimalist Program (Chomsb /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:1995) as presented by Radford (1997). Linguistic, acquisitional and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm--secondarily- pedagogical consequences will also be drawn. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

259 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-This is consistent with Literas's model of L2 acquisition (1996) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-according to which when adults learn an L2 they restructure (parts of) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the linguistic representations they already possess on the model of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-L2 surface structure because their learning procedures, unlike those of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-L1 acquisition, cannot accede the feature values of the functional or

260 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-CONSEQUENCES /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:From the linguistic and acquisitional characterization presented above, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-one can conclude that, in terms of pedagogical rules, our Spanish adult /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-students must be iaught that S-Aux inversion cannot iake place in

261 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of thed. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Our linguistic study here adds nothing new in terms of pedagogical /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-consequences for the teaching of English indirect embedded questions but /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-it did not set out to do that in the first place. However, it serves to

262 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Pollock J.Y. 1989. "Verb-movement, UG and the structure of IP". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Linguistic Inquiry 20: 365-424. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Radford, A. 1997. S'tactic Theory und the Structure ofEnglish: A /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Minimalist Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Torrego, E. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:1984: "On inversion in Spanish and some of its effects". Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Inquiry, 15: 103-129. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

263 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Longman. Ellis, R. 1992.SecondLunguage Acquisition undLunguage Pedugogy. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Multilingual Matters. Madrid, D. & McLAREN, N. 1995. Diductic Procedures /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:for TEFL. Valladolid: La Calesa. Pérez Martín, M" C. 1995. "Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and communicative competence". A Handbook for TEFL. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

264 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistics Newsletter, 22: 3-23. Krashen, S. 1976. "Formal and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic environments in language learning and language acquisition". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-TESOL Quarterly, 10: 157-168. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

265 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-mecanismos para el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua, las posibilidades /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-de éxito y de fracaso. Como dice Rob Ellis (1994): "The goal of SLA is /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the description and explanation of the learner's linguistic or /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-communicative competence." (Ellis, R. 1994: 15). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

266 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Narración. RelatividadLinguktica. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:ABSTRACT: Linguistic velativity states that cevtain chavactevisücs of a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language can pvedispose its speakevs to ovient and ovganise navvative /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-flow in a pavticulav way vathev than anothev. lf wc accept the

267 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Montiel, A. 1994. Diploma Superior. Madrid: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Edelsa. Lucy, J. A. 1997. "Linguistic Relativity". Annual Review /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ofAnthropology 26: 291-3 12 Mayer, M 1969. Frog, where are you? En /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Berman, R y Slobin, D. 1 (1 994) Relating Events in

268 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-about movement through time and space: The development of narrative /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-abilities in Spanish and English". Lenguas Modernas 15:5-24 Weist R.M., /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Wysocka, H. y Lyytinen, P. (1991) "A Cross-Linguistic Perspective on the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Development of Temporal Systems". Journal of ChildLanguage 18 -67-92. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Whorf, B.L (1 063) Language, Thought and Realiq: Selecied writings of

269 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. 1998. "El Parámetro Pro-drop y la Adquisición de /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Segundas Lenguas". ITL. Review ofApplied Linguistics 1 19- 120: 49-64. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Schachter, J. 1989. "Testing a Proposed Universal". Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. Eds. S. Gass and J. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Schachter. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

270 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-instruction consisting of tasks /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:designed to focus learners' conscious attention on specific linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-features" (1993: 209). In /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

271 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-author, together with those of hypothesis formulation and testing, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-metatalk. Swain (1995) also pointed out that learners can outperform /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:their individual linguistic competence through collaborative negotiation /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of particular forms and structures. This author suggested that in this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-process the learners further develop their interlanguage, although this

272 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Clancy, P., Jacobsen, T., Silva, M. 1976. The acquisition of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:conjunction: A cross-linguistic study, Papers and Reports on Child /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Language Development, 12,7 1-80. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

273 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-leavningpvocess ur acquived language, amongMovoccan students who studies /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the second cycle ofESO: a) to impvove the linguistic knowledge, b) as a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-way fov knowing cultuve, vules and values of Spanish society. We /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-undevstand that it is essential to pvovide to the teachevs with

274 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analyse whethev Fvench (L3) has an influence on the English (L2) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-leavning of these students. In ovdev to do that, we decided to centve /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:ouv study on linguistic evvovs as signs of the leavning pvocess. Ouv /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-infovmants weve fovw-seven students in 4thyeav of E.S.O. Thvough a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-questionnaive, they weve divided into two gvoups: gvoup A (thivty-fouv

275 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-asked to wvite a composition (in class time) about what they would do /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the following summev We analysed theiv compositions paying special /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:attention to linguistic evvovs (ovthogvaphy, vocabulay, movphologv and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-syntax). The vesults showed that L3 leavning seemed to have an influence /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-on L2 leavning. This influence was positive in some aspects and negative

276 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-is to study whether French (L3) influences their English (L2) learning. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-In order to do that, 1 decided to pay attention to their compositions /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and above al1 to linguistic errors as signs of the learning process. So, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-we could analyse whether English learners of E.S.0 without any knowledge /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of another foreign language commit more or less errors than English

277 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-These data seems to suggest that knowledge of a third language (in this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-case French) can help to write longer compositions in English. The /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:reason could be a question of ideas rather than a linguistic one. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Students that learn English and French at school have been exposed twice /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to the topic of summer, activities out of classroom, travelling etc. so

278 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-same kind of sentences, combining short and longer ones without /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-remarkable differences. So, this again suggests that the cause of longer /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:compositions in group B is not due to linguistic factors. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-6.2. Orthography

279 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistically speaking, this study has shown how group A (or L3 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-learners) were better regarding orthography, vocabulary and morphology /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:than group B. It seems that French helps to settle some linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-concepts in the L2; above all, some universal aspects of languages that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in the case of French and English are particularly similar. It is

280 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-proved by further studies. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Bialystock, E. 1986. "Factors in the Growth of Linguistic Awareness". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Child Development /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

281 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Vázquez y A. Hornero. Zaragoza: Mira. 11-27 Eggins, S. 1994. An /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. London: Pinter. Gopnik, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:M. 1972. Linguistic Structures in ScientiJc Texts. The Hague: Mouton. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Halliday, M. A. K., A. Mc Intosh y P. Strevens. 1964. The Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Sciences andLanguage /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

282 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-system, the libravy of tomorrow, etc. Again, they can be classified into /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-either noun compounds or prepositional phrases, studied as lexical units /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:or phrases that propose key linguistic intake for Internet users. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Secondly, the formation of lexical devices that occur with a high

283 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Information technology, the data gathered above may work as a useful /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-starting bank for contrastive purposes. To check which and how /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic items are sifted to allude to notions and conceptions of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-technology for every day use, lexical collocations may thus function as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-an effective operational environment. Since these issues rapidly evolve

284 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-University Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Firth, J.R. 1957. "A Synopsis of Linguistic Theory. 1930-1955". Studies /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in Linguistic Analysis. Ed. J.R. Firth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 3-34. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Gavioli, L. 1997. "Exploring Texts through the Concordancer: Guiding the

285 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-multiple sources and methods as well as triangulation by sources andlor /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-by methods in order to ensure the reliability and validity of findings. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:In Long's model, linguistic units (such as words, structures, notions or /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-functions) are not the units of the analysis, but rather it is the task /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-which is at the center of the analysis. Based on this model, a few

286 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-task-related materials (written texts such as articles and e-mail /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-messages; and samples of oral interactions such as telephone /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:conversations and interviews) for further linguistic analysis after the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-conclusion of the research.

287 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the language requirements of the tasks (such as the shlls required to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-complete the task, the hnd of language problems they encounter, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:their evaluation of the linguistic difficulty of the task), as well with /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-information about the frequency of performance of the task. The second /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-interview also gave us the opportunity to collect textual samples (i.e.

288 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-interviews, press conferences and presentations, for which permission /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-has already been obtained. The materials we collected which are related /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:to the rest of the tasks will require a systematic linguistic (genre, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-textual and discourse) analysis. Thus, the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

289 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-innovation of othevs, and coexistence of vavious fovms that shave the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-same concept, especially Ifthese fovms ave English loans that ave used /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in Spanish. The objective of this study is to detevmine some linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-consequences of the English loans as obsewed in the football tevminologv /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-used both in Venezuela and Spain. Ouv appvoach to the study is

290 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-use of since is also analyzed disclosing that adverbial/prepositional /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-homomorphs also overlap with other word categories showing the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:complexity of this understudied linguistic phenomenon. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-KEY WORDS:professional and academic English, homomorphs, adverbs

291 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-been a traditional set of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic features which have been analyzed to describe disciplinary /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-variations in academic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

292 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-adjectives or conjunctions. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The linguistic phenomenon of homomorphy illustrates these overlappings. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Downing and Locke (1992: 563) describe this linguistic feature as follows: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-some words function most typically like words of a given class (for

293 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Homomorphy is a phenomenon common to many languages. For instance, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-focussing specifically in the adverbial-prepositional homomorphy, Bosque /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:(1990) analyzes this linguistic device in Spanish, Homlander (1973) in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-German, Ermolenko (1963) in Russian, and Bejan (1976) in Rumanian, to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-mention a few representative studies. In English, the

294 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-group; in other words, al1 prepositional groups do require the head and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the completive elements. This means that when a homomorph functions as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:preposition it is being pushed down in the linguistic ranks of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language system (Downing and Locke 1992: 189), whereas if it operates as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-an adverb it is pushed up; that is, it works at higher and more relevant

295 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-propose, from a communicativerfunctional perspective unusual in this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-type of genre, teaching strategies aimed at correcting them. The /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:analysis of the linguistic needs and requirements of 50 companies from /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the aeronautical and building industries as well as from other related /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-sectors reveal that the current approaches to selection interviews

296 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and those to be found in contexts of divulgation, which can also be /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-addressed to laymen even rather than to experts, in the ESPI EST /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:classroom texts rnay be levelled in terms of linguistic complexity, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-also in terms of the referred distinction between texts used for the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-student to become familiar with the basic functions and terminology

297 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-communication to be found in the classroom, which perhaps at least at /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the beginning may be regarded as a bit "artificial", in the sense that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the emphasis may be linguistic, even though it should gradually shifi to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the real purposes, such as the obtaining of information. On the whole, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as Swales himself also predicted, those features which make the ESPI EST

298 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Texts". English for SpeciJc Purposes 15,4: 279-294. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Valero Garcés, C. 1997. "A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Verbal Syntagm: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-A Case Study of Economic Texts in English and Spanish". UNESCO Alsed-LSP /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Newsletter 20, 1, 43: 25-39.

299 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cambridge University Press. Stampe, D. 1969. "The Acquisition of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Phonetic Representation". Papers from the Fifth Regional Meeting of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Chicago Linguistic Socieq. Chicago, IL. 433-444. Stampe, D. 1972. A /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-dissertation on Natural Phonology. Tesis Doctoral no Publicada. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Universidad de Chicago.

300 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-speakevs weve pevceived equally. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:KEYWORDS: Linguistic attitudes, indirect methods, Matched Guise /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-technique, Semanfic Difevential, Principal Components Analysis, Basque /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and Spanish.

301 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Amorrortu, E. 1998. Dialectal attitudes in the Basque Country: a pilot /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:study. Ponencia presentada en el Congreso Anual de la Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Association of the Southwest, Tempe, Anzona, EEUU. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Amorrortu, E. 2000. Linguistic Attitudes in the Basque Country: the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Social Acceptance of a New Varieq. Tesis doctoral: University of Southem /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Califomia.

302 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-separatum No. 28. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Klerk, V, y B. Bosch. 1995. "Linguistic stereotypes: nice accent-nice /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-person?'Intemational Joumal of the Sociology of Language 116: 17-37. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

303 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-speech: problems in the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:investigation of linguistic attiíudes in Scotland. Language andSpeech /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-23, no. 3:2 13-232. Silva-Corvalán, C. 1989. Sociolingüística: Teoría y /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Análisis. Madrid: Editorial Alhambra. Trudgill, P. 1972. The Social

304 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Pvonouns of Powev and Solidanty': fvom which theovies such as Watts's /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-political vevbal behaviouv stemmed. In theiv Politeness (1987), Bvown /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and Levinson fovged the most injuential linguistic theoy on politeness. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-This avticle does not seek to contend Bvown and Levinson's theovies, but /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to pvove that theiv thesis ave insufficient in ovdev to undevstand /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-politeness. Although vecent veseavch have emevged fvom sociolinguistics, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:politeness, as a linguistic phenomenon, is cevtainly amenable to the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-pavalinguistic and semiotic factovs that embvace it. In shovt, 1 shall /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-seek to demonstvate that politeness belongs to thvee dzffevent fields

305 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-de la variación sociolingüistica histórica, también es aplicable a la /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cortesia la tesis de April McMahon según la cual "variation is not /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:random but strictly controlled, often by extra-linguistic factors, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the specification of these factors may help us account for change" /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-WcMahon 1994: 226). Cualquiera de las agresiones con mitigación que

306 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Contemporary Iberian Studies 4: 2-7. Kerbrat-Orechhini, C. 1990. Les /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:interactions verbales. París: Armand. Colin. Lyons, J. 1996. Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:University Press. Marcén Bosque, C. 1999. "Linguistic Politeness in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Professional Written Communication: A Cros-cultural Study of British and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Spanish Business" Correspondence". Enfoques teóricos y prácticos de las

307 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-andApologies. Londres: John Benjamin. McMahon, A. 1994. Understanding /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Milroy, J. 1992. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Linguistic Variation and Change. On the Historical Sociolinguictics of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-English. Oxford: Blackwell. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

308 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-England and Spain. Duisburg: LAUD. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Watts, R. 1992. "Linguistic Politeness and Politic Behaviour: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Reconsidering Claims for Universality". Politeness in Language. Studies /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in History, Theory and Practice. Eds. R. Watts et al. Berlín: Mouton de

309 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-view of style ur audience design. This theoy is the basis fov ouvstudy, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-wheve we analyse the speech of a vadio pvesentev in a local station in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Muvcia and compave it to the audience 'S linguistic behaviouv as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-veflected in the phone calls veceived duving the pvogvamme. Ouv vesults, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-which show a vadical divevgence between the pvesentev's speech and that

310 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-communicatov's use of language as an expvession of shaved identity. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Stavting fvom this compavison, we evaluate the validity ofBell's vemavks /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in linguistic contexts diffevent fvom the English speaking ones and we /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-suggest the possibility that the accommodation between communicatov and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-audience can also take place by extvalinguistic means (in the case in

311 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistics. Cambridge: CUP. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Cheshire, J. 1982. "Linguistic variation and social function". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Sociolinguistic Variation in Speech Communities. Ed. S. Romaine. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Londres: Edward Arnold. 153- 166.

312 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Hemández Campoy, J.M y Jiménez Cano, J.M.. En preparación."Analysis of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the linguistic standardisation process in Murcia". Manuscrito. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Holmes, J. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Harlow: Longman.

313 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Communication. Eds. A.W. Siegman y B. Pope. New York: Pergamon. 21 1-264. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Nichols, P. 1983. "Linguistic options and choices for black women in the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rural South". Language, Gender and Society. Eds. B. Thome, C. Kramarae y /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-N. Henley. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. 54-68.

314 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Philadelphia. Selting, M. 1983. "Institutionelle Kommunikation. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Stilwechsel als Mittel strategischer Interaktion". Linguistiche Berichte /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:86: 29-48. Trudgill, P.J. 1972. "Sex, covert prestige and linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-change in the urban British English of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

315 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. This avticle aims to examine the status and vole of the bave /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:impevative as a pevsuasive andpewasive means in the linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-codification of the "suggestion to action" in advevtising within /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-theovies of action (Austin 1962; Seavle 1975) andpoliteness (Bvown and

316 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-enhanced. Fov that veason, I set out to analyze the illocutionay and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-semantic modzfications that the bave impevative fovm undevgoes to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:fuvthev elucidate how the linguistic codification of these stvuctuves /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-helps in the achievement of the communicative puvpose and contvibutes to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the maintenance of social velationships between intevactants in a

317 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-persuasion (Corke 1986). Persuading the prospective consumer to buy is /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the most desirable aim of the seller and can be achieved through /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:different and manifold linguistic and non-linguistic means. The use of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-images and sound count among some of the most effective persuasive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-elements in TV discourse nowadays and has led authors such as Cook

318 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-secondary role. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Notwithsianding, this article focuses on the linguistic message in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-itself to provide further insight into the function of one of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:various linguistic devices by means of which the "message to action" is /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-carefully tailored to successfully change the beliefs and mental /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-disposition of the prospective buyer towards the product. In other

319 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-along with some interesting notes on the use of imperatives within the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-specific context of a TV commercial. Similarly, this article is set /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:forth to examine the linguistic devices for the emission of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-imperative and how this complies with facework and politeness. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

320 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Bach, K., and Harnish, R.M. 1979. Linguistic Communication and Speech /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Acts. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Barnard, M. 1995. "The rhetorical /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-imperative". Ed. C. Jenks. Visual culture. London, Routledge: 26-4 1.

321 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Hispánica. Editorial Gredos: Madrid. Lakoff, R. T. 1973. "The Logic of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Politeness; or, Minding Your P's and Q's". Papers from the Ninth /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Socieq: 292-305. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lakoff, R.T. 1982. "Persuasive discourse and ordinary conversation, with

322 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and Thovnbuvg 1998) have shown that speech acts can be bettev undevstood /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as scenavios which hold metonymic velationships between them. This papev /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:intends to pvovide fuvthev cvoss-linguistic evidence in favouv of this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-postulate by analysing indivect vequest speech acts in English, Spanish, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Italian and Fvench. In the light of ouv analysis we suggest that Panthev

323 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to see whether they are realised by the same principles. We shall also /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analyse requests in Iialian and French for further insighis and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:cross-linguistic evidence. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-2. SCENARIOAPPROACH TO INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS

324 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-nature of the relationships that are esiablished among different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-elements of the speech act and the whole scenario. The analysis has also /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:demonstrated that the request scenario has cross-linguistic validity as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-far as European languages are concerned. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

325 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to appear. Searle, J. 1975. "Indirect speech acts". Syntax andSemantics. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Vol.3: Speech Acts. Eds. Cole, P. and J. Morgan. New York: Academic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Press. 59-82. Taylor, J. R. 1995. Linguistic Categorization. ProtoQpes /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Thomburg, L. and K. Panther. 1997. "Speech act metonymies". Discourse

326 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-field of linguistics: English for Specific Purposes (ESP), Applied /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistics and TESOL Quarterly. These journals are considered to be /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:renowned and prestigious publications in the linguistic community, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-constitute an effective means to introduce new knowledge and thus /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-contribute to the general progress of the discipline. The selected texts

327 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-their articles @SP 16 (l), 76). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:However, due to the linguistic and rhetorical complexity of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analyses, the papers by Hansen (Chapter 6) and Young (Chapter 8), will /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-likely be extremely rough going for al1 but the most informed and

328 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Quarterly 32 (2), 372). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:This paper represents an attempt to analyse the linguistic codification /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of positive politeness in the academic book review. Three most frequent /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-strategies have been identified: praise, audience consideration and

329 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-a validated analysis of scientific text structure". Applied Linguistics /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-7 (l), 57-70. Fraser, B. and W. Nolen. 1981. "The association of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:deference with linguistic form". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Znternational Journal of the SociologV of Language 27,93- 109. Fraser,

330 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Applied Linguistics 13 (11, 51-71. Johnson, D.M. & D.H. Roen. 1992. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-"Complimenting and involvement in peer reviews: Gender variation". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Language in SocieQ 21,27-57. Kasper, G. 1990. "Linguistic politeness: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Current research issues". Journal of Pragmatics 14: 193-218. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

331 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-University Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Watts, R. 1992. "Linguistic politeness and polite verbal behaviour". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Politeness in Language: Studies in its History, Theory and Practice. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Eds. R. Watts et al. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 43-69.

332 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- 4. The coding of severity/seriousness of offence on a two point scale /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- responds to a statistical need. It should be noted that during the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: role-plays the informants themselves varied their linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- behaviour according to their own interpretation of the different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- degrees of seriousness involved.

333 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Leech, G. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Márquez Reiter, R. 2000. Linguistic Politeness in Britain and Uruguay. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

334 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-concepto ad hoc, conylrensión, concepfos ahibufivos. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Traditional linguistic and lexicological views treat idioms as dead /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-metaphors whose meaning is in no way recovered from the sum of their /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-individual parts. Like any other lexical item, they are listed in the

335 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to be the one the speaker intended as a constituent of the proposition /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-expressed by her utterance. On this new account, the proposition /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:developed from the linguistic content is communicated (hence is an /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-explicature) along with the various implicatures. The main aim of my /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ialk is to argue that this line of research also enables us to provide a

336 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-One of the recent claims in metaphor research is that a true /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-understanding of the relationship between conceptual schemas and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic expressions cannot be effected without considering the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cultural context in which such a relationship takes place. More /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-specifically, Gibbs and Steen (1999: 3) claim that "a complete

337 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-My argument here is that, together with disciplinary issues and generic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:constraints, the relationship between the linguistic and the visual may /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-also influence the kind of metaphor present in the reviews. These /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-considerations are the object of the next section.

338 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Yet, we must not forget that metaphors as we see them are just the tip /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:of the iceberg: they are the linguistic surface or expression of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cognitive process we cal1 metaphor. In this sense, metaphors are a means /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-or the signals that can reveal the world-view of the discourse community

339 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-London: Academic Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Dijk (van), T. A. 1986. "News schemata". Stu4ing Writing: Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Approaches. Eds. C.R. Cooper y S. Greenbaum. Beverly Hills, Califomia: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Sage Publications. 155-85.

340 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-be reinforced through a (constantly redefined) shared system of symbols /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and norms, associated with the group in question. Language is one of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:such shared sets of significant symbols. Linguistic features may thus /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-become socially significant, as representative of social categories. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Ths article focuses on the identifjring function of linguistic variants. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-It examines the link between variation and social categories from a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:cognitive perspective, according to whch linguistic variants form /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic categories (often on the leve1 of stereotyping) whch relate /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:metonymically to social categories. Linguistic variation may thus be /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-used by speakers -through more or less active pragmatic choice- making /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm--to construct themselves as social beings. In order to exemplifjr, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:special attention will be paid to the continuum formed by the linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-categones of RP, Estuary English and Cochey and the continuum formed by /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the social categories symbolized and identified by such varieties.

341 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-According to Trudgill(1990: 11) the media do not modifi our speech /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-features as such -for ths we would need face-to-face interaction -but /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:rather operate in terms of creating linguistic stereotypes and enhancing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:our linguistic awareness of features as social markers. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Before the turn of the century, Gimson's prediction had already come

342 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-society, that the editor of the Independent on Sunday (Janet /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Street-Porter), the Nato spokesman (Jamie Shea) and the England cricket /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:captain should speak EE and not RP. If linguistic cues are used as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-markers of social categories, the problem naturally arises when the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-salient speech features of an on-first-sight member of a given categoiy

343 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Coggle nowhere uses the word category to describe EE as a social and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic phenomenon, but we do get the notions of identzjication and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:matchng social and linguistic stereoQpes: [...] there are speakers at /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the RP end of the spectrum who recognise that 'speaking posh' identifies /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-them with the Establishment and the wielders of power, and is therefore

344 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-there are underlying conceptual structures behnd such surface phenomena. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Nevertheless 1should like to make a few comments on the possible /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:function and use of linguistic cues in processes of social /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-categorization and identification: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-In a social continuum as the one described above, a series of contiguous /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic varieties (or categories) seem to act as represeniative /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-indicators of matchng social identities (or categories). Withn such /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-major social categories a number of subcategories also have their /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:corresponding linguistic subcategories, usually referred to in more lay /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-terminology as "conservative", "mainstream" or "near-by" varieties. If /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:this is so, the linguistic output of a speaker would be one of a variety /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of tools or symbols /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

345 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-acquired as regards the symbolic values attached. Ths way structured /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-bundles of markers may be perceived as operating in the form of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic stereotypes whch serve to characterize social categories (cf. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Honey 1997: 99). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

346 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Ifmembers of category A are known to use variety X and not Z, X will /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-identi6 usen as members of A. Any un-categorized Speaker whose salient /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:variants may be categorized withn the linguistic category X, will thus /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-be categorized as member of A, at least teniatively, until the existente /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of a number of other referring symbols and independent variables have

347 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cognitive linguistics assumes that underlying cognitive abilities and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cognitive models derived from an expenential basis manifest themselves /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in linguistic structure. From a more functional point of view, the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-assumption is that what we as human beings need to be able to "do" from /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:a psychological point of view will be encoded in language as linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-options available to us. In that respect, it is interesting to consider /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the functions of a variety of well-knovm syniactic variants4 of the

348 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Dalectal variation and change may be viewed from a considerable number /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:of linguistic perspectives. One such perspective is the sociolinguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-model as opposed to more system-based, language-intemal accounts. Other /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-perspectives -more oriented towards aspects of power and ideology /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:-view the use of linguistic markers as part of a wider range of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-discourse strategies. A cognitive approach, according to whch categories /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-consisting of clusters of salient phonetic variants operate

349 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as Social Network Theory Wlroy 1980).It remains, however, at a very /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-general leve1 and raises a wide range of questions: what is the role of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic cues in social categorization? To what extent do markers /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-operate also as makers of categories? What other markers (or makers) of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:social categories are strong enough to override linguistic features in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-terms of category membershp? In what respect do those changes that set /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in withn or between social categories affect the

350 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-foros de discusión en Internet /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:ABSTRACT. Computer mediated communication favours linguistic uses that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-are being studied from the Discourse Analysis disciplines. In this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-framework, our study aims at characterising how specialised knowledge is

351 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Internet (a forum to make questions to experts and a forum of messages /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-within a virtual community) which take the same medical issue (the HIV /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:disease). The identifled linguistic uses reveal that discourse produced /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in those fields presents particular features, dfferent from those oral /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and written discourse. It is a discourse that is characterised by its

352 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Discussion". Research on Language and Social Znteraction 29 (4): 3 15-345. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Herring, S. ed. 1996. Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Social, and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

353 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-65: 113-126. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Weny, C.C. 1996. "Linguistic and Interactional Features of Internet /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Relay Chat". Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Ed. S. Herring. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-47-63.

354 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-modality and evidential mavkevs in both languages. Ouv vesults show vey /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-similav fvequency distvibutions with vegavd to the expvession of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic devices fov modality and evidentiality as indicatovs of wntev /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-stance in both languages, with modality being the most wideiy /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-usedfeatuve of wntev stance. We also noted a signzficant contvast in the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:distnbution of linguistic devices used to expvess modality vevsus othev /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-uses in the two languages. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

355 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1. INIXODUCTION /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The expression of evidentiality is a relevant issue in linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-typology and in contrastive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

356 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(sensory), hearsay, and inference. In English and Spanish, evidentiality /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and epistemic modality is not grammaticalized to such an extent, so that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:we find a whole range of verbal and non-verbal linguistic elements, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-including moda1 verbs and auxiliaries, adjectives, adverbs and nouns, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and future tense and perfect aspect (Coates 1983, Perkins 1983, Matthews

357 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- How are epistemic modality and indirect evidentiality expressed in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- English and Spanish? Are there any qualitative differences in the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: use of linguistic devices in English and Spanish? /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-_(ii) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: What are the quantitative differences in the use of linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- devices in English and Spanish? /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

358 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-business, and a miscellaneous category including various social issues. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:2.2 Linguistic devices in English & Spanish /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The texts were analysed to discover the various linguistic devices used /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to express evidentiality and epistemic modality. The list of devices was /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-drawn both from our review of the literature and from our finding in the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:texts. The linguistic devices we looked for include the following: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cm, Cannot, Can't, Could Coulah't, Mq, Might, Must (have), Ought to,

359 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Likelihood, Possibility /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Table 1. Linguistic devices for the expression of epistemic modality and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-evidentiality in English /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

360 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Seguramente, Sin duda. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Table 2. Linguistic devices for the expression of epistemic modality and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-evidentiality in Spanish /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

361 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-classified according to the distinction drawn between the two domains, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-epistemic modality and evidentiality. We found examples for most of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic devices, but not for all: In English we found no occurrences /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of could, likelihood, mqbe, undoubtedly, obvious, ought to, unclear; no /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-occurrences were found in Spanish of evidentemente, no cabe duda, obvio, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-posiblemente. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The following are examples of the most frequently occurring linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-devices in both languages: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

362 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The following tables show results found for epistemic modality and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-evidentiality in English and Spanish. The first and third column show /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:the numbers and percentages of each linguistic element for the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-expression of modalitylevidentiality in contrast to that of other uses. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The second column shows the frequency distnbution of the use of these

363 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-For the sake of clarity and economy, we have excluded from Table 3 those /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic elements where no moda1 or evidential use was found. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Nonetheless, they have been included in the figures for other uses: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-evident (2 occurrences of other uses), possible (4) possibility (2)

364 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-3.1. Qualitative unalysis /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:English and Spanish share very similar linguistic devices to express /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-epistemic modality and evidentiality. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

365 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-9.5 %). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:With regard to the type of the linguistic devices used, verbal elements /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-are preferred to non- verbal elements in both languages. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

366 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(a) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- Epistemic Modality vs. Other Uses: In the English texts, the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: linguistic elements analysed are used to express epistemic modality /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- in 30.4% of the cases, and other uses 69.6%. In contrast, in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- Spanish, the distnbution is the opposite, 69.7% for the expression

367 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- appears to be a greater degree of grammaticalization in this language. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(b) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: Evidentiality vs. Other Uses: In English, the linguistic devices /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- used to express evidentiality represent 50.8% of the cases, with /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- 49.1% for other uses. Spanish shows a similar distribution, with

368 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-In this paper we have presented the results of a study on the expression /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of epistemic modality and evidentiality in newspaper discourse in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:English and Spanish. Very similar linguistic verbal and non-verbal /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-elements are found in both languages. However, significant differences /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:between the two languages were found in the distnbution of linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-devices used to express modality versus other uses. Thus, in Spanish, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-certain verbal and non-verbal elements are more frequently used to

369 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-J. Nichols (eds.), 261-272. Chafe, W. & Nichols (eds.,1986) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Nonvood, NJ: Ablex. Coates, J. (1983) The Semantics of the Modul /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Auxiliaries. London: Croom Helm. Matthews, R. (1991) Wordr und Worldr: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:On the linguistic unalysis of modulity. New York: Peter /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lang. Palmer, F.R. (1990) Mood undModulity, 2"* edn Cambridge: Cambridge

370 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Wierzbicka, A. (1994) "Semantics and epistemology: The meaning of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:'evidentials' in a cross- linguistic perspective". Language Sciences /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-16-1: 8 1- 137. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

371 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-comprehension and that personal pronouns establish the proximity between /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-lecturers and students, the present study sets out to determine if the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:use of these linguistic features differs in non-interactive and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-interactive discourse. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

372 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Although, these results come from a limited corpus, they allow us to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:begin to understand what linguistic features distinguish interactive and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-non-interactive lecture discourse. They give us a clearer concept of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-participatory lecture, which keeps with modern trends in teaching, and a

373 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-by including the students in her discourse. Nevertheless, these findings /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-must be taken cautiously and not simply as guidelines for conducting /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:interactive lectures since they report on two linguistic features that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-are an effect of interactive lecturing but can hardly be used to cause /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-it (Rounds 1987: 650).

374 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-inform them of some state of affairs, and if, as Sperber and Wilson /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-point out, "communication is successful not when hearers recognise the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic meaning of the utterance, but when they infer the speaker's /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-'meaning' from it" (1995: 23), then it follows that so as to /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-characterise the different forms or hnds of irony, both ostensive and

375 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. This papev pvesents a pvoposal fov the integvation of methods /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:that use linguistic knowldege fov the automated summavisation of Spanish /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-texts. We believe such an integvation will suppose a considevable /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-impvovement in summavisation systems. We pvopose a computational

376 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. Cuvvent investigation into Covpus Linguistics is based on the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analysis of vey lavge covpova which offev the possibility of studying /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:vecuvvent linguistic pattevns that ave extvacted fvom authentic data of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the natuval uses of language. Howevev, this vequives the utilization of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-softwave tools fov the automatic tveatment andpvocessing of such lavge

377 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Benjamin. El libro expone la tecnología puntera en procesamiento y /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-análisis de textos. Biber, D. 1990. "Methodological issues regarding /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:corpus-based analyses of linguistic variation". Literary and Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Computing 5. 4: 257-269. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

378 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-insult, etc. For each frame, the elements of its scenario are labeled, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-they are under the general label of Fes (frame elements). On the other /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:hand, the more functionally-based approaches iake a purely linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-background where the possession of ceriain semantic features conditions /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-a word to belong to and to be placed within a ceriain lexical domain.

379 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-syniactic potential of verbal predicates, they (1999:193) conclude that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-semantic parameters constrain and filter syntactic projections hence, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:semantics is the component that regulates the linguistic encoding of a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-lexical subdomain. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

380 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-spoken. This is to some extent unavoidable because in order to study a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic phenomenon /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-there has to be an amount of information about the language concerned,

381 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-have experienced a qualitative change. Thanks to the aid of computers /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic corpora have /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-become a more accurate representation of a language. In the last three

382 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-corpus linguistics and whose basis is the use of the computer for the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-retrieval and analysis of segments of real language extracted from /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic corpora. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The aim of this paper is to show the methodological considerations that

383 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-corpus, being the fourth the one which shows the meaning relevant here. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The term corpus is described as "the body of written or spoken material /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:upon which a linguistic analysis is based". This definition, apart from /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-describing what a corpus is, introduces information about the use of a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:corpus, i.e. linguistic analysis. The concept of corpus is associated /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-with the idea of representing a language, thus, Biber (1998: 246) states /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-that "a corpus is not simply a collection of texts. Rather, a corpus

384 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-it must have certain structure avoiding a random collection of texts. As /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Sinclair (1996) puts it, a corpus is "a collection of pieces of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:language, selected and ordered according to explicit linguistic criteria /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in order to be used as a sample of the language". Finally, the data in a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-corpus is not invented, on the contrary, it is "naturally-occurring

385 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-In close relation to corpus stands the term corpus linguistics. Corpus /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistics is a linguistic discipline which undertakes the analysis of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-text corpora. However, such analysis is not done for its own sake, its /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-aim being the description of language. As Kennedy (1998: 1) states "

386 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-also thought to be appropriate in the same way as those of the BNC. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Bearing this on the fact that the corpus covers a wide range of genres /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and registers and the linguistic phenomenon under study is associated /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-with al1 varieties of language. Thus, the corpus is both quantitatively /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and qualitatively representative.

387 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The use of particles such as er, em and misspelled words such as ya /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:together with the structures of the linguistic constructions shows that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-this is text is a transcription of spoken English and consequently it /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-has not been considered since our study focuses only in the written

388 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of cognitive grammar: The meaning of of and of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:of-periphrasis ". Thirty years of linguistic evolution: Studies in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-honour of René Diwen /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

389 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-In contrast to the classical view, which sees meiaphor and metonymy as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:mere linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-phenomena, cognitive linguistics regards them as conceptual mechanisms

390 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-following his order" which is a subdomain of our howledge about this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-president. This distinction proves relevant to explain a number of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic and communicative phenomena such as anaphoric reference. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Thus, this author has shown that in metonymy anaphoric reference is only /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-possible with respect to the main domain, which he calls matrix domain.

391 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-couniable noun, acts as a mass noun in (2). Note that 'little' works in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-complementary distribution with 'few' which accounts for couniable /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:nouns. The linguistic cue (the use of little instead of few) shows that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the metonymic mapping affects the morphology of the source domain /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-transforming it from couniable to mass.

392 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Halliday, M. A. K. 1994: An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Edward Amold. 2nd. ed. Kovecses, Z. & Radden, G. 1998. "Metonymy: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:developing a cognitive linguistic view". Cognitive Linguistics 9-1: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-37-77. Kovecses, Z. & Radden, G. 1999. "Towards a theory of metonymy". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Panther, K. and Radden, G. (eds.) Metonymy in Language and Thought.

393 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kovecses, Z., y G. Radden, 1998. "Metonymy: developing a cognitive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic view.", Cognitive Linguistics 9- 1 :37-77. Lakoff, G. y M. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Johnson, 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago, Londres: University of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Chicago Press. Lakoff, G. y M. Turner, 1989. More than cool reasons. A

394 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Rissanen, M., M. Kyto y K. Heikkonen, eds. 1996. English in Transition. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Corpus-based Studies in Linguistic Variation and Genre Styles. Berlin: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Mouton. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

395 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-proporciona el procedimiento de análisis más adecuado. Un corpus es "a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-collection of pieces of language that are selected and ordered according /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:to explicit linguistic criteria in order to be used as a sample of the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language". (Sinclair 1995: 17). Se trata de grandes cantidades de /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-textos, orales y escritos, de diversas fuentes producidos por hablantes

396 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-la última década, y en la actualidad, la mayoría de los trabajos /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-contrastivos están basados en corpus informatizados: 'borpora have an /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:important role to play in descriptive cross-linguistic research, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-their usefulness is amply testified [...] whether they have to do with /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-lexis, syntax or discourse". (Johansson 1998: 22).

397 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-2. METONYMY /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:AND LINGUISTIC STRUCTüRE /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-2.1. Stative predicates

398 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-love Picasso and I love Freud we may easily think that we have two /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-simple realizations of the AUTHOR FOR WORKS metonymy. However, there are /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic constraints on the activation of this metonymy. The /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-two examples above have a generic reading. However, compare I have a

399 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kovecses, Zoltán & Radden, Günter. 1998. "Metonymy: developing a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:cognitive linguistic view". Cognitive Linguistics 9, 1 : 37-77. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Panther, K. & Thornburg, L. 1999. "The Potentiality for Actuality

400 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-132. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:THE LEXICOGRAPHIC TREATMENT OF BUT: A COGNITIVE-LINGUISTIC ACCOUNT OF /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ITS SEMANTIC COMPLEXITY. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

401 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-limitation, contrast to what has gone beforef. The problem for /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-interpretation then is primarily a cognitive-logical, rather than a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:strictly linguistic me. For but reverses the meaning. Thus, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1 don't fear but that he will do it.- NIDEL.

402 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-above all, to their image-schematic basis l. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Traditionally, linguistic semantics has been studied in terms of truth /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-values. The axiological component is hardly present in the mainstream /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-structuralist-generative tradition. The authors who have dealt with the

403 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1. The issue of axiology has also been examined from a cognitive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:perspective in severa1 studies of the metaphorization of linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-action in English (Rudzka-Ostyn 1988; Pauwels & Simon-Vandenbergen 1995; /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Simon-Vandenbergen 1995). As opposed to death, typically associated with

404 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-English and Spanish. Language Sciences 18, 1-2: 37-52. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Pauwels, P. & A.-M. Simon-Vandenbergen. 1995. "Body parts in linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-action: Underlying schemata and value judgements". By Word of Mouth: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Metaphor, Metonymy and Linguistic Action in a Cognitive Perspective. L. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Goossens et al. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 35-69. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

405 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 507-553. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Simon-Vandenbergen, A.-M. 1995. "Assessing linguistic behaviour: A study /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of value judgements". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:By Word of Mouth: Metaphor, Metonymy and Linguistic Action in a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cognitive Perspective. L. Goossens et al. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-71-124.

406 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. The pvesent papev seeks to display the velationship between /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language and ouv expevience of the wovld. As metaphov and metonymy ave /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:consideved to vepvesent impovtant linguistic evidence of this, we /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-decided to investigate these concepts. We analyse, fvom a cognitive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-point ofview, ten senses of the lexeme 'eye'that avise fvom metaphov

407 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kovecses, Z. and Radden, G. 1998. "Metonymy: Developing a cognitive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic view". Cognitive Linguistics 9-1: 37-77. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Oxford English Dictionary.1969. Volume 111. Oxford University Press, Ely

408 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and fvom the pevspective of a minovized language such as Catalan. Ouv /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-intention has been to cavy out ouv study consideving the dlffevent /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:levels of linguistic and discuvsive analysis. Likewise, we examine how /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the dlffevent cvitevia that tvanslatovs have consideved to pvoduce theiv /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-tvanslations have detevmined them and how the oviginal text, tavget

409 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-KEY WORDS: cohesion, cohnence, textuality, discouse, trmlation, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-localizers, specialized languages, imtmctive texts, computer handbooks, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:electronic help systems, syntactic and semantic lom, linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ambiguity and omission, discusive incohnence. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

410 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Mel'cuk, I.A. 1982. "Lexical Functions in Lexicografic Description". /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Proceedings of the English Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-SocieQ. Berkeley, CA: Universiíy of California. 427-444. and A. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Zholkovsky. 1988. "The Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary". Relational

411 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of the Lexicon. Ed. M.W. Even. Cambridge: Cambridge Universiíy Press. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Mitchel, T.F. ,1971. "Linguistic 'Goings on': Collocations and Other /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lexical Matters Arising on the Syntagmatic Record". Archivum /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguisticum 2. : 35-69. Moliner, María. 1977. Diccionario de uso del

412 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-ABSTRACT. This papev aims at the analysis and study oftranslation /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:equivalences. This has been a question widely debated by the linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and tvanslation veseavchevs al1 ovev the wovld. Ouv point of view about /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the mattev is that translation equivalences have not been fully

413 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-classics, it lived through the myth of prescriptivism and the long dream /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-about natural language being totally subdued to the reign of algorithms, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:crossed the fuzzy borderline between 'the linguistic" and the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-"exiralinguistic" and entered the area of early pragmatics, to be /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-finally relegated to the purely empiricist domain of individual case

414 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-individual coupled pairs (as representing actual translation units under /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the dominant norm of translation equivalence) and the textual- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic representation of the translational solutions, which has made /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-them into (surface) translational phenomena, in the fust place. (1995: 86) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

415 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- correspondence of images (scene construals), might require /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- choosing as 'equivalents' elements that seem utterly incomparable /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: on any of the 'linguistic' levels." /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- 2. Esta concepción flexible de la equivalencia está de acuerdo con /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- nuestra propuesta.

416 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(ed.) Semiotik und Ubersetzen, Tübingen: G.Narr, pp. 23-42. Catford, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:J.C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation, Londres: OUP. García /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Yebra, V. 1994. Traducción: Historia y Teoría. Madrid: Gredos. Gil de /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Carrasco, A. y Sager, J. C. 1996. "El Status Metalingüístico de las

417 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-IVIR, V. 1969. "Contrasting via Translation: Formal Correspondence vs. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Translation Equivalence" en Yugoslav Serbo-Croatian-English Contrastive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Project Studies, 1, pp. 13-25. Jackobson, R. 1959. "On Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Aspects of Translation" en Brower, R. A. (ed.) On Translation. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 232-239.

418 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-have found intevesting to considev two diffevent languages fvom a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-sociolinguistic point of view, such as Spanish and Catalan. And on the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:othev hand, we have cavvied out ouv wovk analyzing the linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-tevminological and ovthotjpogvaphical levels. Consequently we have /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-analyzed the way in which tvanslation cvitevia followed in the final

419 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and simpler, somewhat less "situated, and somewhat more interested in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-form than content. In two words, more manageable; in another two words, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:more linguistic. Indeed, 1 have recently argued (Swales 2000) for the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-use of simple, fallible models of generic structure in applied contexts, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as opposed to the sophsticated ones currently appearing in Ph.D theses

420 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-what we might mean by "genre readiness", and then how we might assess /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-it. 1 will assume that not al1 genres are create equal, but differ in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:importance, in stereotypicality, and in the rhetorical and linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-demands place upon their recipients and producers. Thus in the business /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-world a brief acknowledgment of the receipt of an order is lower on the

421 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Kaplan, contrastive rhetoric maintains that, to the degree that language /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-and writing are culhual phenomena, different cultures have different /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:rhetorical tendencies. Furthermore, the linguistic pattems and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetorical conventions of the first language often transfer to writing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-in ESL and thus cause interference. It is important to distinguish this

422 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-As is well-knom, Kaplan's early contrastive rhetoric has been criticized /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as being too ethnocentnc and as privileging the writing of native /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:English speakers, as well as for dismissing linguistic and culhual /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-differences in writing among different languages, e.g., lumping Chmese, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Thai, and Korean speakers in one Oriental group. Kaplan himself (Connor

423 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-organization, was useiül in accounting for cultural differences in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-essays written by college students for academic purposes. It also /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:introduced the linguistic world to a real, if basic, insight: writing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-was culturally intluenced in interesting, and complex, ways. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Nevertheless, the model was not particularly successfd in describing

424 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-three English-speakmg countries, the rhetorician Janice Lauer and 1 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-developed a linguisticlrhetorical system that helped quanti@ both /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic features in essays (such as cohesion, coherence, and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-discourse organization) and rhetorical features (including the three /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-classical persuasive appeals: logos, pathos, ethos; and Toulmin's 1958

425 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-who was critical of the "static" theories of texts in contrastive /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetoric and proposed a "dynamic" model of L2 writing for examining how /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:writers' and readers' linguistic, cultural, and educational backgrounds /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as well as conventions of discourse communities might be negotiated /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-through interactions mediated by texts.

426 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-rhetoric illustrates the focus of each domain. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm: 1. Contrastive text linguistic studies examine, compare, and contrast /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- how texts are formed and interpreted in different languages and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- cultures using methods of written discowse analysis. See Clyne

427 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-tr%g in foreign language skills at universities in the small country of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Fdand. First, Finnish universities, of course, have language departments /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:whch teach language, literature, linguistic and literary theory and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-applied linguistics. Secondly, for the past 25 years, Fdand has had /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-language centers at universities whch teach languages for specific

428 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Purves. Newbwy Park, CA: Sage. 138-159. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Connor, U., & Mamen, A. 1999. "Linguistic analysis of grant proposals: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-European Union research grants". English for SpeczJic Purposes, 18 (l), /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-47-62.

429 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-279-3 16. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Rizzi, L. 1993194. "Some notes on linguistic theory and language /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-development: the case of root infmitives'l Language Acquisition 3: 37 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1-393.

430 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Korolija, N. and Linell. P. 1996 "Episodes: coding and analysing /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-coherence in multiparty conversation". Linguistics 34: 799-831. Kuno, S. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and Kaburaki, E. 1977. "Empathy and syntax". Linguistic Inquiry 8: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-627-72. Kuno, S. 1987. Functional Syntax: Anaphora, Discourse and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Empathy. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

431 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lingua, 87, págs. 1-2. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Wilson, Deirdre & Sperber, Dan 1993. "Linguistic form ad relevance", /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Lingua, 90, págs. 1-25. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

432 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-cases, these switches symbolize an attempt to change the Rights and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Obligations Set (Myevs-Scotton 1993). This, in tuvn, shows that speakevs /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:ave vational actovs who weigh the costs and vewavds of theiv linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-choices, and choose the stvategv that muwimizes the vewavds and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-minimizes the costs. This occuvs fov two veasons;$vst, the speakev is

433 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-wovds by choosing the mavked code fov the intevaction.. Secondly, the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-speakev is enhancing the pvagmatic fovce of his message, by using the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:mavked linguistic choice fov that intevaction and with those intevlocutovs. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-KEY WORDS: codeswitching alternancia de códigos, Rational Actor Model,

434 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-intra-sentential code-switching". Spanish in the UnitedStates. Eds. J. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Amastae and Elias-Olivares. Cambridge: CUP. Milian, Silvia. 1996. "Case /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:assignment is SpanishIEnglish codeswitching". Linguistic Society of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-America Symposium, enero de 1996. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

435 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-codeswitching". Language in Socieq 22: 475-503. . 1995. "What do /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:speakers want? Codeswitching as evidence of intentionality in linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm--

436 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Likewise, after conventional clause elements have been exhausted, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:further linguistic matter may arise on the record, as in examples 29 and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-30: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

437 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-still tend to work with transcripts rather than original audio tapes), /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-we urgently need to evolve a shared meialanguage amongst the applied /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic professions that will adequately give form to our /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-understandings of the grammar of evevday ialk. Our ninth criterion for a /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-spoken grammar is, therefore, a careful reflection on the meialanguage

438 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-grammar of conversation. Equally, we have to iake into account that, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-whereas in writing language usen tend to strive towards standard norms /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:within any linguistic community (such that in English, for instance, /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-there are standard written norms embracing the United Kingdom, rather /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-than a 'northem British', say, or 'west-countv' norm), in informal

439 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-alluded, great care must be iaken to ensure that any entry in the spoken /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-grammar is represented in a wide range of speakers of any broadly based /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic community as defined by the grammarian for practical purposes /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-(e.g. north American English, Mexican Spanish, Swiss German, etc.). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

440 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-certainly be uppermost. It is one which corpus linguistics can only /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-parhally solve, and one which raises as many ideological questions as /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic mes. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-The need to investigate spoken grammars is, we believe, an urgent one

441 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-McCarthy M J 1995 Conversation and literature: tense and aspect. In /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Payne J (ed) Linguistic Approaches to Literature. Birmingham: University /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-of Birmingham, English Language Research, 58-73 McCarthy M J 1998 Spoken /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Language and Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

442 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Rivero M 1980 On left-dislocation and topicalisation in Spanish. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Linguistic Inquiy 11 (2): 363-93 Schiffrin D 1981 Tense variation in /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-narrative. Language 57 (1): 45-62. Schieppegrell M 1992 Subordination /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and linguistic complexity. Discourse Processes 15 (1): 117-3 1 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Silva-Coryalán, C 1983 Tense and aspect in oral Spanish narrative: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-context and meaning. Language 59 (4): 760-80. Soga, M 1983 Tense and

443 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Linguistics, Writers andReaders. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 140-55 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Schieppegrell M 1992 Subordination and linguistic complexity. Discourse /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Processes 15 (1): 117-3 1 Swan M 1995 Practica1 English Usage. Oxford: /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Word University Press.

444 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Determiner Phrases by bilingual speakers and Spanish students of English /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-as a second language. The theoretical framework adopted is the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Minimalist Program, Chomsky (1995, 1998), where linguistic knowledge is /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-assumed to result from the interaction between properties of lexical /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-items and parametrized general principles The results of this research

445 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Longobardi, G. 1994. "Reference and proper nouns: A theory of N-movement /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:in syntax and LF". Linguistic Inquiry 25: 609-665. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Moyer, M. 1993. Analysis of code-switching in Gibraltar. Barcelona,

446 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-treating First Nations as nations with internationally recognised /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-juridical rights. Overall, having considered Canada and Bolivia in this /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:exploratory study, it is argued that the education and linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-survival of indigenous peoples must clearly /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

447 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-educational services to be provided by the provinces (Gardner and Jimmie /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1989). This paper also indicated a complete tum-around fiom a policy of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:'linguistic imperialism' (Phillipson 1992) that overtly suppressed /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-indigenous languages to one where indigenous languages and cultures were /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-to be 'valued, encouraged and assisted'. Gardner and Jimmie (1989)

448 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Freedoms (1982). Minority language rights of those speaking the official /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-languages were entrenched, but in spite of intense negotiations, First /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Nations' linguistic rights were not articulated in the final version of /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-the Canadian Charter (AFN 1990). Speakers of non-official languages have /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-received very little attention in the Canadian Charter and effectively

449 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-positive indigenous language attitudes and behaviow. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:The finduigs showed levels of self-reported linguistic proficiency and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-use favowed English overwhelmingly (average: 4.5 on a 5 point scale) /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-over Cree or Haida (average: 2.0), but that attitudes to English and

450 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-considered within the broader context of empowerment in indigenous /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-education. Critical theorists (e.g. Cummins 1986) have argued that the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:linguistic and educational failure of students can be explained by the /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-degree to wh~ch schools reflect or counteract the power relations that /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-exist in the broader society. Specifically, empowering students by /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:promoting and valorising their linguistic and cultural talents, actively /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-encouragrng community participation in student development and moving /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-away fiom the dominant "transmission-oriented" teachng model, will lead /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:to sigmficantly better linguistic and educational progress (Cummins /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-1986; Hamers and Blanc 2000). /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Incompatible cultural assumptions and practices underlying formal study /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:and language programs are clearly implicated in aecting linguistic and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-educational outcomes. In the broadest terms, cultural assumptions about /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-schooling and the leaming of languages formally are based on European

451 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-M. J. Valdés y Djelal Kadir. Oxford: OUP. Assembly of First Nations. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:1990. Towards Linguistic Justice for First Nations. Ottawa: AFN /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Education Secretariat. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-

452 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Hamel, R. E. 1994. "Indigenous education in Latin America: policies and /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:legal fiameworks". Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Discrimination. Eds. T. Skutnabb-Kangas and R.Phillipson. Berlin: Mouton /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-de Gruyter. 271-289.

453 /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-colonialism". The Canadian Journal of Native Education 20: 118-128. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm:Phllipson, R 1992.Linguistic Imperialism . Oxford: OUP. /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm- /2001/congresoAESLA_XIX.htm-Rodnguez, N.J., Masferrer, K. E. y Vega, R. V., eds. 1983. Educacion,

454 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Neil McLaren /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Rafael Monroy Casas

455 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-which informs and supports the discussion of methodological aspects concerning /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language teaching and learning. Other specific matters dealt with refer to concrete /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic manifestations such as languages for specific purposes, corpus linguistics, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-computational linguistics and language engineering. Dueto their special relevance /2002/congreso_XX.txt:to linguistic exchanges in a global world, some studies related to lexicology, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lexicography, translation and interpretation are also included. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

456 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-unchanging objed. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:The concept of "targeted linguistic change" introduces another paradox into /2002/congreso_XX.txt-mainstream SLA which 1will briefly address. Bickerton (1975) describes SLA as /2002/congreso_XX.txt:targeted linguistic change, contrasting it with untargeted linguistic change, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-typically diachronic change in speech communities over generations. Targeted /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic change occurs within individuals as they structure and restructure /2002/congreso_XX.txt-emerginglinguistic systems in the direction of target varieties. The paradox arises, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and Bickerton states this as clearly as anyone, because the learner can only "aim

457 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Andersen 1981: 70-71). In the basic variety range, the internal norm dominates, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-but as speakers move towards fluency, we begin to see, increasingly, targeted /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic change towards external norms. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-3. CONTEXTUALIZING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND USE

458 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-in the interview he is effectively silenced, relying on his daughters to mediate the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-interaction. It follows from a methodological perspective that it is not enough to /2002/congreso_XX.txt:sample one context of use and use that to generalize about a speaker s linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-abilities as a whole. It is necessary to sample across a range of activities and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-contexts to say anything meaningful about a speaker s language abilities.

459 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-that are in play when narrators construct represented speech. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Second language learning and use is a crucial topic in applied linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-research. In this paper 1have argued for the value of a social and discourse analytic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-perspective on this pervasive social phenomenon, pointing out ways that it could

460 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-manual. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Perdue, C. Ed. 1993. Adult language acquisition: cross-linguistic perspectiues. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

461 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Vygotsky, L.S. 1978. Mind in Soclety. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Whinnom, K. 1971. "Linguistic hybridization and the special case of creoles". In /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-D. Hymes. Ed. Pidginizatwn and Creolization of languages. Cambridge:

462 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Politics andpolicies of and in, language teaching /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:So the linguistic dimension of becoming European will be to become /2002/congreso_XX.txt-plurilingua1i.e. tolearn different languages, to different degrees,in different ways, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-at different periods of one's life. This will allow the interaction in society which

463 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-heritage. There is a fear that English could become the 'national' language of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Europe, with al1 the other national languages becoming regional languages, and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:the languages of linguistic minorities becoming even more marginalised. Yet /2002/congreso_XX.txt-precisely because of this, pressure from learners and their parents is strongly in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-favour of teaching English and the fear of those who attempt to formulate language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-education policy is augmented. The fear is not just that this will give Britain a /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic advantage and make the British even more inarticulate and insensitive /2002/congreso_XX.txt-to other people, but that English is the Trojan Horse ofhericanisation, the means /2002/congreso_XX.txt-by which American cultural values will infiltrate and dominate the European

464 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-whether they and the language teaching profession can lead and change opinion /2002/congreso_XX.txt-or only follow it, whether they acquiesce to the dominance of English or find ways /2002/congreso_XX.txt:of pursuing linguistic diversity and plurilingualism. Policies can no longer be /2002/congreso_XX.txt-forced on populations as they were in the nineteenth centuiy. We need to find /2002/congreso_XX.txt-some middle way of ensuring that learners who focus on English also learn other

465 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:LINGUISTIC PATRIOTISM: ASPECTS OF THE /2002/congreso_XX.txt-LANGUAGE OF SOME NATIONAL ANTHEMS /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

466 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-INTRODUCTION

467 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-to have alook at the texts of some national anthems, see how they are constructed /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and consider such questions as: Who is addressed in the anthems? How? What /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic indications of participation exist and in what terms? What differences /2002/congreso_XX.txt-emerge? In summa: What's going on in each hymn? /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

468 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cultural and historical contexts and touch on often sensitive matters, are frequently /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the subject of heated debate -a debate which may range from a discussion of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:purely linguistic matters of archaic vocabulary and their relevance to (indeed, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-comprehension by) today's society to an active disavowal of the sentiments /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expressed in the anthem. They may thus be of interest to socaolangulsts.

469 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-c) Only a small selection of anthems can be discussed, including those of

470 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-open to the pressures, among others, of political corredness." /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:e) The interest here is primarily linguistic, not political -i.e. issues such as: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-what is a nation? ora nation-state? will not be discussed, though these questions, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and also those relevant to the changing roles of nations, supra-nations, regions

471 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-0.4. Structures. Naturally, not al1 this ground can be covered in the present /2002/congreso_XX.txt:paper. The core is a close analysis of the linguistic structure of seleded national /2002/congreso_XX.txt-anthems, but before embarking on this it will be useful to give a brief account of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the typology offered by Csepeli and Orkény (1997). Next, the variety of texts will

472 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and anthems, which has given impetus to the present paper and is certainly worth /2002/congreso_XX.txt-discussing briefly Little can be added here to their general discussion of themes /2002/congreso_XX.txt:expressed in the hymns, though there are severa1 linguistic and musical aspects /2002/congreso_XX.txt-that need speciSiing and developingand which form the central part ofthis essay /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In the first section of their article the authors establish three central themes

473 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-insistence on privations and sufferings undergone, contrasting with the present

474 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of those illustrated here, datingfrom the end ofthe 16th century and arisingfrom

475 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-3. THEMES ACROSS THE ANTHEMS

476 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-protective significance of being an island "We've golden soil and wealth for toil;

477 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-written. The clearest instance is that at the openingofthe German anthem (which

478 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-hard work also has to do with cheerfulness/happiness (cf Csepeli and Orkény) -a

479 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In the previous section we were still concerned, basically, with an overview of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the anthems, from the thematic point of view. We need now to analyse more /2002/congreso_XX.txt:closely the real linguistic textures of individual hymns. It won't be possible to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-analyse al1 the texts selected, and so 1 have chosen to deal with six of them (the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-hymns of the UK, the USA, Germany, Austria, Belgium -the French text -and

480 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Example 3

481 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-established, where the objects presented are considered as a kind of national

482 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-4.Afurther strand is the formulaic refrain which concludes the verse. Severa1

483 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-run-on lines -exceptions to this are found, however, in the French and Italian /2002/congreso_XX.txt-anthems. 4.Again, in severa1 hymns the use of refrains -e.g. in the UK, German, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Australian, Belgian and Canadian texts -imposes a linguistic and literary /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

484 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-5.3. The musical settings

485 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-songs ofpeace, while some contend that The Star-Spangled Banner is a celebration

486 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-5.

487 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-"Chant des Wallons" 1998.Le Soir, Revue de Presse. 20 March, 1998. Brussels

488 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Leech, G.N. 1969.A Linguistic Guide to Engllsh Poetry. London: Longman. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-McCallum, M. 2001. "Can we advance Australia's anthem?" The &e. Melbourne. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-15 January, 2001.

489 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Wray, A. 1998. "The interadional functions of formulaic language: a link to our /2002/congreso_XX.txt:origins?" Lecture given at the Linguistic Circle. University of Cardift /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Summary Accessed 12 December 2001. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic patriotism: aspects of the language of some national anthems /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Wray, A. 2002. Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge

490 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Bloomfield, L. 1942. Outline Guide for the Practica1 Study ofForeign Languages /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Bickerton, D. 1981. Roots ofLanguage. Ann Arbot, MI: Karoma Publishers. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Brown, A. 1995. "Minimal pairs: minimal importance?" ELT Journal, 4912: 169-

491 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-142 Fluctuaciones teórico-metodológicas en la enseñanza de la oronunciación del inglés /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Chomsky, N. 1966. "Linguistic Theory". In R.C. Mead. Ed. Reports of the Working /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Committee. New York: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Languages. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Chomsky, N. 1981. "Principles and parameters in syntactic theory". In N. Hornstein /2002/congreso_XX.txt:& D. Lightfoot. Eds. Explanations in Linguistic Theory: TheLogical Problem /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of Language Acquisitwn. London: Longman. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Clahsen, H. 1988. "Parameterised grammatical theory and language acquisition". /2002/congreso_XX.txt:In S. Flynn and W. O'Neil. Eds. Linguistic Theory in Second Language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Acquisition, Kluwer, Dordrecht. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

492 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Tarone, E. 1980. "Some influences on the syllable structure of interlanguage /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:phonology". International Reuiew ofApplied Linguistic$ 16: 143-163. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Tarone, E. 1988. Variation in interlanguage. London: Edward Arnold. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Taylor, B.P. 1975. "The use of overgeneralization and transfer learning strategies".

493 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Language Learning, 25: 23-35. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Taylor,D. 1993. "Intonation and accent in English: What teachers need to know". /2002/congreso_XX.txt:International Reuiew ofApplied Linguistic$ 3V1: 1-21. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Terrell, T.C. 1977. "A natural approach to second language adquisition and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-learninp'. Modern Lanpuape Journal, 61: 325-337.

494 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Both of them gave an involuntary, little imitation of a giggle /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:1.HOW TO TURN LINGUISTIC FINDINGS INTO LESSONS /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-While as a learner 1 was thrilled to learn so much 1 had never consciously

495 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Present-satuataon analysas /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Richterich and Chancerel, 1980), which /2002/congreso_XX.txt:focused exclusively on the identification of the learner's linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-development leve1 at the beginning of a course; /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(b)

496 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Ellis (1991) and Loschky & Bley-Vroman (1993). /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic Focus:Item 1 Controlled Pradice Open PWIGW Practice /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic Focus:Item N Controlled Pradice OpenPWIGWPractice /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Pre-Task Communication Task 1 Post-Task

497 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-driuen methods for EFL in Tertiary setting. After reuiewing SLA /2002/congreso_XX.txt-research that renders CBI methodology a wellfounded method for /2002/congreso_XX.txt:deueloping ouerall linguistic cornpetence, thepaperdescribes a number /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of stages that practitioners would haue to go through to set up a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-balanced CBI course whereby communicatiue competence, grammar /2002/congreso_XX.txt:consolidation and non-linguistic content is achieued. Also, the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-instructors' decision-making process in putting together and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-implementing the course is described with un especial emphasis on

498 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Theme units were carefully selected to match students' academic interests, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-which, in the present case, might be defined in a broad sense as historical and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic. Every effort was made to find themes in the interface ofboth disciplines /2002/congreso_XX.txt:that would appeal to al1 learners. By and large, themes were related to linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-events with a historical or social bias. The final shape of the course centered /2002/congreso_XX.txt-around eight theme units (macrotoplcs) that split into two or three smaller units

499 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-courses. First of all, a CBI course is alanguage course. Content plays an important /2002/congreso_XX.txt-role in providinginterestinginput but if students are overwhelmed with too much /2002/congreso_XX.txt:content the whole point of improving their linguistic skills in English is missed. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Therefore, content should not run too long, but ratherbe exploited in short passages /2002/congreso_XX.txt-or lecturettes.

500 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-provide a wealth of texts to work upon, the problem is not so much availability /2002/congreso_XX.txt-but selection criteria. The development of content based instruction in the USA /2002/congreso_XX.txt:in internet for the linguistic minority population (the so-called Limited English /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Proficiency Students) offers not only guidelines for selection and resources for /2002/congreso_XX.txt-tailor-made courses to students in a number of disciplines but also ready to use

501 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-transmitting information on previosuly selected content. Studies in discourse /2002/congreso_XX.txt-analysis have confirmed that when the topics that tasks dealt with touch on /2002/congreso_XX.txt:relevant issues to students, their linguistic behavior is drastically different, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-showing similarities with L1 discourse and hence being sociolinguistically valid /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Dornyei, 1994). In the same vein, Clachar (1999) makes the point that students /2002/congreso_XX.txt:tend to create more linguistic hypothesis on relevant issues, using risk-taking /2002/congreso_XX.txt-production strategies and producinglarger amounts of output when dealing with /2002/congreso_XX.txt-well-known or emotional topics. The same results are presented in Eisenstein

502 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Zuengler, J.& D.A. Brinton. 1997. "Linguistic form, pragmaticfunction: Relevant /2002/congreso_XX.txt-research from content-based instrudion" In. M.A. Snow and D.A. Briton. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Eds. 263-273.

503 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Fillmore, C.J. &P. Kay 1995.Constructwn Grammar. Stanford: CSLI (forthcoming). /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Fillmore, C.J. 1982. "Frame Semantics". En Linguistic Society of Korea. Ed. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Seoul: Hanshin. 111-138. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

504 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-desirable. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:From time in memorial parents and children have been in linguistic and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-phonetic disagreement. As the young seek their own language identity, the older /2002/congreso_XX.txt-generations complain of falling standards and firmly maintain that the

505 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-this generalisation. For instance, the existence of different vocalic systems in Catalan (dCarbonell & /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Llisterri, 1999: 62) and Galician (cf Regueira, 1999: 83) will undoubtedly affed this issue, as the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic transfer will proceed in different ways depending on the original first lmguage. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Although the twelve-vowel system is not common to other variants of English, such as GA,it is /2002/congreso_XX.txt-not les6 tme that probably no varimt of Englishin the world contains as few as five vowels.

506 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-conocimiento interno de indudable valor. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:NNS English teachers' linguistic handicap-paradoxically-proves to be their most /2002/congreso_XX.txt-valuable asset, one that is capable of makingup for the odds of limited proficien~y. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-It is precisely this deficit that helps NNS English teachers develop capacities

507 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-254 The rationale for acquiring the communicative shills and the methodology for using them /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:accounts for somethingrather obvious but crucial in the linguistic field: learners /2002/congreso_XX.txt-have to be provided with some kind of input before they are asked to produce /2002/congreso_XX.txt-anything oral or written, mainly because previous input endows them with both

508 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Purposes (Jordan, 1997). As happens in al1 situations of English language teaching /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and learning (cf Ur, 1996) students need to be familiar both with the "what" /2002/congreso_XX.txt:(linguistic and fundional competence: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, topics, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-situations, notions and functions) and the 'Onow" (the macro skills: listening, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-speaking, reading and writing). A considerable emphasis is put on the former in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:English Philology studies dealing with both the linguistic aspects mentioned and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-with specific content (descriptive Linguistics, Literature written in English, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Contrastive Linguistics, Phonetics and Phonology, Lexicology and Lexicography,

509 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the 'Onow", the oral or written receptive-interpretative or productive use of the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language (the skills, in sum). In some English Departments in Spain this is covered /2002/congreso_XX.txt:in subjects of an instrumental character, which have a clear linguistic content in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-others. In other Departments, the practice of the skills is mixed up with their /2002/congreso_XX.txt-methodology in subjects dealing with Teaching English as a Foreign Language

510 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Still in an academic vein, university students should be encouraged to make /2002/congreso_XX.txt-oral presentations in class, dealing with particular assignments of the different /2002/congreso_XX.txt:subjeds, namely papers and projects involving linguistic description, literary /2002/congreso_XX.txt-criticism, contrastive analysis or methodological discussion. Special care must be /2002/congreso_XX.txt-taken here of both accuracy (correct pronunciation and intonation, accurate

511 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-class. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Asecond usefulformat is that oftexts for literary or linguistic analysis, where /2002/congreso_XX.txt-students are supposed to become aware of structural and semantic features orto /2002/congreso_XX.txt-appreciate literary nuances and devices; the connectionbetween form and content

512 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-knowledge at the university level. CBI offers the appropriate methodological /2002/congreso_XX.txt-foundations for teaching a foreign language through content by using materials /2002/congreso_XX.txt:derived from authentic sources that 'tend to be at aleve1 of conceptual and linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:difficulty that seriously challenges the students' linguistic skills' (Brinton and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Holten, 1997:lO). /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

513 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Studies program, three additional benefits could be added, namely (4) bridge the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-gap between secondary-school style proficiency-oriented courses, and university /2002/congreso_XX.txt:leve1 disciplinary study courses, (5) provide students with the linguistic and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cognitive pre-requisites to undertake more advanced academic study and work, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and (6)supply them with a cultural orientation necessary for understanding the

514 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-can be described as deterministic or unidirectional (Vez, 2000:61), as language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-teaching and learning feed on one single theoretical description of language. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:However, the sign of the times has put a limit to this solely-linguistic theory /2002/congreso_XX.txt-overindulgence. This has been done in, at least, two different fronts: first, on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language theory field where an atomization of theories is currently dominant /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and, second, on an operational leve1 by accepting increasingly more complex and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:diversified models of FLT. Methods based on distinctive linguistic accounts have /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

515 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-multiple subsections depending on individual course features. Graves (2000) offers /2002/congreso_XX.txt-a preliminary classification of some of those components and includes the following: /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic skills such as pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, topics, functions, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-traditional skills such as listening, reading, writing and speaking, and task /2002/congreso_XX.txt-resolution. This is what the profession knows as a multi-syllabus course approach.

516 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In (l), the text in italics, i.e., so,is what will bereferred to as causal metatext. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The concept of metadascourse (metatext, or text about text) was somewhat vaguely /2002/congreso_XX.txt:defined by Vande Kopple (1985: 83) as the linguistic material of texts that does /2002/congreso_XX.txt-not add propositional content but rather signals the presence of the author (see /2002/congreso_XX.txt-also Mauranen, 1993: 9). According to the more precise definition of Halliday

517 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-which may be crucialin therhetorical strategies ofwriters. Since these semantico- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-pragmatic aspects are inevitably realised through text and depend on the status /2002/congreso_XX.txt:of the causal signal in its linguistic environment, the various distinctions among /2002/congreso_XX.txt-different types of causal metatext will be made as a fundion of that status. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-However, the major focus of the present study will be the semantico-pragmatic

518 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In this paper, 1 will argue that Irish Standard English exists, i.e. that there is /2002/congreso_XX.txt-a variety of English in the Republic of Ireland which displays characteristics which /2002/congreso_XX.txt:are commonly associated with standard varieties, and which has linguistic features /2002/congreso_XX.txt-which distinguish it from other standard forms of English, including Standard /2002/congreso_XX.txt-British English. 1 will suggest that this variety, rather than Standard British

519 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-to varieties of English, and then discuss attitudes towards Irish English and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-standards in Irish English, both on the part of linguists and the general public. 1 /2002/congreso_XX.txt:will examine some of the linguistic features which appear to distinguish Irish /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Standard English from British Standard English, and finally attempt to draw /2002/congreso_XX.txt-some conclusions about the existence or non-existence of Irish Standard English.

520 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-When we talk about standard languages, we are often not talking about /2002/congreso_XX.txt:particular linguistic features per se, but about ideologies, sets ofbeliefs about the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-role which the standard language plays in a society, which are then reflected in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:the selection of certain linguistic features as 'standard'. One of the problems, in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-fact, with much of what is written about standard language is that it tends to /2002/congreso_XX.txt:focus rather narrowly on processes of codification and elaboration of linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-forms, neglecting the dimension of language users in social space (and we shall /2002/congreso_XX.txt-certainly see this later on in this paper in linguists' descriptions of standard in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Irish English). But it is users who decide what is standard, and users of different /2002/congreso_XX.txt:languages make different decisions, based on the differing contexts of 'linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:culture' within which they are operating. Schiffman (1996 : 5)defines 'linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-culture' as "the set of behaviours, assumptions, cultural forms, prejudices, folk /2002/congreso_XX.txt-belief systems, attitudes, stereotypes, ways ofthinking about language, and religio-

521 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-When languages undergo processes of standardisation, itseem that particular /2002/congreso_XX.txt:features of linguistic culture, that is, particular political, cultural, economic, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-educational or religious conditions present at a certain point in the history of a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-particular society act as catalysts for the emergente of a standardvariety among /2002/congreso_XX.txt-competing varieties, and influence the ways in which standardisation takes place. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Schiffman (1996) stresses thatheis not suggestingakind of cultural determinism, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:but merely that linguistic culture greatly influences linguisticbehaviour. Because /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of differing cultural and economic conditions, for example, 'Standard British /2002/congreso_XX.txt-English' and 'General American English' have developed rather different criteria /2002/congreso_XX.txt-for what constitutes 'standardness'. 'Standard British English' tends to exclude /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic forms which are considered 'working class', 'General American English', /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:on the other hand, while it also excludes linguistic forms on a class basis, is much /2002/congreso_XX.txt-more concerned with excluding those forms which are racially stigmatised. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Beliefs about which linguistic forms constitute the 'standard' can therefore /2002/congreso_XX.txt-even differ for standard forms of the same language, and we should be wary of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-constructing a set of invariant criteria for 'standardness' which can be applied to

522 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-in which the West accounts for and explains cultural phenomena, which in turn /2002/congreso_XX.txt-have affeded how we describe language and define notions of standardness. Al1 /2002/congreso_XX.txt:these reasons are factors which affect linguistic culture' as 1 have defined it at /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the beginning of this paper. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

523 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the growth of allegiance to regional and local varieties of Irish English. If, as 1 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-have argued, beliefs and attitudes about language are the primary forces behind /2002/congreso_XX.txt:standardisation, and then these recent efforts to describe and codify the linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-forms of Irish English are driven by beliefs that it is a variety of English which /2002/congreso_XX.txt-deserves such efforts. Codification is thus a result rather than a cause of

524 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-From evidence from the ICE-Ireland corpus (a corpus designed with the aim /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of eliciting standard usage) it seems that young, educated speakers continue to /2002/congreso_XX.txt:use linguistic forms which are different from comparable form in Standard British /2002/congreso_XX.txt-English (Kallen and Kirk, 2001): one could mention, for example, clause final /2002/congreso_XX.txt-like' as a pragmatic marker, 'I've to' rather than 'I've got to', various realisations

525 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Academic Press. 75-82. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Schiffman, H. 1996. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. London: Routledge. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Share, B. 1997. Slanguage: a Dictionary ofIrlsh Slang. Dublin: Gil1 andMacmillan. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Van Ryckeghem, B. 1997. "The lexicon of Hiberno-English". In J.Kallen. Ed. Focus

526 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-examinee ability in a multiple choice test targeted to a personnel selection process. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In our analysis we both compare the data supplied by Classical Test Theory and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Item Response Theory, and follow examinees' linguistic behaviour on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-distractors in the different fractiles so as to obtain a better insight into both item /2002/congreso_XX.txt:and examinee linguistic ability The data provided by both theories allow us to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-claim that most of the items do not permit us to discriminate and provide /2002/congreso_XX.txt-information on the different levels of ability If the test is intended to measure a

527 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-year in, year out, and this despite al1 sorts of attempts at correction. It is crucial /2002/congreso_XX.txt-that more effective and efficient ways of improving accuracy be developed. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Learners' errors can represent linguistic growth points for learning. In the light /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of calls for research into remedia1 measures where advanced language learners' /2002/congreso_XX.txt-errors in written output in the foreign language class are concerned, this paper

528 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-information structure with different concessive realizations, and the expression /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of concession from a semantic perspective are observed. Finally, some pedagogical /2002/congreso_XX.txt:implications for a more linguistic and learner-oriented approach are drawn. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Análisis contrastivo inglés-español del género de

529 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-internal factors that determine the subject's profile should be taken into account. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Drawing on some of the existing data on this issue, it seems undeniable that the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:situation imposed by the external world is directly reflected upon the linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-behaviour of any individual. Thus, it isn't strange that the concept of 'language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-choice"- a bilingual's preferente of alanguage over another in a particular situation

530 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-approach mainly aims at clarifying the internal processes that account for the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-special functioning of a bilingual' s brain as well as for a specific way of assimilating /2002/congreso_XX.txt:two native languages. Following the guidelines provided by a socio-linguistic and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-psycholinguistic approach to bilingualism, the goal of our study has been twofold: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-finding out the reasons why an English-Spanish bilingual teenager occasionally /2002/congreso_XX.txt-employs the twolanguages with different purposes and explaining to what extent /2002/congreso_XX.txt:one linguistic system affects the other in the production stage. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Inferencias conversacionales en el síndrome de Williams

531 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-interpretation of important experiences in people's everyday lives (Schiffrin, 1996; /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Ochs and Capps, 2001). In the case of minority communities, the telling of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:narratives is often also an occasion to manifest their internalized linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-oppression (Torres, 1997). Within the Mexican immigrant community, the issue /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of the control of language resources is a central question not only for its

532 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-participate in a bilinguaLbicultura1 after school computer programin San Diego, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-California. The paper focuses on stories where the complicating adion involves /2002/congreso_XX.txt:issues related to ethnicity and access to linguistic resources. The main linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-strategy used in this kind of stories consisted of constructed dialogues (Tannen, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1989), which portrayed how the events took place and the ways in which Mexican

533 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language in the ESL classes of any degree course in business studies. In order to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-acquire an in-depth knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of BE (Business /2002/congreso_XX.txt:English), students should be taught specific linguistic structures and vocabulary /2002/congreso_XX.txt-within meaningful contexts. One of those contexts happens to be the Internet, a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

534 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-contact with English. (See Appendix for the whole text of this questionnaire). The /2002/congreso_XX.txt-results gave two very differentiated groups of students: fifteen who had regular extra- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic support and had gone to an English-speahng country to learn the language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and fifteen who were in the opposite situation. The first condition positively influences /2002/congreso_XX.txt-L2 proficiency. Due to the introductory nature of our programme and following

535 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-burden of unknown vocabulary, together with previous inexperience with the topic. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Once again, we believe that attention to the purpose could have compensated these /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic and extra-linguistic disadvantages. Moreover, it could have enhanced in turn /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the effects of predicting, as the task did not require a full understanding of the passage. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Thus the conclusions resulting from the analysis of the students' handling of task B are

536 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Eliasson y E. H. Jahr. Berlín: Mouton de Gruyter. 343-365. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Paradis, C. 1988. "Onconstraints and repair strategies". The Linguistic Review 6: 7 1-97. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Quilis, A. & J.A. Fernández. 1992. Curso de fonética y fonología españolas

537 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-work by Kail (1989) on input processing. To begin with, he distinguishes between local /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and topological processing. Local processing is defined as "the identification and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:interpretation of a linguistic cue within a single lexical word without consideration of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the other words in the clause" (97). On the other hand, in topological processing, cues /2002/congreso_XX.txt-have to be interpreted across words. Examples of local processing are gender, lexical

538 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Kail, M. 1989. "Cue validity, cue cost, and processing types in sentence comprehension /2002/congreso_XX.txt:in French and Spanish". The Cross-linguistic Stu4 of Sentence Processing. Eds. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-B. MacWhinney & E. Bates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 83-117.

539 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Caselli, M.C., E.A. Bates, P. Casadio, J. Fenson, L. Fenson, L. Sanderl & J. Weir. 1995. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:"A cross-linguistic study of early lexical development". Cognitive Development /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-10: 159-199.

540 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-examinee ability in a multiple choice test targeted to a personnel selection process. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In our analysis we both compare the data supplied by Classical Test Theory and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Item Response Theory, and follow examinees' linguistic behaviour on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-distractors in the different fractiles ' so as to obtain a better insight into both item /2002/congreso_XX.txt:and examinee linguistic ability. The data provided by both theories allow us to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-claim that most of the items do not permit us to discriminate and provide /2002/congreso_XX.txt-information on the different levels of ability. If the test is intended to measure a

541 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and in the anomalous one we found four items or 6.6%. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:A detailed description of examinee linguistic behaviour is observed in the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-following fractile tables, where some of the prototypical examples of each category are /2002/congreso_XX.txt-offered (iables 4- 10)

542 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-This table sets out the response by fractiles to each item. We observe that in this /2002/congreso_XX.txt-table responses are studied holistically and analytically, but as we are more concerned /2002/congreso_XX.txt:with examinee linguistic behaviour both on the correct option and on the distractors, we /2002/congreso_XX.txt-will focus our attention on the specific data related to each option, and we will do the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-same in tables 5-10. In the first part of this table we have absolute and relative

543 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Leaving aside bilingual children, who learn both languages approximately at the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:same time, small children are still in the process of acquiring complex linguistic aspects /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of the first language. Thus, some grammatical structures, complex vocabulary and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:pragmatic issues among other linguistic aspects- are still mostly unknown when they /2002/congreso_XX.txt-begin learning English. They are still organizing words within categories, and learning /2002/congreso_XX.txt-about the cultural scripts of their mother tongue. Besides, children rnay even be in the

544 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-went jump jump jump and sat on a leaf in the lake.. . '), and because of its prosodic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-features, with a fast and easy to recall rhythm, as in a song. (2) It also fostered the use of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic chunks (formulas) with only one variation: the name of the characters. (3) It /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

545 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-level of learners. They are widely used in an idiosyncratic way, depending on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-situational context to be understood. They are also frequently used, always with the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:same linguistic form. And last but not least, there seems to be two types of 'formulae': /2002/congreso_XX.txt-those chunks which never change ('routines' or 'closed formulae': 'come here- come /2002/congreso_XX.txt-here') and another group which has 'slots' or open blanks, which can be filled by

546 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Your car jplease) /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Table 1: Taxonomy of request linguistic realisation strategies (from Trosborg, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1995:205) /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

547 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The outcomes observed in our study seem to support the Maxim of Congruence, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:as teachers' use of request realisation linguistic formulae appeared to be congruent with /2002/congreso_XX.txt-their status (93%). However, it would be necessary to carry out a qualitative analysis of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the types of strategy teachers used when making the requests.

548 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-As shown in Figure 2 above, teachers' oral output concerning requests focused /2002/congreso_XX.txt:mainly on the use of linguistic realisations related to ability, willingness, suggestory /2002/congreso_XX.txt-formulae and imperatives. Indirect strategies or hints accounted for one per cent of the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-overall strategy use. This finding is in line with previous studies (Alcón, 2001a) where

549 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Figure 2 illustrates that most of the strategies used by teachers were /2002/congreso_XX.txt:conventionally indirect, and particularly hearer-oriented strategies (the ability linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-realisations amounting to thirty-seven per cent; the willingness strategies accounting for /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

550 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Regarding output possibilities, our study addressed students' production of request /2002/congreso_XX.txt:acts linguistic formulae as well as teachers' production. Findings on the overall amount /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of strategies employed by students (see Figure 1 above) indicate that learners' /2002/congreso_XX.txt-performance accounted for a mere ten per cent out of the total amount of request acts in

551 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In light of our findings, we may state that learners' output presented little variety /2002/congreso_XX.txt:in terms of the type of linguistic routine employed in English, and it also showed /2002/congreso_XX.txt-insiances of code-switching to their first language, that is, Spanish. Additionally, the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-amount of request formulations produced by learners was extremely reduced compared

552 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Our study aimed at examining input and output possibilities for the development /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of pragmatic competence in a particular situation -that of the oral interview /2002/congreso_XX.txt:examination. We have focused on the use of request acts linguistic realisations in an /2002/congreso_XX.txt-EFL setting. Findings obtained by means of analysing teachers' and learners' /2002/congreso_XX.txt-performance in the oral examination indicated that (i) most request formulae were /2002/congreso_XX.txt-produced by teachers, (ii) teachers initiated most request moves, (iii) learners mainly /2002/congreso_XX.txt:resorted to the same type of linguistic formulation in their scarce production of request /2002/congreso_XX.txt-acts, and (iv) in most cases, learners made use of their mother tongue when asking for /2002/congreso_XX.txt:clarification and for the meaning of certain linguistic items. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

553 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-acts formulae are concerned. On the other hand, the oral interview examination offers /2002/congreso_XX.txt-chances for pragmatic input to these learners, since, as stated above, teachers made use /2002/congreso_XX.txt:of a wide range of request act formulae thereby, resorting to various linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-formulations. Nevertheless, further research is needed in order to analyse to what extent /2002/congreso_XX.txt-that input affects learners' pragmatic competence. In so doing, oral or written pragmatic

554 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Despite the long history of metaphor research, the attempts to incorporate the insights /2002/congreso_XX.txt-derived from it to L2 learning-teaching procedures are fairly recent (see Cameron and Low /2002/congreso_XX.txt:(1999) for a good overview). The assumption is that metaphor is a linguistic and cognitive /2002/congreso_XX.txt-phenomenon that encapsulates important information about the culture realised in a given /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language and, therefore, is one of the things L2 learners should know about it. The main

555 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language involves selecting a manageable and, at the same time, relevant discourse context. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Here it is claimed that genre provides such a context for severa1 reasons: (a) genre /2002/congreso_XX.txt:encapsulates a manageable portion of linguistic interaction, (b) it conforms part of our /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cognitive formal schemata (Carrell, 1983), (c) it is a powerful socialisation tool, and (d) /2002/congreso_XX.txt-generic competence may be discussed as subsuming those other competences

556 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the seminal works of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Lakoff (1987). The metaphorical /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expressions were classified according to the nature of the information transferred (i.e. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:mapped) between the two entities involved in the metaphorical (i.e. linguistic) expression. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The resulting classification illustrated two of the metaphor types acknowledged in the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cognitive literature:

557 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-both image and conceptual types, and (b) awareness-raising activities demanding the active /2002/congreso_XX.txt-role of learners in accomplishing both comprehension and production tasks devised according /2002/congreso_XX.txt:to genre criteria. Concerning the latter, since architecture requires both linguistic and visual /2002/congreso_XX.txt-shlls, a way to maximise the learners' efforts in carrying out the tasks may be to exploit their /2002/congreso_XX.txt-drawing abilities and incorporate them to the different language-geared exercises, asking the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:students to translate the linguistic information into drawing form and viceversa. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-A tentative teaching schema incorporating al1 the factors discussed above could read as /2002/congreso_XX.txt-follows:

558 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-COMPREHENSIONGOALS AND ACTMTIES /2002/congreso_XX.txt-GOALS /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Link linguistic description with visual information. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Discriminate descriptive passages from evaluative ones. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Reconstruct external appearance of reviewed building from linguistic description. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Compare different reviews on the same building. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ACTIWTIES

559 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Grouping typologies according to underlying visual/conceptual criteria. Focus: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-image and conceptual metaphor. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Grouping linguistic realisations according to basic topology underlying them. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Focus: image metaphor. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Spotting descriptive stretches, and grouping them according to focus on external or /2002/congreso_XX.txt-internal aspects of building. Focus: image and conceptual metaphor. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:m Matching visual data with linguistic description. Focus: especially, image metaphor. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Spotting evaluative stretches, and grouping them according to focus on external or /2002/congreso_XX.txt-internal aspects of building. Focus: image and conceptual metaphor.

560 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ACTIVITIES /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Rephrasing activities /2002/congreso_XX.txt:= Reconstructing the visual dimension of building through linguistic description /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Drawing different perspectives of a building and describing them linguistically /2002/congreso_XX.txt-m Writing the caption of a visual

561 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and this despite al1 sorts of attempts at correction. It is cnicial that more effective /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and efficient ways of improving accuracy be developed. Given that learners' errors /2002/congreso_XX.txt:can represent linguistic growth points for learning, it is important that we discover /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ways to exploit this potential. In the light of calls for research into remedia1 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-measures where advanced foreign language learners' errors in written output are

562 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In terms of transitional competence we can assume that each individual language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-learner's language has what we can term as growih points. These represent stages of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:development. The linguistic growih points are affected by a number of externa1 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-variables. These include the individual learner's personality, learning style and learning /2002/congreso_XX.txt-strategies, previous learning experience and mother tongue (Ll) literacy skills, to

563 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-effective editing techniques for grammatical accuracy in long-turn foreign language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-writing. The study set out to investigate (over a period of three years initially) the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:proposal that learners' errors in L2 writing represent linguistic growth points for /2002/congreso_XX.txt-learning and that measures that tap these growih points include learner-centred error /2002/congreso_XX.txt-analysis, pushed-output, pre- and post-task CRAs, language awareness training and

564 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Jaeger, J.J. 1984. "Assessing the Psychological Status of the Vowel Shift Rule". Journal /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ofPsycholinguistic Research 13: 13-56. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Jaeger, J.J. 1986. "Concept Formation as a Tool for Linguistic Research". Eds. J. Ohala, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-& J.J. Jaeger, 1986. ExperimentalPhonology. Orlando: Academic Press. 21 1-238. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Jaeger, J.J. & J.J. Ohala. 1984. "On the Structure of Phonetic Categories". Berkeley /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic Society 10: 15-26. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Mompeán González, J.A. 2002. The Categorisation of the Sounds of English:

565 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-English language web site which addresses issues of difference, conflict and diversity in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-today's Spain. The issues included are the treatment of minorities, the position of recent /2002/congreso_XX.txt:refugees and immigrants, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and linguistic differences. Thus, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-we use the advantages of the Internet to provide schools with interactive and engaging /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

566 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Moreover, the task-based approach encourages the integration of skills in a realistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-manner. Finally, this framework moves beyond the concept of assessment as the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:measure of the acquisition of a closed set of linguistic items predefined by the teacher. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In conclusion, a task-based approach, within this task-based framework, can

567 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Uso dellenguaje. Logroño: Monogar Linotype, S.A.. 339-348. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Sinclair, J.M. 1985. "On the Integration of Linguistic Description". Handbook of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Discourse Analysis, Vol. 2. Dimensions of Discourse. Ed. T.A. Van Dijk. London: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Academic Press. 13-28.

568 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-As Willis (1996:23) points out, the job of the course designer and teacher is "to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-select topics and tasks that will motivate learners, engage their attention, present a /2002/congreso_XX.txt:suiiable degree of intellectual and linguistic challenge and promote their language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-development as efficiently as possible". /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

569 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Polysemy, overlapping of meanings, information structure with different concessive /2002/congreso_XX.txt-realizations, and the expression of concession from a semantic perspective are /2002/congreso_XX.txt:observed. Finally, some pedagogical implications for a more linguistic and learner- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-oriented approach are drawn. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

570 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-constructions are often intertwined with related logic-semantic relations like conditional /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and cause-effect structures, thus increasing their difficulty for learners. A pre-pedagogic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:study of polysemous contrastive connectors may then allow for a more linguistic- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-oriented and a student-oriented approach to tackle connectors in ESP. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

571 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Lakoff, R. 1973. "The logic of politeness: or minding your p's and q'sn.Papers from the /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Regional Meeting. Chicago Linguistic Society Papers. 8: 183-228. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Leech, G. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics.Londres: Longman. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Nwogu, K. 1991. "Structure of science popularization: a genre-analysis approach to the

572 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-become rather useful for adequate language proficiency at this technical plane. In /2002/congreso_XX.txt-addition, the academic language discussed above can also contribute to enhancing /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic competence. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-REFERENCES

573 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Entendemos por corpus lingüístico: "A collection of pieces of language that are selected and ordered /2002/congreso_XX.txt:according to explicit linguistic criteria in order to be used as a sample of language" (Sinclair, 1996). /2002/congreso_XX.txt-4 La taxonomía y terminología empleada para la descripción de los corpus y subcorpus en los que se /2002/congreso_XX.txt-aplica nuestro análisis es la que recogen Bravo Gozalo y Fernández Nistal(1998).

574 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Givón, T. Ed. 1983. Topic Continuiq in Discourse: A Quantitative Cross-Language /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Stu4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Glaser, R. 1995. "The LSP Genre Abstract Revisited". Linguistic Features and Genre /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Projles of Scientific English, Frankurt am Main: Verlag, 97- 105. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Gledhill, C. 2000. "The Discourse Function of Collocation in Research Article

575 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-There seems to be general agreement in distinguishing three points on which /2002/congreso_XX.txt-abstracts differ from RAS. They differ in their function, in their rhetorical structure and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:in their linguistic realisations. These three areas are, undoubtedly, closely connected: the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-function of an abstract will determine both its global structure and the choice of its /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic realisation. Given the brevity of this paper, the present study will be limited to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the relationship between function and rhetorical structure. Other aspects, such as the use /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of cohesive devices, nominalizations, verbal tenses, passive voice and the like, even

576 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-frequency verbs error-prone or safe? What part does transfer play in the misuse of these /2002/congreso_XX.txt-verbs? 2 [Methods] To answer these questions, authentic learner data has been compared /2002/congreso_XX.txt:with native speaker data using computerized corpora and linguistic software tools to /2002/congreso_XX.txt:speed up the initial stage of the linguistic analysis. The article focuses on what proves to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-be the two most distinctive uses of MAKE, viz. the delexical and causative uses. 3 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-[Results] show that EFL leamers, even at an advanced proficiency level, have

577 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-means of distinct lexicogrammatical resources. Considering that this is a small scale /2002/congreso_XX.txt-study carried out in the field of abstracts of linguistics, further research is needed to be /2002/congreso_XX.txt:able to understand the relationship between function, rhetorical structure and linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-realisations in order to apply these findings to the genre of abstracts in general and to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the development of writing instructions for researchers.

578 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-123-135. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Jordan, M.P. 1991. "The linguistic genre of abstracts". In Della Volpe, A. (ed.). The /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Seventeenth LACUS Forum 1990. Lake Bluff, Illinois: LACUS: 507-527. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

579 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Ventola, E. 1994a. "Abstracts as an object of linguistic study". In Cmejrková, S., F. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-DaneS and E. Havlová (eds.). Writing vs. Speaking: Language, Text, Discourse, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Communication. Tübingen: Gunter Narr: 333-352.

580 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Hanauer, D.I. 2001. "The Task of Poetry Reading and Second Language Learning". /2002/congreso_XX.txt-AppliedLinguistics 2213: 295-323. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Hansen, J.G. 2001. "Linguistic Constraints on the Acquisition of English Syllable /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Codas by Native Speakers of Mandarin Chinese". AppliedLinguistics 2213: 338- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

581 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Spanish-English. Barcelona: Ariel. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Bowers, F. 1989. Linguistic Aspects of Legislative Expression, Vancouver: University /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of British Columbia Press.

582 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Barlow, M. 1996. "Corpora for theory and practice". International Journal of Corpus /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Linguistics 111: 1-37. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Biber, D. 1993. "Representativiness in Corpus Design". Literavy and Linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Computing, 814: 243-257. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Chaplen, F. 1989. A Course in Intermediate ScientiJc English. Hong Kong: Thomas

583 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Fundamentos, metodología y análisis. Madrid: SGEL s.a. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Sánchez A. & P. Cantos 1997. "Predictability of word forms (types) and lemmas in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic corpora". Intemational Joumal of Corpus Linguistics, 212: 25 1-272. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Stubbs, M.

584 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-hypothesis". ChildDevelopment 65: 4 1-57. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Jiménez, J.E. & C. Haro. 1995. "Effects of word linguistic properties on phonological /2002/congreso_XX.txt-awareness in Spanish children". Joumal of Educational Psychology 87: 193-20 1. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

585 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-children". Joumal of Experimental ChildPsychology 39: 16 1- 18 1. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Treiman, R. 1988. "The interna1 structure of the syllable". Linguistic structure in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language processing. Eds. G. Carlson y M. Tanenhaus, Nonvell: MA: Kluwer /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Academic. 27-52. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Treiman, R. & S. Weatherston. 1992. "Effects of linguistic structure on childrenB /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ability to isolate initial consonants". Joumal of Educational Psychology 84: 174- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

586 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-University of Michigan Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Caravolas, M. & M. Bruck. 1993. "The effect of oral and written language input on /2002/congreso_XX.txt:children's phonological awareness: A cross-linguistic study." Joumal of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Experimental Child Psychology 55: 1-30. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Content, A. 1984. "L'analyse phonétique explicite de la parole et l'acquisition de la

587 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Goswami, U., J.E. Gombert & L.F. Barrera. 1998. "Children's orthographic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:representations and linguistic transparency: Nonsense word reading in English, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-French and Spanish". AppliedPsycholinguistics 19: 19-52. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

588 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-factors that determine the subject's profile should be taken into account. Drawing /2002/congreso_XX.txt-on some of the existing data on this issue, it seems undeniable that the situation /2002/congreso_XX.txt:imposed by the external world is directly reflected upon the linguistic behaviour of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-any individual. Thus, it is not strange that the concept of "language choice" -a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-bilingual's preference of a language over another in a particular situation and with /2002/congreso_XX.txt-different purposes -is more related to socio-cultural norms rather than purely /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic niles. However, a psycholinguistic approach also proves essential in order /2002/congreso_XX.txt-to establish a proper frame for the description of a bilingual person. This approach /2002/congreso_XX.txt-mainly aims at clarifying the internal processes that account for the special /2002/congreso_XX.txt-functioning of a bilingual's brain as well as for a specific way of assimilating two /2002/congreso_XX.txt:native languages. Following the guidelines provided by a socio-linguistic and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-psycholinguistic approach to bilingualism, the goal of our study has been twofold: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-finding out the reasons why an English-Spanish bilingual teenager occasionally /2002/congreso_XX.txt-employs the two languages with different purposes and explaining to what extent /2002/congreso_XX.txt:one linguistic system affects the other in the production stage. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1. INTRODUCTION /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:1.1. Socio-linguistic perspectives of bilingualism /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In order to establish a proper frame for this small piece of research work, an

589 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-employed the terms group membership, situation and topic of the conversation /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Fishman, 1965: 89-106) to refer to these external factors regulating a bilingual /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic preference. As regards group membership, researchers have stated that the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:fact of belonging to a specific social group clearly affects the bilingual linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-behaviour, determining the choice of one language or another. Situation also plays an /2002/congreso_XX.txt-important role in language choice. Therefore, in a familiar atmosphere, a bilingual may

590 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-business at work. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:So far, we have tried to enhance the importante of the socio-linguistic approach to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-bilingualism. However, there is still much to be said about the psycholinguistic as well /2002/congreso_XX.txt:as the linguistic implications of this phenomenon, which will help us, later on, to /2002/congreso_XX.txt:analyse our bilingual subject and the most salient features of his linguistic production. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1.2.Psycholinguistic perspectives of bilingualism

591 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-"simultaneous acquisition of more than one language during the period of primary /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language development" (Genesee, 1989: 329-43). According to the available evidence, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:the bilingual child's development of two linguistic systems conveys a series of stages /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Meisel, 1989: 344-69 ) that could be summarized as follows: at a first stage, the child /2002/congreso_XX.txt-apparently owns a common lexical system for both languages; therefore, a great amount

592 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-switching. As opposed to language mixing and interference, code-switching has to do /2002/congreso_XX.txt-with the pragmatic competence of the individual in the sense that it involves a /2002/congreso_XX.txt:bilingual's ability to use both linguistic systems to achieve different communicative /2002/congreso_XX.txt-goals. Some authors consider this phenomenon as a communication strategy (Skiba, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1997; Wei, 2000). Moreover, this type of alternation of two languages within a single

593 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-thirteen-year-old English-Spanish bilingual, was asked to translate a passage from a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Spanish edition of John Steinbeck's Of mice and men into English (see Appendix 1). /2002/congreso_XX.txt:This procedure has allowed us to find some interesting linguistic interferences which /2002/congreso_XX.txt-show the impact of one of the languages on the other. However, before offering this /2002/congreso_XX.txt:brief linguistic analysis, an ethno-linguistic portrait of our subject needs to be /2002/congreso_XX.txt:introduced in order to discover some of the most salient features of his linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:identity, his linguistic community and his bilingual household. The method employed /2002/congreso_XX.txt-with this purpose has been a written questionnaire (pease-Álvarez, 1993) including /2002/congreso_XX.txt-questions for our English-Spanish bilingual adolescent and his Spanish-English /2002/congreso_XX.txt-bilingual mother, which we have also enclosed in this research paper (see Appendix 11). /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The data obiained have served to come to severa1 conclusions regarding the socio- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic as well as the psycholinguistic factors that determine Marco's bilingual /2002/congreso_XX.txt-behaviour. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

594 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-3.1.2.Home /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:The linguistic situation at home appears to be one of the most determinant factors /2002/congreso_XX.txt-when dealing with bilingual children. Marco's mother, Paloma, is a native Spanish who /2002/congreso_XX.txt-moved to London thirteen years ago. Though Marco was born in Badajoz, he has been

595 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-severa1 conclusions. On the one hand, we believe that the questionnaire has provided us /2002/congreso_XX.txt-with some interesting information about Marco's language choice. The maintenance of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:English and his few shifts into Spanish demonstrate Marco's linguistic preferences, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-which seem to be mainly determined by his household and surroundings. In fact, the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lack of competence with his second language, Spanish, is one of the consequences of

596 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(suppl.): 126-13 1. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Garayzábal, E. & M. Sotillo.1999. "Socio-communicative Abilities and Linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Abilities in Williams' Syndrome". IXth European Conference on Developmental /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Psychology Spetses, Grecia, 1-5 de Septiembre.

597 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Noviembre) En prensa. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Gosch, A,, G. Standing & R. Pankau. 1994. "Linguistic abilities in children with Williams- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Beuren syndrome". American Joumal ofMedical Genetics, 52: 29 1-296. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Grice, H.P. 1975. "Lógica y conversación". En L.M. Valdés La Búsqueda del Signficado.

598 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Síndrome". American Joumal ofMedical Genetics (suppl. 6): 108-1 14 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Volterra, V., O. Capirci, G. Pezzini, L. Sabbadini & S. Vicari. 1996. "Linguistic abilities in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Italian children with Williams syndrome". Cortex,32: 663-677. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

599 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-competence involves knowing not only the language code, but also what to say to whom, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and how to say it appropiatly in any given situation. It deals with the social and cultural /2002/congreso_XX.txt:knowledge speakers are presumed to have to enable them to use and interpret linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-forms. [...] Clear cross-cultural differences can and do produce conflicts or inhibit /2002/congreso_XX.txt-communication. (Troike 1989: 16-21)

600 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-discriminación lingüktica). Madrid: Alianza Editorial. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Nettle, D. 1999. Linguistic Diversi@. Oxford: Oxford University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Nettle, D. & S. Romaine. 2000 Vanishing Voices: The extinction of the WorldS

601 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Publicaciones de la Universidad de León y AESLA. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Douglas-Cowie, E. 1978. "Linguistic code-switching in a Northern Irish village: Social /2002/congreso_XX.txt-interaction and social ambition". Sociolinguisticpatterns in British English. Ed. P. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Trudgill. Londres: Edward Arnold. 37-51.

602 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Cambridge University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Trudgill, P.J. 1981. "Linguistic accommodation: Sociolinguistic observations on a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-sociopsychological theory". Papers from the Parasession on Language and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Behaviour. Eds. C. Masek, R. Hendrick y M. Miller. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Society. 218-317. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Trudgill, P.J. 1982. "Linguistic accommodation: sociolinguistic observations on a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-sociopsychological theory". Sixth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. Eds. T. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Fretheim y L. Hellan. Trondheim: Tapir.

603 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Toledo, G. 1988. El ritmo en el español, Madrid: Gredos. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Trugill, P. 1972. "Sex, covert prestige and linguistic change in the urban British English /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of Nonvich", Language in Socieq, 1: 179-195. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

604 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-interpretation of important experiences in people's everyday lives (Schiffrin, 1996; /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Ochs and Capps, 2001). In the case of minority communities, the telling of narratives /2002/congreso_XX.txt:is often also an occasion to manifest their intemalized linguistic oppression (Torres, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1997). Within the Mexican immigrant community, the issue of the control of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language resources is a central question not only for its consequences on the insertion

605 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-first-generation Mexican women, who participate in a bilingual/bicultural afta school /2002/congreso_XX.txt-computer program in San Diego, California. The paper focuses on stories where the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:complicating action involves issues related to ethnicity and access to linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:resources. The main linguistic strategy used in this knd of stories consisted of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-constructed dialogues (Tannen, 1989), which portrayed how the events took place and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the ways in which Mexican immigrant women positioned themselves. Positioning is

606 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The main research question in this paper is: What kind ofpositioning do Mexican /2002/congreso_XX.txt:women construct in narrative discourse with respect to the linguistic conjicts they come /2002/congreso_XX.txt-across every *?. Following, Davies and Harré (1990), 1 define positioning as the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:result of the linguistic strategies that subjects display in conversation to index the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-relevant aspects of their identities. As these authors indicate: /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

607 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and Capps, 2001: 173). /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:This analysis allows us to delve into the linguistic mechanisms in the stories /2002/congreso_XX.txt:identifying the conflict sources and the linguistic responses towards the events /2002/congreso_XX.txt-portrayed. For example, many of the problematic incidents in most of the narratives of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language experiences consisted of past dialogues accounts. By analysing Mexican

608 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Volek, 1987). /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:2 A second agenda rooted in knowledge of the linguistic devices that express emotion /2002/congreso_XX.txt-in language (Ochs and Schieffelin, 1986). /2002/congreso_XX.txt-3 Finally, researchers who agree on the meta-communicational pragmatic nature of

609 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Taking into account both considerations, in this paper we understand emotions and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:emotional language as "being done" in conversation through multiple linguistic and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-paralinguistic devices such as: facial expressions, body postures, prosodic features, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lexical and syntactic forms. To operationalize the term "emotion", we have borrowed

610 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-authors, the term affect is "a broader term than emotions, (which includes) feelings, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-moodr, dispositions, and attitudes associated with persons and /or situations" (Ochs /2002/congreso_XX.txt:and Schieffelin, 1989: 7). Affect is expressed through affect keys, i.e. "those linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-features that intensz& or specz& affect functions" (Ochs and Schieffelin, 1989: 13).

611 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the language chosen by the subjects. Most of them took place in Spanish, one in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-English and three in both languages since for some of the participants code-switching /2002/congreso_XX.txt:was a common linguistic practice. The interviews lasted from thirty to two hour long in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-one of the cases. They were al1 audio-taped and transcribed adapting conversation /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

612 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-La Clase Mágica or LCM is a bilingual/bicultural after-school computer program /2002/congreso_XX.txt:to satisfy the linguistic and cultural needs of the MexicanILatino community in San /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Diego. It was founded in 1989 by a research group at the Laboratory of Comparative /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Human Cognition at the University of California, San Diego. The main goal was to

613 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-locations of Solana Beach, San Ysidro and Imperial Beach in San Diego County. The /2002/congreso_XX.txt-program is planning to extend to other locations in North San Diego County and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:accommodate the linguistic and cultural needs of the Native American community. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-UCSD undergraduate students, under the direction of the project director or

614 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-today, LCM runs under the direction of a working class Mexican community. The /2002/congreso_XX.txt-curriculum is bilingual and designed and reshaped continuously to meet the daily /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic and cultural realities of the community. A group of seven women from /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Mexican origin is currently working as site coordinators in the locations where LCM is /2002/congreso_XX.txt-operating.

615 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-In contrast to this kind of narratives, in which women's degree of intervention in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:unpleasant language experiences was diminished, narratives about those linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-conflicts originated from the interplay between the Spanish language and Mexican /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ethnicity proved to be not only highly emotional but also highly agentive.

616 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-as highly agentive in this kind of events. The component ATTEMPT identified the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-different strategies Mexican women developed to show their resistance towards /2002/congreso_XX.txt:discriminatory linguistic events. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-5.1.No English, no defence

617 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-importance on mainiaining the Spanish language at home however difficult or anecdotal /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the communication was with their children. This example portrays Mexican women as /2002/congreso_XX.txt:actively defending the value of Spanish language and confronting undesirable linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-situations in the language they know. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

618 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language and ethnicity were at risk. Mexican immigrant women positioned themselves /2002/congreso_XX.txt-as facing the difficulties they came across in communicative encounters. Self- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:preseniation in these narratives is indicative of the linguistic and socio-cultural reality of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Mexican immigrant women in the Southwest. A reality characterized by a desire to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-keep the Spanish language alive despite sociopolitical forces, such as the English only

619 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ethnolinguistic vitality of Spanish in the U.S. Far from fitting in stereotypical visions of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Mexican women as silent and submissive, the women 1 interviewed contested unfair and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:discriminatory linguistic situations, constructing new identities as part of life in a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-second language. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

620 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-on the growth of the HispanicILatino population in the U.S, the visibility of Spanish in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-public domains (Hidalgo, 2001) and the creation of bilingual and bicultural programs /2002/congreso_XX.txt:that satisfy the linguistic and cultural needs of the LatinoIMexican community in San /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Diego, daily communicative encounters of Mexican immigrant women in the Southwest /2002/congreso_XX.txt-border region of San Diego and Tijuana does not escape the language and ethnicity

621 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:As has already been noted above, the full meaning impact of a linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expression based on conceptual correlation and integration is to be calculated on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-basis of the total range of meaning implications which the hearer is led to derive.

622 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Implicated propositions, on the other hand, are the result of a premise-conclusion /2002/congreso_XX.txt-calculation where the set of premises is exclusively derived from the context (including /2002/congreso_XX.txt:our world knowledge) without the help of any indicators within the linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expression. For example, in the utterance The park is some distance from here, the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expression "some distance" may be developed into 'quite a long disiance' by means of

623 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-additional input spaces to be projected into the blend. Consequently, for Ruiz de /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Mendoza (1999) explicatures, which are simply adaptations of the conceptual material /2002/congreso_XX.txt:initially provided by the linguistic expression, would fa11 outside the blend. There are /2002/congreso_XX.txt-two problems with this proposal. One is that it ignores the fact that explicature /2002/congreso_XX.txt-derivation, as conceived by Sperber & Wilson, is a form of inferential activity too. The

624 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Let us centre on reference now. The first question at stake is what is the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:relationship between reference and denotation. Both semantic functions relate linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt:entities to non-linguistic ones by identifying the members of a certain class. Although /2002/congreso_XX.txt-there are severa1 differences between denotation and reference, for the purposes of this /2002/congreso_XX.txt-paper it is enough to state that the term reference is preferable to denotation when

625 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-4. IMPLICATIONS FOR FG /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:FG divides linguistic categories into predicates (the counterpart of lexical /2002/congreso_XX.txt-categories in other theories) and terms (the counterpart of some grammatical categories /2002/congreso_XX.txt-in other theories). Predicates form part of structures called predicate frames, which

626 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-nominal, the theory should also describe and explain less prototypical term phrases of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-an adverbial nature that share with prototypical term phrases the ability to point at orto /2002/congreso_XX.txt:make reference to non-linguistic entitites. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-REFERENCES

627 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Language Sciences. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Taylor, J. 1989. Linguistic Categorization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

628 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-tenets of Construction Grammar, that is, that syntax is not the central aspect of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-language, but it is the interaction between syntax, semantics and pragmatics that allows /2002/congreso_XX.txt:us to explain and describe a wide range of linguistic phenomena. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-After having highlighted the significant role of focus structure in Construction

629 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Before analyzing severa1 examples from the corpus, it should be remarked that /2002/congreso_XX.txt:adverbs such as yesterday, today and tomorrow are linguistic expressions which take the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-utterance time as a reference point, and as such they are referred to as deictic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-expressions.

630 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Constructions: The Case of Let Alone ", Language, 64: 50 1-538. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Fillmore, C. & P. Kay. 1999a. "Grammatical constructions and linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-generalizations: the What SX doing Y? construction", Language 7311: 1-33. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Fillmore, C. & P. Kay. 1999b. Construction Grammar. Unpublished ms., University of

631 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-severa1 Cognitive-Pragmatic theories of communication and interpretation to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-theories of advertising where special attention will be paid to the structure of such /2002/congreso_XX.txt:cognitive tools as conceptual blends and metaphors as paradigms of linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-creativity or meaning construction (Fauconnier: 1985). When analysing metaphors /2002/congreso_XX.txt-we will focus on the fact that the creation of images through puns and word play is

632 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Since advertising consists of a process involving two main subjects: advertisers (= /2002/congreso_XX.txt-speaker) and an audience (= hearer) in the same way communication does, we will be /2002/congreso_XX.txt:based on the following body of knowledge: i) General theories of linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-communication: a) The cognitive- pragmatic approaches (Sperber and Wilsonm 1995 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Relevance Theory and GriceB general pragmatic theory, 1991:5 16) b) Cognitive semantics

633 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Finally, although there already exist some semiotic approaches involved here, we /2002/congreso_XX.txt-will just name them slightly so that there is a process of decoding signs in advertisements. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Othenvise, we will be concerned mainly with linguistic, cognitive and cultural approaches. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-As far as Pragmatics is concerned, we realize that every process of interaction

634 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Tanakam (1994) approach to advertisements relies on the distinction between the /2002/congreso_XX.txt:semiotic approach and the linguistic one. Some semiotic approaches refers to Roland /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Barthes, Dyer (1982:224) and Williamson (1983). They are based on the assumption /2002/congreso_XX.txt-that communication is achieved by a process of encoding and decoding a message.

635 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-time. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:By the way, we will rather support a basically linguistic approach since our texts /2002/congreso_XX.txt-are linguistically conveyed and we will deal with written texts. Vestegaard and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-SchroderB The Language of Advertising, (1985), argue that advertisers need some

636 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-teaching of specialised language in the ESL classes of any degree course in /2002/congreso_XX.txt-business studies. In order to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the grammar and /2002/congreso_XX.txt:vocabulary of BE (Business English), students should be taught specific linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-structures and vocabulary within meaningful contexts. One of those contexts /2002/congreso_XX.txt-happens to be the Internet, a medium that has transformed the language of business

637 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-introduction of the Internet and the World Wide Web. These transformations are ultimately /2002/congreso_XX.txt-reflected on the global language of the net, English, which nowadays presents new /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic and semantic features that deserve an exhaustive analysis. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Manv authors have alreadv demonstrated that the Internet and the World Wide Web /2002/congreso_XX.txt:constitute a new source of linguistic and discoursal transformations that have affected /2002/congreso_XX.txt-eveiy day communication, bringing about a new concept of literacy (Davis and Brewer /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1997; Herring 1996; Warschauer 1999). Others have focused on the new genres that have

638 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-(Oxford University Press 1998). Thus, we obtained frequency and alphabetical word /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lists of al1 the collected trade names. We have realized that a computerized corpus /2002/congreso_XX.txt:clearly facilitates the search for linguistic features as well as for discoursal strategies, as /2002/congreso_XX.txt-compared to a hand analysis, which, from our experience, proves more tiring and the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-results less reliable. However, we have manually searched for graphological and

639 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-and constitute a kind of hallmark, since they contain a great deal of valuable /2002/congreso_XX.txt-information about a particular company's sales techniques and commercial style. It was /2002/congreso_XX.txt:our belief that an analysis of the linguistic and semantic features of such names would /2002/congreso_XX.txt-reveal interesting data about the type of discoursal and marketing techniques a particular /2002/congreso_XX.txt-institution employs. Thus, our study has only focused on the graphology of the trade

640 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-semantic features anything related to the meaning of such word types-, although we are /2002/congreso_XX.txt-aware that further analyses would probably offer a more enlarged scope of the issues /2002/congreso_XX.txt:dealt with in the present study, namely the linguistic and discoursal implications of this /2002/congreso_XX.txt-new type of e-business vocabulary. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

641 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-World Wide Web pages". /2002/congreso_XX.txt-[http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue3 1l/cordone/index.html] /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Davis, B. H.& J.P Brewer. 1997. ~lectrkTcDisckrse. Linguistic Individuals in Virtual /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Space. New York: State University of New York.

642 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-[http://www.newsfactor.com/perl/printer/l1754] /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Herring, S.C. Ed. 1996. C Dnputer Mediated C Dnmunicatik. Linguistic, SEial and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-CrDs-cultural Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Pandey, A. 2000. "Linguistic power in virtual communities: the Ebonics debate on the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-internet". WDld Englishes 19: 2 1-38. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

643 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-a. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:To our knowledge, it has never been used as a corpus for linguistic study; /2002/congreso_XX.txt-b. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-It involves a variety of disciplines and a variety of speakers, some belonging to

644 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Spoken academic English has not received much attention in linguistic research.Only /2002/congreso_XX.txt-some linguists have opted for lectures (Dudley-Evans and Johns, 1981; Chaudron and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Richards, 1986; Dunkel and Davis, 1994; Flowerdew, 1994), and at the moment some

645 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Halliday (1994:250) considers ciiation under the concept of 'projection', "the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-logical-semantic relationship whereby a clause comes to function (...) as a /2002/congreso_XX.txt:representation of a (linguistic) representation". He distinguishes between quoted or /2002/congreso_XX.txt-direct speech or thought, and reported or indirect speech or thought. In quoted speech /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the projecting clause is a verbal process, whereas in quoted thought and in reported

646 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-important findings in this paper are related to the description of citations, which to our /2002/congreso_XX.txt:knowledge had not been the focus of any previous linguistic research. It will be /2002/congreso_XX.txt-interesting to continue the research in this field, including other variables such as /2002/congreso_XX.txt-introductory verbs, mode of cited language, personality of the cited author, function and

647 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-ABSTRACT /2002/congreso_XX.txt-This paper describes a data-driven learning and research tool: ~extworks'. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:TextWorks is a software application consisting of four tools: two applied linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-research tools (a concordancer and a tagger) and two language leaming tools (an /2002/congreso_XX.txt-exercise creation environment [ECE] and a virtual library for leaming English

648 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-dissimilar to that of an applied linguist canying out hislher research. However, it is more /2002/congreso_XX.txt-likely that, in the case of the learner, the data will have been manipulated so that they are /2002/congreso_XX.txt:guided towards discovering certain pre-prepared linguistic rules. Nevertheless, despite the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-control exercised by the teacher in preparing the daia, this type of learning fits in well with /2002/congreso_XX.txt-learner-centred approaches and task-based methodology.

649 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-[ñ the section above, we have already touched upon many of the functions of the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-program. However, here we will go into greater detail. As we have already stated, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:TextWorks is a software program with two tools for linguistic research and analysis (a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-concordancer and a tagger). Currently, these two research tools realize the following /2002/congreso_XX.txt-eight principal functions:

650 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-material. O potentially allows us to establish relationships between lexis and grammar, to /2002/congreso_XX.txt-look into the macro-structure of the texts, to study syntactic and discourse phenomena, test /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic theories and even analyze literary works. However, it is most useful in the area /2002/congreso_XX.txt-of lexico-grammatical studies. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Nevertheless, the program may also be useful for language learning. [ñ the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-context of CALL, the learner who utilizes this kind of program acts as if slhe were a /2002/congreso_XX.txt:researcher whose learning needs are driven by the linguistic data that the program /2002/congreso_XX.txt-provides. This type of learning has given rise to an approach known as Data Driven /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Learning (DDL) (Johns, 1991). The machine acts as a passive informant, which offers /2002/congreso_XX.txt:the learner examples of authentic linguistic data or extracts of language performance /2002/congreso_XX.txt-when the learner asks for them. The learner's task is to interpret the data and to integrate /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the new knowledge slhe has obtained into that which they already know. should be

651 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Haser, V. 2000. "Metaphor in semantic change". Metaphor and metonymy at the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Crossroadr. Ed. Barcelona. A. Berlin: Mouton de Cruyter.171-194. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Kovecses, Z., & G. Radden. 1998. "Metonymy: Developing a cognitive linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-view". Cognitive Linguistics 9- 1 :37-77. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Laloff, G. & M. Turner. 1989. "More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic

652 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Fillmore, C. 1968. "The case for case", in Bach, E. and R Harm. Eds. Universals in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Linguistic Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Garcia Marco, F.J., F.J. Ruiz de Mendoza, & J.L. Ota1.1994. "Hyperlexis: a hypertext

653 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The English verbal lexicon has been organized onomasiologically in a hierarchy of /2002/congreso_XX.txt:domains and subdomains. The Lexeme is the central unit of linguistic description and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lexical organization is based on definitional analysis, following the Principie of Lexical /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Domain Membership, which says that Lexical domain membership is determined by the

654 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-However, in my opinion, children's fiction, requiring no "specialist" knowledge /2002/congreso_XX.txt-for comprehension regarding content and form, offers a most productive source of texts /2002/congreso_XX.txt:for providing material to teach awareness towards the linguistic, cultural and textual /2002/congreso_XX.txt:elements important within translation work. From a linguistic point of view, children's /2002/congreso_XX.txt:fiction offers a source rich in multiple linguistic structures, differing registers, tenors, /2002/congreso_XX.txt:etc. Basic linguistic differences cometo light: the "easy English" of children's fiction is /2002/congreso_XX.txt-not necessarily easy English for the Spanish student; deliberately unusual syntactic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-structures used for stylistic effect in English need to be recognised as such in an attempt

655 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-offers challenges and multiple opportunities for discussion without the complication of /2002/congreso_XX.txt-issues associated with adult cognitive development. My aim therefore is to exploit such /2002/congreso_XX.txt:texts to discuss register analysis, textual cohesion, idiomatic expressions, linguistic /2002/congreso_XX.txt-peculiarities, comparative discourse organisation, cultural references and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-simultaneously teach translation techniques with a view to working towards the

656 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-The translation exercises develop and enrich not only translation competence in the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-narrower sense, i.e. transfer competence, but also wherever necessary, other translation- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:relevant competences, such as (a) linguistic competence in the native language (Ll) and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-in the foreign language (L2) with regard to formal and semantic aspects of vocabulary and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-grammar, language varieties, register and style, text-type conventions, etc., (b) cultural

657 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:This classification splits Nord's "linguistic competence" into two parts and omits /2002/congreso_XX.txt-"technical competence" i.e. documentation/research. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

658 /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt-1. /2002/congreso_XX.txt:linguistic cbpetence of the languages concerned; /2002/congreso_XX.txt-2. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cultural cDnpetence, i.e. general howledge about historical, political, economic,

659 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-for translation into a non-native language, prioritising transfer and contrastive shlls: "1. /2002/congreso_XX.txt- /2002/congreso_XX.txt:Transfer Chpetence, II. Cktrastive Linguistic Chpetence, III. Cktrastive Disckrse /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Chpetence, IV. Extralinguistic Chpetence, this last encompassing both SL and TL /2002/congreso_XX.txt-cultures, documentation skills and also, presumably, subject competence.

660 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Spanish? Varying idiolects within texts are always problematic. In this case, can the /2002/congreso_XX.txt-American dialect be reflected in the Spanish translation? This leads us to another /2002/congreso_XX.txt:important issue: target reader expectations. Not only are there linguistic restrictions on /2002/congreso_XX.txt-transfer but also restrictions related to reader expectations and pragmatic principles, /2002/congreso_XX.txt-related to culture-specific notions of relevance, explicitness, etc. English verbs of

661 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-lexis exist in normal use in Spanish e.g. 'bramar', 'bufar' and will the young reader find /2002/congreso_XX.txt-the lexis acceptable? Or, on the other hand, will the manner information appear in an /2002/congreso_XX.txt:adverbial phrase or simply be omitted? From a linguistic point of view, adverbial /2002/congreso_XX.txt-phrases will complicate the syntax possibly making manner information prominent and /2002/congreso_XX.txt-thus, from a pragmatic point of view, distracting and difficult to process either for

662 /2002/congreso_XX.txt-omission of manner information and yet may satisfactorily fulfil TT reader expectations. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-Therefore, translation from English into Spanish of this type of lexis, common in /2002/congreso_XX.txt:everyday texts poses not only challenges from a linguistic point of view but also a /2002/congreso_XX.txt-pragmatic point of view, which is important for achieving transfer competence. /2002/congreso_XX.txt-

663 /2004/Tomo1s.html-the on-going reflexivity, and the multiplicity and dynamism implied in /2004/Tomo1s.html-phrases like ‘inte- /2004/Tomo1s.html:llectual practices’. In fact of course, for these applied linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-practices to be pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-fessional and principled, some kinds of consistency are needed. The

664 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Firstly, in applied linguistics it is a necessary phenomenon to enable /2004/Tomo1s.html-all categories /2004/Tomo1s.html:of linguistic description. This is because no category of language /2004/Tomo1s.html-description is viable /2004/Tomo1s.html:unless it recurs with a reasonably constant value. No applied linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-category has /2004/Tomo1s.html-value unless it applies to different people in different contexts. As we

665 /2004/Tomo1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo1s.html-2.contribucionesinvitadas 7/9/05 19:03 Página 49 /2004/Tomo1s.html:Duranty, Alessandro, 1997, rééd. 2000, Linguistic Anthropology, /2004/Tomo1s.html-Cambridge, Univer- /2004/Tomo1s.html-sity Press.

666 /2004/Tomo1s.html-As reported by Nobuyoski and Ellis (1993) and Ellis (2001), in a focus /2004/Tomo1s.html-on form ins- /2004/Tomo1s.html:truction there is an attempt to pay attention to linguistic forms /2004/Tomo1s.html-through meaning-focus- /2004/Tomo1s.html-sed communicative tasks. In this case, teachers and students’ verbal /2004/Tomo1s.html-behaviour in /2004/Tomo1s.html:performing the tasks might explicitly or implicitly notice linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-problems, draw interlo- /2004/Tomo1s.html-cutors’ attention to them (noticing function), solve the problem through

667 /2004/Tomo1s.html-speaker-related factors /2004/Tomo1s.html-and content-related factors necessary for choosing appropriate /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic choices in /2004/Tomo1s.html-making requests. Students were exposed to the scripted video recorded /2004/Tomo1s.html-conversa-

668 /2004/Tomo1s.html-the study): /2004/Tomo1s.html-Direct Appeal (D.A.): participants directly indicate that there is a /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-blem by asking for the interlocutor’s help. /2004/Tomo1s.html-Indirect Appeal (I.A.): participants indirectly indicate that there is a /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-blem by means of repetition of the utterance, use of pauses, silence, /2004/Tomo1s.html-and so on.

669 /2004/Tomo1s.html-that the num- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ber of mediating strategies in which one of the interlocutors signals a /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-blem and asks for interlocutor’s help to solve it is greater in group B /2004/Tomo1s.html-than in group A /2004/Tomo1s.html-(X2 = 21.05, df = 11, P<.05). The proportion of strategies indicating a /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-blem and providing the correct form is also significantly greater in /2004/Tomo1s.html-group B (X2 =

670 /2004/Tomo1s.html-interaction, we can /2004/Tomo1s.html-claim that, although teachers tend to use more direct strategies to /2004/Tomo1s.html:notice linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-aspects, pragmatic knowledge may be constructed when learners interact /2004/Tomo1s.html-with other /2004/Tomo1s.html-learners. In this sense, teachers and learners, as observed in language /2004/Tomo1s.html-related episo- /2004/Tomo1s.html:des, focus on linguistic problems, solve them and reflect about language /2004/Tomo1s.html-use. In /2004/Tomo1s.html-other words, we could claim that interlocutors’ behaviour in our study

671 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Martínez-Flor, A. and Alcón, E. 2004. Pragmatic competence in the ESP /2004/Tomo1s.html-context: A /2004/Tomo1s.html:study across disciplines. Linguistic studies in academic and professional /2004/Tomo1s.html-English. Eds. I. Fortanet, J. C. Palmer and S. Posteguillo. Castellón: /2004/Tomo1s.html-Servei de

672 /2004/Tomo1s.html-“Consolidated Lear- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ning”, where learning has been systematised by students. By studying the /2004/Tomo1s.html:use of the linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-concept of “avoidance” and syntactically correct negation forms, /2004/Tomo1s.html-two measurement rules are pro-

673 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Where, CL= Consolidated Learning, and “a” and “b” are the parameters /2004/Tomo1s.html-from the /2004/Tomo1s.html:regression, which have the following linguistic interpretation: /2004/Tomo1s.html-“a” is the percentage of use of the negative form in question at the /2004/Tomo1s.html-beginning of the

674 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Analysis. Forthco- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ming. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Alonso-Vázquez, C. 2003b. Transfer and Linguistic Context. Forthcoming. /2004/Tomo1s.html-Bachman, L.F. and Cohen, A.D. 1998. The measurement of foreign/second /2004/Tomo1s.html-language

675 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Michael, H.L. (Eds.). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Black- /2004/Tomo1s.html-well Publishing: 717-762. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Odlin, T. 1999. Cross-Linguistic influence. In Doughty, C.J. and /2004/Tomo1s.html-Michael, H.L. (Eds.). /2004/Tomo1s.html-The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Blackwell Publishing: 436- /2004/Tomo1s.html-487. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Polio, C. G. 1997. Measures of linguistic accuracy in second language /2004/Tomo1s.html-writing rese- /2004/Tomo1s.html-arch. Language Learning, 47: 101-143.

676 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Harris, J. 1986. Organization in Children’s Writing /2004/Tomo1s.html-(Non-fictional). Reading Childre- /2004/Tomo1s.html:n’s Writing. A Linguistic View. Eds. J. Harris y J. Wilkinson. London: /2004/Tomo1s.html-Allen & /2004/Tomo1s.html-Unwin. 46-73.

677 /2004/Tomo1s.html-O’Donnell, M. 1995. From Corpus to Coding: Semi-Automating the /2004/Tomo1s.html-Acquisition of /2004/Tomo1s.html:Linguistic Features. Actas del AAAI Spring Symposium on Empirical Methods /2004/Tomo1s.html-in Discourse Interpretation and Generation, Stanford University, California, /2004/Tomo1s.html-Marzo 27-29. /2004/Tomo1s.html-Pelsmaekers, K., C. Braecke, y R. Geluykens. 1998. Rhetorical relations /2004/Tomo1s.html-and subordi- /2004/Tomo1s.html:nation in L2 writing. Linguistic Choice across Genres. Variation in Spoken /2004/Tomo1s.html-and Written English. Eds A. Sánchez-Macarro y R. Carter. Amsterdam: Benja- /2004/Tomo1s.html-min. 191-213.

678 /2004/Tomo1s.html-ABSTRACT /2004/Tomo1s.html-From a pedagogical perspective, corpora represent a collection of texts /2004/Tomo1s.html:for linguistic analysis that /2004/Tomo1s.html-can be used by professionals such as technical writers of manuals as /2004/Tomo1s.html-well as researchers who

679 /2004/Tomo1s.html-The idea of transfer has changed throughout the history of second /2004/Tomo1s.html-language acquisition research /2004/Tomo1s.html:giving way nowadays to interesting perspectives of cross-linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-influence in multilingual lear- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ners. This study explores the amount and use of the L1 (Catalan and

680 /2004/Tomo1s.html-a measure /2004/Tomo1s.html-which has been used extensively in discourse analysis (Crookes 1990). /2004/Tomo1s.html:The next stage was to identify the instances of cross-linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-influence, that /2004/Tomo1s.html-is, the use of words that do not exist in English and which are based on

681 /2004/Tomo1s.html-rely more on L1 than adult learners?. Actas del XV Congreso AEDEAN. Gra- /2004/Tomo1s.html-nada: Universidad de Granada. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Cenoz, J. 2001. The Effect of Linguistic Distance, L2 Status and Age on /2004/Tomo1s.html-Cross-lin- /2004/Tomo1s.html:guistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition. Cross-linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-Influence in /2004/Tomo1s.html-Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Eds. J. Cenoz, B.

682 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Long- /2004/Tomo1s.html-man. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Kellerman, E. and M. Sharwood Smith. 1986. Cross-linguistic Influence in /2004/Tomo1s.html-Second /2004/Tomo1s.html-Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

683 /2004/Tomo1s.html-ve. Firstly, the influence of the degree of bilingualism on their /2004/Tomo1s.html-writing will be examined. In order /2004/Tomo1s.html:to do this, the writings of students enrolled in the three linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-models currently available in /2004/Tomo1s.html-the Basque educational system will be under analysis. Secondly, the

684 /2004/Tomo1s.html-course of intermediate to advanced learners of L2 Spanish in an /2004/Tomo1s.html-immersion context. Qualitative /2004/Tomo1s.html:analysis allows to observe and interpret a number of inter-linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-patterns beyond the traditio- /2004/Tomo1s.html-nal triggers for pronominal and null anaphora in native discourse. The

685 /2004/Tomo1s.html-This study presents data on code-mixing in language production in the /2004/Tomo1s.html-context of the long-run- /2004/Tomo1s.html:ning debate on the existence of one versus two linguistic systems during /2004/Tomo1s.html-the earliest stages of /2004/Tomo1s.html-bilingual language acquisition. The data derive from a longitudinal

686 /2004/Tomo1s.html-last two years of secondary education in Spain. Having analysed a corpus /2004/Tomo1s.html-of over /2004/Tomo1s.html:300 texts for rhetorical and linguistic features, we now have a detailed /2004/Tomo1s.html-description of /2004/Tomo1s.html-what these pre-university students are able to produce as regards

687 /2004/Tomo1s.html-important activity in writing the genres, we prepared a table allowing a /2004/Tomo1s.html-detailed analy- /2004/Tomo1s.html:sis of the linguistic realisations the students produced for the /2004/Tomo1s.html-representation of gene- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ric participants, based mainly on Halliday and Hasan (1976), Martin

688 /2004/Tomo1s.html-two learner groups are reported. Results from examining learners’ /2004/Tomo1s.html-performance in two pragmatic /2004/Tomo1s.html:production tasks show that linguistic competence may not be a sufficient /2004/Tomo1s.html-condition for pragmatic /2004/Tomo1s.html-development but may play an important role in foreign language learners /2004/Tomo1s.html-pragmatic production. /2004/Tomo1s.html:The assumed mismatch between learners’ linguistic and pragmatic /2004/Tomo1s.html-competence (Kasper and /2004/Tomo1s.html-Rose, 1999) was not fully confirmed by our findings. In fact,

689 /2004/Tomo1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo1s.html-adqu_y_aprend_2 7/9/05 14:05 Página 222 /2004/Tomo1s.html:in speech acts production by individuals from various linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-backgrounds. In gene- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ral terms, results from their study showed that language learners, as /2004/Tomo1s.html-well as native spe- /2004/Tomo1s.html:akers, made use of different linguistic realisations. However, language /2004/Tomo1s.html-learners did not /2004/Tomo1s.html-always consider the appropriateness of certain routines to particular

690 /2004/Tomo1s.html-request acts pro- /2004/Tomo1s.html-duction, several scholars have pointed to significant changes in the /2004/Tomo1s.html:type of linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-formulations used that was related to an increase in the proficiency /2004/Tomo1s.html-level of their sub-

691 /2004/Tomo1s.html-3. Results /2004/Tomo1s.html-As stated before, we hypothesised that there would be a mismatch between our /2004/Tomo1s.html:subjects’ linguistic and pragmatic competence as predicted by previous /2004/Tomo1s.html-studies. For /2004/Tomo1s.html-this purpose, we examined the use of conventionally indirect, direct and

692 /2004/Tomo1s.html-As may be observed in table 2, results point to a significant difference /2004/Tomo1s.html-between /2004/Tomo1s.html:beginner and intermediate learners’ use of request linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-realisations in terms of /2004/Tomo1s.html-quantity. The difference in mean scores reveals that subjects at an

693 /2004/Tomo1s.html-mediate learners always outperformed beginner ones. Nevertheless, there /2004/Tomo1s.html-were two /2004/Tomo1s.html:particular linguistic realisations which seemed to contradict findings /2004/Tomo1s.html-reported in figu- /2004/Tomo1s.html-re 1 and table 1. These refer to the use of desire (e.g. I would like to /2004/Tomo1s.html-borrow your /2004/Tomo1s.html-bag) and performative (e.g. I ask you to lend me your bag) request /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic realisa- /2004/Tomo1s.html-tions, which are presented in figures 2 and 3 above and the statistical /2004/Tomo1s.html-significance is

694 /2004/Tomo1s.html-nally indirect and direct formulations, and peripheral modification /2004/Tomo1s.html-devices only appear /2004/Tomo1s.html:in this type of linguistic formulations in order to mitigate the /2004/Tomo1s.html-impositive nature of the /2004/Tomo1s.html-request move.

695 /2004/Tomo1s.html-our hypothesis has been partly disconfirmed as no mismatch was found /2004/Tomo1s.html-between our /2004/Tomo1s.html:intermediate and beginner learners’ linguistic and pragmatic competence. /2004/Tomo1s.html-We have /2004/Tomo1s.html-examined EFL learners’ use of direct, conventionally indirect and

696 /2004/Tomo1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo1s.html-adqu_y_aprend_2 7/9/05 14:05 Página 228 /2004/Tomo1s.html:ting to the role of linguistic competence in pragmatic development /2004/Tomo1s.html-(Bardovi-Harlig, /2004/Tomo1s.html-1999).

697 /2004/Tomo1s.html-nally indirect, direct strategy types and peripheral modification /2004/Tomo1s.html-devices. In this sense, /2004/Tomo1s.html:we believe that our findings may lead to the importance of linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-competence in /2004/Tomo1s.html-promoting pragmatic development, as both constitute the global construct

698 /2004/Tomo1s.html-referred to an /2004/Tomo1s.html-increase in the use of mitigation devices and more variation in the /2004/Tomo1s.html:request linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-formulations used. Taking these facts into account, we may say that our /2004/Tomo1s.html-results sha-

699 /2004/Tomo1s.html-cation devices was reported by intermediate than by beginner learners. /2004/Tomo1s.html-Similarly, /2004/Tomo1s.html:intermediate learners employed a wider amount of request linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-realisations, /2004/Tomo1s.html-which also denoted wider variation. In light of our results, we may

700 /2004/Tomo1s.html-5. Conclusion /2004/Tomo1s.html-On the basis of previous studies, like those of Kasper (1997) and Kasper and /2004/Tomo1s.html:Rose (1999), we predicted a mismatch between our learners’ linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-and pragma- /2004/Tomo1s.html-tic competence. Results showed that intermediate learners outperformed

701 /2004/Tomo1s.html-language Acquisi- /2004/Tomo1s.html-tion. 18: 189-223. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Takahashi, S. and Dufon M. 1989. Cross-linguistic influence in /2004/Tomo1s.html-indirectness: The /2004/Tomo1s.html-case of English directives performed by native Japanese speakers. Unpublis-

702 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Bernhardt, E. B. y Kamil, M. L. 1995. Interpreting relationships between /2004/Tomo1s.html-L1 and L2 /2004/Tomo1s.html:reading: consolidating the linguistic threshold and the linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-interdepen- /2004/Tomo1s.html-dence hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 16 (1): 15-34.

703 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Educa- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ción. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Cummins, J. 1979. Linguistic interdependence and the educational /2004/Tomo1s.html-development of /2004/Tomo1s.html-bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49: 221-251.

704 /2004/Tomo1s.html-language learning. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, /2004/Tomo1s.html-9:.235-246. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Verhoeven, L. 1994. Transfer in bilingual development: the linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-interdependence /2004/Tomo1s.html-hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44 (3): 381-415.

705 /2004/Tomo1s.html-that is, they were disinclined to keep on negotiating. Several reasons /2004/Tomo1s.html-are thus suggested (shared /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic background, fear of losing face) which may account for the /2004/Tomo1s.html-reduction of negotiation. /2004/Tomo1s.html-RESUMEN

706 /2004/Tomo1s.html-The devices used in the negotiation process -comprehension checks, confirma- /2004/Tomo1s.html-tion checks, clarification requests or repetitions- provoke adjustments /2004/Tomo1s.html:to the linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-form, conversational structure, message content, or all three, until /2004/Tomo1s.html-interlocutors achie-

707 /2004/Tomo1s.html-conversation in Task 1 (Gass and Varonis 1991). What we suggest is that /2004/Tomo1s.html-subjects /2004/Tomo1s.html:feigned understanding, and this may be due to a) shared linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-background, and /2004/Tomo1s.html-b) fear of losing face. /2004/Tomo1s.html:As far as shared linguistic background is concerned, Varonis and Gass (1985) /2004/Tomo1s.html-argue that the greater the difference in the backgrounds of the /2004/Tomo1s.html-conversational partici-

708 /2004/Tomo1s.html-awareness that negotiation can be severely restricted (and, /2004/Tomo1s.html-consequently, compre- /2004/Tomo1s.html:hension may also be reduced) by two factors: a) shared linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-background, and b) /2004/Tomo1s.html-fear of losing face. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Two interlocutors who share the same linguistic background may find the /2004/Tomo1s.html-task of /2004/Tomo1s.html-negotiating meaning easier because they may activate the same schemata.

709 /2004/Tomo1s.html-actua- /2004/Tomo1s.html-les en Europa. M. Pujol, L. Nussbaum y M. Llobera (Eds). Madrid: Edelsa /2004/Tomo1s.html:Perdue,C. 1993 Adult Language Adquisition cross-linguistic perspectives /2004/Tomo1s.html-Vol I. /2004/Tomo1s.html-Cambridge: C.U.P.

710 /2004/Tomo1s.html-Leki, I. 2002. Second language writing. The Oxford Handbook of Applied /2004/Tomo1s.html-Linguistics. Ed. R. Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. /2004/Tomo1s.html:Li, Y. 2000. Linguistic characteristics of ESL writing in task-based /2004/Tomo1s.html-e-mail activities. /2004/Tomo1s.html-System 28(2): 229-245.

711 /2004/Tomo1s.html-learners who will be acquiring skills that are apt for the knowledge /2004/Tomo1s.html-economy while greatly increa- /2004/Tomo1s.html:sing their linguistic abilities by grappling with authentic /2004/Tomo1s.html-target-language information. The article /2004/Tomo1s.html-concludes by discussing the impact of online learning on teaching methods.

712 /2004/Tomo1s.html-communicative compe- /2004/Tomo1s.html-tence. This new orientation has greatly influenced the importance of /2004/Tomo1s.html:linguistic accu- /2004/Tomo1s.html-racy. Marton (1988: 47), for example, points out that the communicative /2004/Tomo1s.html-approach

713 /2004/Tomo1s.html-use of learning strategies. This approach allows the students to direct /2004/Tomo1s.html-their learning using availa- /2004/Tomo1s.html:ble resources which let them practice the linguistic skills and contents /2004/Tomo1s.html-in the syllabus in a moti- /2004/Tomo1s.html-vating and personalized way.

714 /2004/Tomo1s.html-ral syllabus, the predominant, unsuccessful syllabus throughout the /2004/Tomo1s.html-history of language /2004/Tomo1s.html:teaching. A task-based syllabus rejects linguistic elements as the unit /2004/Tomo1s.html-of analysis by /2004/Tomo1s.html-which to build the syllabus and incorporates ‘tasks’ as the /2004/Tomo1s.html:non-linguistic unit of analysis. /2004/Tomo1s.html-For this study ‘task’ is defined as “a piece of work or an activity, /2004/Tomo1s.html-usually with a specific

715 /2004/Tomo1s.html-analysis (Munby 1978; Bailey, 1982; Richterich 1983; Berwick 1989; /2004/Tomo1s.html-Holliday 1995; /2004/Tomo1s.html:Cameron 1998). Most of these studies examine data from a linguistic /2004/Tomo1s.html-(Arden-Close /2004/Tomo1s.html-1993; Coxhead & Nation 2001), social interactionist (Johns 1988; Seedhouse

716 /2004/Tomo1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo1s.html-ense_de_lenguas 7/9/05 16:06 Página 428 /2004/Tomo1s.html:will enable them to further develop their own linguistic and /2004/Tomo1s.html-professional competence /2004/Tomo1s.html-and increase their confidence in the sue of language.

717 /2004/Tomo2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo2s.html-1.Indice, agradecimientos 7/9/05 17:46 Página 27 /2004/Tomo2s.html:If institutions are accepting students who do not have the linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-competence /2004/Tomo2s.html-to produce texts in English of an acceptable level and at the same time

718 /2004/Tomo2s.html-conversation. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Research on Language and Social Interaction 29(3): 219-245. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Irvine, J.T. 1990. Registering affect: Heteroglossia in the linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-expression of emo- /2004/Tomo2s.html-tion. Language and the Politics of Emotion. Eds. C. Lutz y L. Abu-Lughod.

719 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Critical Discourse Analysis (hence CDA) is an approach of discourse analysis /2004/Tomo2s.html-which regards language as a kind of social practice, i.e., different /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic usages /2004/Tomo2s.html-are considered to both reflect and influence the partial /2004/Tomo2s.html-speaker/writer’s views about /2004/Tomo2s.html:the outside reality. It is a socially directed application of linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-analysis, with an /2004/Tomo2s.html-important influence of the ‘systemic-functional’ model developed by

720 /2004/Tomo2s.html-ries. We believe that precisely due to the social nature of language, /2004/Tomo2s.html-the examination /2004/Tomo2s.html:of appropriate linguistic tools is an important means whereby we will be /2004/Tomo2s.html-able to bet- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ter disentangle the ideology hidden in the different fragments of news.

721 /2004/Tomo2s.html-For practical reasons due to space limitations, we will jointly deal /2004/Tomo2s.html-with the three /2004/Tomo2s.html:groups in each linguistic category. /2004/Tomo2s.html-3.1. Naming of participants /2004/Tomo2s.html-In general, all Asians are identified as one unified group (the

722 /2004/Tomo2s.html-concept derived /2004/Tomo2s.html-from Toolan’s description of agent metonimies (1998: 94-95). This /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic tool appe- /2004/Tomo2s.html-79 /2004/Tomo2s.html-*Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada*

723 /2004/Tomo2s.html-For our analysis we have followed Toolan’s (1998: 46) conceptualization /2004/Tomo2s.html-of modality: /2004/Tomo2s.html:Modality denotes the linguistic means available for qualifying any claim /2004/Tomo2s.html-or commitment /2004/Tomo2s.html-you make in the language […] Most of the utterances we make can be

724 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Mail 29th May (a)). /2004/Tomo2s.html-3.7. Presuppositions /2004/Tomo2s.html:According to Toolan (1998: 214), “presuppositions are the linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-construc- /2004/Tomo2s.html-tions that prompt us to note some further claim or point, behind those

725 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Halliday, M. A. K. 1994 (1985). Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: /2004/Tomo2s.html-Edward Arnold. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Toolan, M. J. 1988. Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction. /2004/Tomo2s.html-London: Routledge. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Toolan, M. J. 1998. Language in Literature. An Introduction to

726 /2004/Tomo2s.html-lexical items and phrases may become grammaticalized, grammaticalization /2004/Tomo2s.html-cannot /2004/Tomo2s.html:be said to constitute a “subset of linguistic changes through which a /2004/Tomo2s.html-lexical item in /2004/Tomo2s.html-certain uses becomes a grammatical item” (Hopper & Traugott 1993: 2). In

727 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Givón, T. 1971. Historical syntax and synchronic morphology: an /2004/Tomo2s.html-archaeologist's filed /2004/Tomo2s.html:trip. Chicago Linguistic Society 7: 394-415. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Hopper, P.J. 1987. Emergent Grammar. Berkeley Linguistics Society 13: /2004/Tomo2s.html-139-157.

728 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Bencheriff, S. y K. Tanaka. 1987. Covert forms of communication. Papers /2004/Tomo2s.html-of the /2004/Tomo2s.html:Autumn Meeting of The Linguistic Association of Great Britain. 1. Bradford, /2004/Tomo2s.html-September. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Byrne, B. 1992. Relevance Theory and the language of advertising.

729 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Barcus, F. E. 1977. Commercial children’s television on weekends and weekday /2004/Tomo2s.html-afternoons. Newtonville, MA: Action for Children’s Television. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Bou-Franch P., y P. Garcés-Conejos. 2002. Teaching Linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-politeness. IRAL 40: 2. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Brown, P y Levinson, S. C. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language

730 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Fraser, B. 2002 (unpublished) Whither Politeness? /2004/Tomo2s.html-Fraser, B. y W. Nolen. 1981. The Association of Deference with /2004/Tomo2s.html:Linguistic Form. /2004/Tomo2s.html-International Journal of Sociology of Language 27: 93-109. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Fraser, B. 1990. Perspectives on politeness. Journal of Pragmatics 14:

731 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Grainger, K. 2002. Politeness or Impoliteness? Verbal Play on the /2004/Tomo2s.html-Hospital Ward. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Linguistic Politeness and Context Sheffield Working Papers on The Web 3. /2004/Tomo2s.html-[Documento de Internet disponible en internet] /2004/Tomo2s.html-Gregori-Signes, C. 2000. A Genre-based Approach to Daytime Talk on Tele-

732 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Mullany, L. 2002. I Don’t Think You Want Me to Get a Word in Edgeways Do You /2004/Tomo2s.html-John? Re-Assessing (Im)Politeness, Language and Gender in Political Broad- /2004/Tomo2s.html:cast Interviews. Linguistic Politeness and Context Sheffield Working Papers /2004/Tomo2s.html-on the Web, 3. [Documento en Internet. Disponible en: /2004/Tomo2s.html-http://www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness/]

733 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Swales (1990) genre /2004/Tomo2s.html-analysis framework, it will be shown that hedging features are related /2004/Tomo2s.html:to linguistic forms through /2004/Tomo2s.html:functional and conventional associations. This linguistic analysis would /2004/Tomo2s.html-benefit not only from a /2004/Tomo2s.html:cross-linguistic point of view but also from a cross-generic one. /2004/Tomo2s.html-RESUMEN /2004/Tomo2s.html-El correcto uso de la atenuación retórica en el discurso científico es

734 /2004/Tomo2s.html-· How is epistemic modality expressed in English and Spanish? /2004/Tomo2s.html-· What are the quantitative and qualitative differences in the use of /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic devi- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ces in both languages? /2004/Tomo2s.html-· What do these features reveal about the scientist’s /author’s

735 /2004/Tomo2s.html-ber of hedges found in each language and per genre were then divided /2004/Tomo2s.html-according to /2004/Tomo2s.html:the linguistic expression they contained, the function they performed /2004/Tomo2s.html-and the section /2004/Tomo2s.html-of the RA they appeared in (Introduction/Methods/Results/Discussion) in

736 /2004/Tomo2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo2s.html-2.Análisis del Discurso 7/9/05 16:19 Página 133 /2004/Tomo2s.html:4. Linguistic forms: hedging devices in our data /2004/Tomo2s.html-In the following table we have included our hedging taxonomy proposal which /2004/Tomo2s.html:consists of the pragmatic categories, the linguistic items and the /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic level in /2004/Tomo2s.html-which hedges in our corpora fit. We must also remark that this is an /2004/Tomo2s.html-open list of

737 /2004/Tomo2s.html-FUNCTIONS /2004/Tomo2s.html-PRAGMATIC CATEGORIES /2004/Tomo2s.html:LINGUISTIC ITEMS /2004/Tomo2s.html:LINGUISTIC LEVEL /2004/Tomo2s.html-IN DISCOURSE /2004/Tomo2s.html-To protect the subject

738 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and Spanish as /2004/Tomo2s.html-shown later. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Among the various linguistic items that we find as hedges at the Lexical /2004/Tomo2s.html-level (A) /2004/Tomo2s.html-(the former functioning as Shields (1) and the latter

739 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and English RAs. English for Specific Purposes 16(3):161-179. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Piqué-Angordans et al. (2002).Epistemic and Deontic Modality: A /2004/Tomo2s.html:Linguistic Indicator /2004/Tomo2s.html-of Disciplinary Variation in Academic English. LSP&Professional Communica- /2004/Tomo2s.html-tion 2(2) :49-65.

740 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Metaphor transformations in science popularisation have received little /2004/Tomo2s.html-attention, /2004/Tomo2s.html:although metaphor variation in relation to its linguistic realisations, /2004/Tomo2s.html-as well as commu- /2004/Tomo2s.html-nicative and cognitive functions have been identified (Knudsen 1999, 2003;

741 /2004/Tomo2s.html-contexts. /2004/Tomo2s.html-One of the most complete theoretical frameworks used in applied /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic meta- /2004/Tomo2s.html-phor research is Goatly’s (1997) theory of metaphor. It includes a /2004/Tomo2s.html-typology of meta-

742 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and French economic discourse. Revue belge de philology et d’histoire, 73: /2004/Tomo2s.html-673-91. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Cameron, L. 1999. Operationalising ‘metaphor’ for applied linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-research. Rese- /2004/Tomo2s.html-arching and Applying Metaphor. Eds. L. Cameron, G. Low. Cambridge: Cam-

743 /2004/Tomo2s.html-London: Long- /2004/Tomo2s.html-man. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Halliday, M. A. K., A. McIntosh y P. Strevens. 1964. The linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-sciences and lan- /2004/Tomo2s.html-guage teaching. London: Longman.

744 /2004/Tomo2s.html-cover /2004/Tomo2s.html-not only the learners’ perceived needs, whether expressed in terms of /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-forms, language functions, skills, etc., but also various aspects of the /2004/Tomo2s.html-learning envi-

745 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Robinson, P. 1991. ESP Today. A Practitioner’s Guide. New York: Prentice /2004/Tomo2s.html-Hall. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Phillipson, R. 1992. Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University /2004/Tomo2s.html-Press. /2004/Tomo2s.html-West, R. 1994. Needs Analysis in Language Teaching. Language

746 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Levison, M.; Lessard, G. y Walker, D. 2000 A multi-level approach to the /2004/Tomo2s.html-detection of /2004/Tomo2s.html:second language learner errors. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 15- 3: /2004/Tomo2s.html-313- 322. /2004/Tomo2s.html-228

747 /2004/Tomo2s.html-mainly focuses on the communicative purpose of texts and its influence /2004/Tomo2s.html-on rhetorical structure /2004/Tomo2s.html:and surface linguistic features. Drawing on a study involving more than /2004/Tomo2s.html-100 non-native students /2004/Tomo2s.html-of computer science at Jaume I University in Castelló (Spain), this

748 /2004/Tomo2s.html-theory, is reflected in /2004/Tomo2s.html-the rhetorical structure or organisation of the genre. Moreover, /2004/Tomo2s.html:conventional linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-features are also employed in order to achieve the communicative goal of /2004/Tomo2s.html-genres.

749 /2004/Tomo2s.html-based language teaching is to raise learners' awareness of both the /2004/Tomo2s.html-rhetorical organi- /2004/Tomo2s.html:zation and the linguistic features closely associated with the genre". /2004/Tomo2s.html-The genres chosen for this study can be considered epitomes of academic wri- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ting: the abstract and the research article (RA), both within the field

750 /2004/Tomo2s.html-genres, /2004/Tomo2s.html-and to determine their ability to assimilate the most important /2004/Tomo2s.html:rhetorical and linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-conventions so as to produce effective samples of these genres. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Similarly, students

751 /2004/Tomo2s.html-cate by means of genre despite possible grammatical errors, which were /2004/Tomo2s.html-"preferable /2004/Tomo2s.html:to them [students] not communicating as a result of linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-insecurity” (Estévez, /2004/Tomo2s.html-Ostbye, and Piqué 1996: 144).

752 /2004/Tomo2s.html-3.Lenguas fines Específicos 7/9/05 16:17 Página 257 /2004/Tomo2s.html-of the RA which had been studied in class, keeping in mind both the /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic and /2004/Tomo2s.html-generic conventions in both textual types. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Prospective audience was also a relevant factor addressed in the course.

753 /2004/Tomo2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2004/Tomo2s.html-3.Lenguas fines Específicos 7/9/05 16:17 Página 260 /2004/Tomo2s.html:As for linguistic conventions, the use of personal expressions instead /2004/Tomo2s.html-of imperso- /2004/Tomo2s.html-nal equivalents was the most frequent problem observed (37% of the

754 /2004/Tomo2s.html-most of the novice writers in this study assimilated the conventions of /2004/Tomo2s.html-the abstract /2004/Tomo2s.html:and RA both at the rhetorical and at the linguistic level. Awareness of /2004/Tomo2s.html-the rhetorical /2004/Tomo2s.html-structure of these genres allowed students to organise their material

755 /2004/Tomo2s.html-produced /2004/Tomo2s.html-effective texts which fulfilled such communicative functions. Finally, /2004/Tomo2s.html:the linguistic con- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ventions typically associated with academic writing were also followed, /2004/Tomo2s.html-especially

756 /2004/Tomo2s.html-tion they have collected in communicatively effective texts, also taking /2004/Tomo2s.html-into /2004/Tomo2s.html:consideration the linguistic conventions of academic English and the /2004/Tomo2s.html-target audien- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ce.

757 /2004/Tomo2s.html-discourse: both popula- /2004/Tomo2s.html-rizing and scientific text. Our paper shows the structural and /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic features of these two /2004/Tomo2s.html-types of scientific discourse, based in the analysis of the popularizing /2004/Tomo2s.html-articles published by the

758 /2004/Tomo2s.html-rializarían en el diseño de un programa informático. /2004/Tomo2s.html-ABSTRACT /2004/Tomo2s.html:This paper aims at integrating both linguistic knowledge and translation /2004/Tomo2s.html-concepts and processes /2004/Tomo2s.html-into the syllabus of the Computer Engineering Programme, a degree

759 /2004/Tomo2s.html-idea about /2004/Tomo2s.html-metaphor does not correspond to the idea that metaphors are just /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic expres- /2004/Tomo2s.html-sions since conceptual metaphors are structural mappings, abstract /2004/Tomo2s.html-concepts which

760 /2004/Tomo2s.html-each list. In the first list, we separated metaphors from metonyms and /2004/Tomo2s.html-from cases of /2004/Tomo2s.html:polysemy and in the second list, we separated the linguistic expressions /2004/Tomo2s.html-according to /2004/Tomo2s.html-conceptual metaphors such as +AIRCRAFT ARE LIVING ORGANISMS+, +AIR-

761 /2004/Tomo2s.html-+AN AIR- /2004/Tomo2s.html-CRAFT IS A LIVING ORGANISIM+ we have conceptualised the target category /2004/Tomo2s.html:AIRCRAFT via the source category LIVING ORGANISIM. Some linguistic expres- /2004/Tomo2s.html-sions of this conceptual metaphor are the following: /2004/Tomo2s.html-· “Since the A3XX`infancy, Airbus executives have stressed up to...” (1)

762 /2004/Tomo2s.html-a “life cycle”. Thus, not only does the aircraft have “life” but it also /2004/Tomo2s.html-has “an infancy” /2004/Tomo2s.html:and “was born” and is even able “to survive”. These linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-realizations show exam- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ples of metaphorical mappings of categories and cognitive models. Our

763 /2004/Tomo2s.html-intrinsically /2004/Tomo2s.html-related. They are structural mappings, abstract concepts which group /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic reali- /2004/Tomo2s.html-321 /2004/Tomo2s.html-*Perspectivas Interdisciplinares de la Lingüística Aplicada*

764 /2004/Tomo2s.html-It is now widely accepted that Cognitive Linguistics has become a sort /2004/Tomo2s.html-of “gold /2004/Tomo2s.html:mine” of research issues in linguistic theory. This paper attempts to /2004/Tomo2s.html-show the presen- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ce of Cognitive Linguistics in Applied linguistics, understanding by the

765 /2004/Tomo2s.html-articles (M. White, G. Cuadrado, and J. Herráez) highlight the /2004/Tomo2s.html-metaphorical aspects /2004/Tomo2s.html:of various LSP conceptual and linguistic fields, J. Littlemore’s article /2004/Tomo2s.html-is concerned /2004/Tomo2s.html-with the study of cognitive learning strategies applied to metaphor use

766 /2004/Tomo2s.html-analyzed 50 BR published between 1940 and 1950 (early BR) and /2004/Tomo2s.html-50 published between /2004/Tomo2s.html:1999 and 2000 (late BR). The linguistic devices used to convey the /2004/Tomo2s.html-dis-merits of the books /2004/Tomo2s.html-reviewed were recorded in each BR and categorized as to whether they

767 /2004/Tomo2s.html-1940 and 1960 and 50 between 1999 and 2000, making up a total of 88.653 run- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ning words. /2004/Tomo2s.html:The linguistic devices used to demonstrate the dis-merit or flaws of a /2004/Tomo2s.html-book were /2004/Tomo2s.html-recorded in each BR and categorized as indicating either a direct,

768 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Critical comments in both early and late BR can be characterized as /2004/Tomo2s.html-direct and /2004/Tomo2s.html:straightforward (i. e., unhedged) in their linguistic formulation as the /2004/Tomo2s.html-great majority of /2004/Tomo2s.html-the examples provided in this paper will give ample evidence of.

769 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and ' glaring'. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Few errors as such are today mentioned in BR, and these are not /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic nor /2004/Tomo2s.html-typographical, but refer to errors in web page indications or to the /2004/Tomo2s.html-incorrect use of

770 /2004/Tomo2s.html-tive factors. Semantically, hedging helps define the ideational /2004/Tomo2s.html-component of an utte- /2004/Tomo2s.html:rance. It is often signalled by characteristic linguistic items which /2004/Tomo2s.html-serve to carry out /2004/Tomo2s.html-specific discourse strategies. Pragmatically, these strategies work to

771 /2004/Tomo2s.html-addressee’s intuition, ability to a understand the context in which the /2004/Tomo2s.html-hedge is produ- /2004/Tomo2s.html:ced, and invocation of linguistic and pragmatic background knowledge /2004/Tomo2s.html-which must /2004/Tomo2s.html-be shared with the addressee.

772 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Spanish web pages that has been created for the purpose. The final aim /2004/Tomo2s.html-is to provide a cinema /2004/Tomo2s.html:ontology with linguistic knowledge on the semantic relations between the /2004/Tomo2s.html-entities and knowled- /2004/Tomo2s.html-ge about the instances of the different concepts such as director,

773 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Design and Ulti- /2004/Tomo2s.html-mate Destiny of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, San Francisco: Harper. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Cimiano, P. y S. Handschuh. 2003. Ontology-based linguistic annotation /2004/Tomo2s.html-en The /2004/Tomo2s.html:ACL2003 Workshop on Linguistic Annotation. Getting the Model Right. Sap- /2004/Tomo2s.html-poro Japan, pp. 14-21. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Chinchor, N. 1997. MUC-7 Named Entitiy Task Definition. Version 3.5.

774 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. 87-99. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Garside, R., G. Leech y A. McEnery. (eds.) 1997. Corpus Annotation. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-Information from Computer Text Corpora. London: Longman. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Halliday, M.A.K. 1985. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Great

775 /2004/Tomo2s.html-lexico-conceptual knowledge base to be used in a natural language /2004/Tomo2s.html-processing system within /2004/Tomo2s.html:the linguistic frame of S.C. Dik’s Functional Grammar. Our knowledge /2004/Tomo2s.html-base comprises two inde- /2004/Tomo2s.html-pendent but interconnected components: a lexicon, which stores

776 /2004/Tomo2s.html-ses. On the other hand, the prosodic features have been phonetically /2004/Tomo2s.html-studied, being the focus /2004/Tomo2s.html:on their form without hardly distinguishing between its linguistic and /2004/Tomo2s.html-paralinguistic function (cf. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Ladd 1996: 12-13, 38; Rossi 2000: 16-17). This dichotomy on its analysis

777 /2004/Tomo2s.html-in speech technologies, we believe that further research is still /2004/Tomo2s.html-necessary in order to provide a /2004/Tomo2s.html:complete linguistic description of intonation (cf. Rossi 2000: 18). This /2004/Tomo2s.html-paper presents a system /2004/Tomo2s.html-of prosodic analysis and annotation with the aim of finding an

778 /2004/Tomo2s.html-teaching of Old and Mid- /2004/Tomo2s.html-dle English to undergraduates. Specifically, we are concerned with those /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic phenomena /2004/Tomo2s.html-that are treated as arbitrary from traditional approaches in diachronic /2004/Tomo2s.html-linguistics. We believe it is

779 /2004/Tomo2s.html-concepts from the field of his- /2004/Tomo2s.html-torical linguistics they will also have to assimilate th main /2004/Tomo2s.html:standpoints of a novel linguistic model. /2004/Tomo2s.html-We will show that efforts are worthy in the long term. /2004/Tomo2s.html-1. Introduction

780 /2004/Tomo2s.html-diachronic linguistics or we provide the student with a broader /2004/Tomo2s.html-background against /2004/Tomo2s.html:which to find an explanation for troublesome linguistic phenomena. /2004/Tomo2s.html-4. A new path-way to linguistics: cognitive studies /2004/Tomo2s.html-From our point of view, students are puzzled by the description of

781 /2004/Tomo2s.html-achieved thanks to the /2004/Tomo2s.html-introduction of pragmatic and cultural factors in the analysis of /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic data. This, /2004/Tomo2s.html-we claim, should result in allowing multidisciplinariness to permeate /2004/Tomo2s.html-philological

782 /2004/Tomo2s.html-of the language that could serve as subjects in field work to solve the /2004/Tomo2s.html-question of /2004/Tomo2s.html:why certain linguistic items are used in the way they are. The /2004/Tomo2s.html-instructor should remark /2004/Tomo2s.html-that for decades, or even centuries, the use of some words whose

783 /2004/Tomo2s.html-A course in English language history has as its central core to provide /2004/Tomo2s.html-the student /2004/Tomo2s.html:with a general knowledge of the linguistic period or periods to be dealt /2004/Tomo2s.html-with. That /2004/Tomo2s.html:means that the theoretical provision of a specific linguistic model /2004/Tomo2s.html-should not exhaust /2004/Tomo2s.html-the time and activities that are programmed for the learning of the /2004/Tomo2s.html-language. Thus, /2004/Tomo2s.html-the instructor must count both with a reasonable knowledge of the /2004/Tomo2s.html:linguistic model /2004/Tomo2s.html-she is going to use as a tool to the teaching of the subject, and a /2004/Tomo2s.html-defined picture of

784 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and Middle English already means a great deal of work, the /2004/Tomo2s.html-implementation of the /2004/Tomo2s.html:use of certain linguistic models in the teaching of Historical /2004/Tomo2s.html-Linguistics should be /2004/Tomo2s.html-open to modifications as the instructor tests how it works in the

785 /2004/Tomo2s.html-practical case of how to proceed in the treatment of a specific question /2004/Tomo2s.html-whose study /2004/Tomo2s.html:must be carried out with the help of a linguistic paradigm that may be /2004/Tomo2s.html-partially or /2004/Tomo2s.html-totally unknown to the students.

786 /2004/Tomo2s.html-In writing this paper, we have discussed how philological studies should /2004/Tomo2s.html-adapt to /2004/Tomo2s.html:the general panorama of linguistic study. New findings in linguistics /2004/Tomo2s.html-address those /2004/Tomo2s.html-dimensions of language change that have received little more than a /2004/Tomo2s.html-cursory, matter- /2004/Tomo2s.html-of-fact treatment. One that is no match for the depth and sophistication /2004/Tomo2s.html:of linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-analysis. Cognitive linguistics being a multidisciplinary science and /2004/Tomo2s.html-emphasizing the

787 /2004/Tomo2s.html-Teachers can clearly benefit from this and subsequent approaches, /2004/Tomo2s.html-because, as /2004/Tomo2s.html:we see it, false friends are one of the most treacherous linguistic /2004/Tomo2s.html-traps; Spanish-spe- /2004/Tomo2s.html-aking students of English (SSE) once and again use English cognate word

788 /2004/Tomo2s.html-that have been brought to light systematically. This classification is a /2004/Tomo2s.html-first step /2004/Tomo2s.html:towards a deeper study into the nature of these linguistic traps, one of /2004/Tomo2s.html-the most fre- /2004/Tomo2s.html-quent causes of lexical error in learners of English.

789 /2004/Tomo2s.html-and syntactic information codified within a lexical class. Setting from /2004/Tomo2s.html-the canonical lexical tem- /2004/Tomo2s.html:plate, that codifies the linguistic properties of a whole lexical class, /2004/Tomo2s.html-we need to find out the /2004/Tomo2s.html-syntactic patterns that each predicate governs. To this end, the LGM

790 /2004/Tomo2s.html-the novel’s translation into Spanish and Catalan, this study is divided /2004/Tomo2s.html-into two parts. Part one /2004/Tomo2s.html:offers, on the one hand, an intra-linguistic analysis of the proper /2004/Tomo2s.html-names from the original English /2004/Tomo2s.html:version and, on the other, an inter-linguistic comparative-contrastive /2004/Tomo2s.html-study (English-Spanish- /2004/Tomo2s.html-Catalan) where the proper names are related to the target languages.

791 /2004/Tomo2s.html-means an exclusively code-based activity. Thus, Nord writes: "The /2004/Tomo2s.html-meaning or func- /2004/Tomo2s.html:tion of a text is not something inherent in the linguistic signs; it /2004/Tomo2s.html-cannot simply be /2004/Tomo2s.html-extracted by anyone who knows the code. A text is made meaningful by its

792 /2004/Tomo2s.html-World. In Four parts. By Lemuel Gulliver). Harmondsworth: Penguin. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Swift, J. 1991 (1704). A Tale of a Tub. Oxford: Clarendon. /2004/Tomo2s.html:Taylor, J.R 1995 (1989). Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in /2004/Tomo2s.html:Linguistic Theory. /2004/Tomo2s.html-Oxford: Clarendon Press. (2nd edition). /2004/Tomo2s.html-Williams, K. (1968). Jonathan Swift. Profiles in Literature. London:

793 /2004/Tomo2s.html-topics of this Arabic literature that interest to the Spanish society /2004/Tomo2s.html-will be considered as well as /2004/Tomo2s.html:extr linguistic matters such as editorials and translators that deal /2004/Tomo2s.html-with the Arab world. The period /2004/Tomo2s.html-chosen is from 1988 to 2003.

794 /2004/Tomo3s.html-8. Referencias bibliográficas /2004/Tomo3s.html-Baker, M. 1985. The Mirror Principle and Morphosyntactic /2004/Tomo3s.html:Explanation. Linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-Inquiry 16: 373-416. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Baker, M. 1988. Incorporation. A Theory of Grammatical Function

795 /2004/Tomo3s.html-The main purpose of this research is to examine the predictive power of /2004/Tomo3s.html-both the awareness of /2004/Tomo3s.html:three linguistic units (i.e., syllable, onset-rime, and phoneme), and /2004/Tomo3s.html-the letter knowledge regarding /2004/Tomo3s.html-reading and spelling performance among preliterate and literate

796 /2004/Tomo3s.html-rime task and on phoneme task, and better on onset-rime task than on /2004/Tomo3s.html-phoneme task. Results /2004/Tomo3s.html:show that large linguistic units such as onset-rime has a strong /2004/Tomo3s.html-predictive power of reading /2004/Tomo3s.html-achievement in both preliterate and literate children. Phonemic

797 /2004/Tomo3s.html-and literacy /2004/Tomo3s.html-skills. Journal of Research in Reading 17(2): 99-107. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Elbro, C. 1996. Early linguistic abilities and reading development: A /2004/Tomo3s.html-review and a /2004/Tomo3s.html-hypothesis. Reading and Writing 8: 453-485. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Goswami, U., Gombert, J.E. y Barrera, L. F. 1998. Children’s /2004/Tomo3s.html-orthographic represen- /2004/Tomo3s.html:tations and linguistic transparency: Nonsense word reading in English, /2004/Tomo3s.html-French, /2004/Tomo3s.html-and Spanish. Applied Psycholinguistics 19: 19-52.

798 /2004/Tomo3s.html-cal training?. Journal of Learning Disabilities 35 (4): 334-342. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Otake, T. y Cutler, A. 1996. Phonological structure and Language processing: /2004/Tomo3s.html:Cross-linguistic studies. Berlin: Mounton/De Gruyter. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Passenger, T., Stuart, M. y Terrel, C. 2003. Phonological processing and /2004/Tomo3s.html-early lite-

799 /2004/Tomo3s.html-may be due to differences /2004/Tomo3s.html-in the written system features, as well as in the oral system. These /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic features may facilita- /2004/Tomo3s.html-te PA acquisition and development. /2004/Tomo3s.html-La dislexia es un problema grave en el reconocimiento de palabras

800 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Chafouleas, S.M., Vanauken, T.L. & Dunham, K. 2001. Not all phonemes are /2004/Tomo3s.html-created /2004/Tomo3s.html:equal: The effect of linguistic manipulations on phonological awareness /2004/Tomo3s.html-tasks. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 19: 216-226.

801 /2004/Tomo3s.html-The language questions on the 1991 and 2001 census in Spain provide a /2004/Tomo3s.html-unique opportunity to /2004/Tomo3s.html:evaluate the progress of the linguistic normalization processes meant to /2004/Tomo3s.html-revitalize the so called /2004/Tomo3s.html-“historical” languages in the various Autonomous Communities. We analyze

802 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Casesnoves Ferrer, R. 2002. Les différences dans les évaluations des /2004/Tomo3s.html-filles et des /2004/Tomo3s.html:garçons dans un contexte de langues en conflit. Linguistic diversity and /2004/Tomo3s.html-iden- /2004/Tomo3s.html-tiy. Selected Papers from the 25th Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces /2004/Tomo3s.html:Linguistic Association, Nova Scotia, 2-3 November 2001. Ed. R. Mopoho. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Halifax: Dalhousie University. 79-97. /2004/Tomo3s.html-CCE (Conselleria de Cultura i Educació). 1989. Coneixement del valencià.

803 /2004/Tomo3s.html-The objective of this paper is to propose the use of the term /2004/Tomo3s.html-sociolinguistic competence instead /2004/Tomo3s.html:of the classical linguistic competence, since the former has a wider /2004/Tomo3s.html-meaning and it is more prac- /2004/Tomo3s.html-tical and agglutinative. It allows to describe everything related to the /2004/Tomo3s.html:LINGUISTIC KNOWLED- /2004/Tomo3s.html-GE of speakers in a more systematic and thorough way, reflecting more /2004/Tomo3s.html-precisely the reality of

804 /2004/Tomo3s.html-explicits and brings up /2004/Tomo3s.html-to light all that was implicit and implied in Coseriu’s description of /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic competence, and it /2004/Tomo3s.html:incorporates as relevant elements fields of the linguistic knowledge /2004/Tomo3s.html-that had been relegated to a /2004/Tomo3s.html-second level, eclipsed by more general phenomena like Logic, idiomatic

805 /2004/Tomo3s.html-lenguaje y sus /2004/Tomo3s.html-contextos sociales. México, Fondo de Cultura Económica. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Halliday, M. A. K., Macintonsh, A. y Strevens, P. 1964. The Linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-Sciences and /2004/Tomo3s.html-Language. Teaking, Londres, Longman, Ed. J. A. Fishman 1868 “The Uses

806 /2004/Tomo3s.html-/-ito/, /-illo/, and /-ico/ /2004/Tomo3s.html-have been the suffixes chosen to be studied. In the analysis I bear in /2004/Tomo3s.html:mind linguistic features like /2004/Tomo3s.html-the grammar category, the addressing and the meaning function. In the /2004/Tomo3s.html-sociolinguistic analysis I

807 /2004/Tomo3s.html-5. 2 capitulo.qxd 3/10/05 18:47 Página 263 /2004/Tomo3s.html-5. Bibliografía /2004/Tomo3s.html:Besnier, N. 1988. The linguistic relationship of spoken and /2004/Tomo3s.html-written Nukulaelae regis- /2004/Tomo3s.html-ters. Language, 64: 707-736.

808 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Universidad Politécnica de Valencia /2004/Tomo3s.html-ABSTRACT /2004/Tomo3s.html:The linguistic influence of American English (AmE) on contemporary /2004/Tomo3s.html-peninsular Spanish is /2004/Tomo3s.html-naturally the result of social and cultural interaction among speakers. /2004/Tomo3s.html-To better understand this /2004/Tomo3s.html:case of intercultural linguistic contact, this paper describes on-going /2004/Tomo3s.html-research into the Spanish /2004/Tomo3s.html-borrowing of AmE terms of a cultural nature. First, I shall specify the

809 /2004/Tomo3s.html-contribution to the Spanish lexicon. To fill this void, it has been the /2004/Tomo3s.html-aim of my research /2004/Tomo3s.html:to describe the linguistic influence of American English (AmE) on /2004/Tomo3s.html-contemporary /2004/Tomo3s.html-peninsular Spanish as a result of social contact and cultural

810 /2004/Tomo3s.html-In conclusion, this brief article has been structured so as to reflect /2004/Tomo3s.html-on the focus /2004/Tomo3s.html:and results of my on-going research into the linguistic and cultural /2004/Tomo3s.html-contact between /2004/Tomo3s.html-Spain and the USA. It is my hope that the ideas and findings presented

811 /2004/Tomo3s.html-serve to further our interest in and better our understanding of this /2004/Tomo3s.html-intercultural phe- /2004/Tomo3s.html:nomenon both from a linguistic as well as a sociological perspective. /2004/Tomo3s.html-6. Bibliography /2004/Tomo3s.html-Doval, G. 1996. Diccionario de expresiones extranjeras. Madrid:

812 /2004/Tomo3s.html-called “intentional” ironies (Muecke 1970: 28). This entails a common /2004/Tomo3s.html-manifestation /2004/Tomo3s.html:from the speaker to make use of linguistic strategies to reconstruct the /2004/Tomo3s.html-hearer’s atti- /2004/Tomo3s.html-tude. Intentionality must be thus mutually manifested to both speaker

813 /2004/Tomo3s.html-generosity” can be applied to the act of suggesting. It is moreover /2004/Tomo3s.html-reinforced by the /2004/Tomo3s.html:use of the linguistic marker give in (2). However, this maxim is not /2004/Tomo3s.html-enough to explain /2004/Tomo3s.html-it. We need additional information concerning coherence and relevance. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Here, Alvy would be suggesting something opposed to his desires. So, the /2004/Tomo3s.html-result /2004/Tomo3s.html:of the action does not correspond to the linguistic action. Thornburg /2004/Tomo3s.html-and Panther’s /2004/Tomo3s.html-(1997: 213-214) metonymy ABILITY TO PERFORM AN ACTION FOR A LINGUIS-

814 /2004/Tomo3s.html-if more and more people (their peers) are said to doubt the value or /2004/Tomo3s.html-utility of what /2004/Tomo3s.html:they have been doing? If these are the reasons, then linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-politeness is undoub- /2004/Tomo3s.html-tedly required to mask the debating and the becoming aware,

815 /2004/Tomo3s.html-mobilises both the resources of humanities rhetoric and scientific /2004/Tomo3s.html-language. This /2004/Tomo3s.html:complex mobilisation of linguistic resources in the written mode /2004/Tomo3s.html-requires a sophisti- /2004/Tomo3s.html-cated control over them, which is usually a notable difficulty for

816 /2004/Tomo3s.html-leads him to dismiss as insignificant. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Given this experiential context, it is not illogical to expect tactful /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic beha- /2004/Tomo3s.html-viour on Dr Duffy’s part, since it is physicians that sometimes do not /2004/Tomo3s.html-remember the

817 /2004/Tomo3s.html-The following example presents a central open eye surrounded by /2004/Tomo3s.html-different sorts /2004/Tomo3s.html:of drugs. From a linguistic point of view, this advert may be explained /2004/Tomo3s.html-by the fact that /2004/Tomo3s.html-the metonymy included, being one of the source-in-target type, has the

818 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Dirven & R. Pörings. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 533-554. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Kövecses, Z. & G. Radden. 1998. Metonymy: developing a cognitive /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic view. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Cognitive Linguistics 9, 1: 37-77. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Johnson, M. 1987. The Body in the Mind: the Bodily Basis of Meaning,

819 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez, F.J. & Olga I. Díez Velasco. 2001. High-level /2004/Tomo3s.html-metonymy and /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic structure. Unpublished draft. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez, F.J. & L. Pérez Hernández. 2001. Metonymy and /2004/Tomo3s.html-the gram-

820 /2004/Tomo3s.html-interaction. Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast. Eds. R. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Dirven & R. Pörings. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter; 489-532. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Sperber, D. & D. Wilson. 1993. Linguistic form and relevance. Lingua 90: /2004/Tomo3s.html-1-25. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Sperber, D. & D, Wilson. 1995. Relevance. Communication and

821 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Aymara: Blending source-domain gesture with speech. Talk at the 7th ICLC. /2004/Tomo3s.html-University of California, Santa Barbara. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Taylor, J.R. 1995. Linguistic Categorization. Prototypes in Linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-Theory. Oxford: /2004/Tomo3s.html-Clarendon. 2nd. ed.

822 /2004/Tomo3s.html-have the professional credibility to address their topic as an insider”. /2004/Tomo3s.html-To address topics as insiders implies managing the rhetorical and /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic con- /2004/Tomo3s.html-ventions which pertain to the discipline community academics belong to. /2004/Tomo3s.html-The present

823 /2004/Tomo3s.html-information. Examples are: /2004/Tomo3s.html-Ex. 3 /2004/Tomo3s.html:[Discussion] These modifications can be explained by several linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-cons- /2004/Tomo3s.html-traints including L1 transfer, markedness, and sonority, as well as by

824 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Analysis. Ed. M. Coulthard. London/New York. 69-82. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Thompson, G. 1996. Introducing Functional Grammar. London: Arnold. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Ventola, E. 1994a. Abstracts as an object of linguistic study. Writing /2004/Tomo3s.html-vs. Speaking: /2004/Tomo3s.html-Language, Text, Discourse, Communication. Eds. S. Cmejrková, F. Dane? and

825 /2004/Tomo3s.html-information of a fund-raising letter. Eds. W. C. Mann and S. A. /2004/Tomo3s.html-Thompson. Dis- /2004/Tomo3s.html:course Descriptions: Diverse Linguistic Analyses of a fund-raising /2004/Tomo3s.html-text. Ams- /2004/Tomo3s.html-terdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins: 131-170.

826 /2004/Tomo3s.html-and non-negotiable entities through metaphorical codings, the Spanish /2004/Tomo3s.html-writers do /2004/Tomo3s.html:not only gain credibility but this linguistic phenomenon might also /2004/Tomo3s.html-enable them to /2004/Tomo3s.html-place themselves in a powerful position over his readers. Besides, the

827 /2004/Tomo3s.html-court went through to achieve it, we will be describing genre2. /2004/Tomo3s.html-We will also take a botton-up perspective in order to study a specific /2004/Tomo3s.html:linguistic /2004/Tomo3s.html-resource, grammatical metaphor, within the framework of systemic /2004/Tomo3s.html-functional linguis-

828 /2004/Tomo3s.html-tion flow is organized in a text is the mode of a situation. Mode has an /2004/Tomo3s.html-effect on how /2004/Tomo3s.html:we use language, and the different types of linguistic patterns found in /2004/Tomo3s.html-written as /2004/Tomo3s.html-opposed to spoken English are the realization3 of the impact of mode on

829 /2004/Tomo3s.html-sions for the convenience of the reader as a kind of /2004/Tomo3s.html-summary. Grammatical metaphor /2004/Tomo3s.html:is a linguistic resource which has proved to be especially useful for /2004/Tomo3s.html-this purpose. /2004/Tomo3s.html-4. On June 23, 2003, the U. S. Supreme Court held in a Writ of

830 /2004/Tomo3s.html-5.This is a technical term used by systemicists to refer to the /2004/Tomo3s.html-different congruent and metaphorical realizations /2004/Tomo3s.html:of a certain meaning across linguistic levels. /2004/Tomo3s.html-6. Langacker (1991) admits the polarity of the categories verb and noun, /2004/Tomo3s.html-whose prototypical referents would

831 /2004/Tomo3s.html-perspective, that is, in /2004/Tomo3s.html-the semantic potential of nominal expression of contents. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Grammatical metaphor is a linguistic resource which has been used in the /2004/Tomo3s.html-judg- /2004/Tomo3s.html-ments we have analyzed in order to summarize content; but it is also a

832 /2004/Tomo3s.html-The research reported here focused on one type of professional /2004/Tomo3s.html-discourse: the /2004/Tomo3s.html:discourse of judges, and it tried to offer linguistic insights into the /2004/Tomo3s.html-presence and func- /2004/Tomo3s.html-tion of grammatical metaphor in writs of certiorari. Because the focus

833 /2004/Tomo3s.html-Oxford: /2004/Tomo3s.html-Basil Blackwell. /2004/Tomo3s.html:Sperber, D. y D. Wilson 1990. Linguistic form and relevance. UCL Working /2004/Tomo3s.html-Papers /2004/Tomo3s.html-in Linguistics 2: 95-112.

834 /2005/libro1s.html-DISTINGUISHING IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE /2005/libro1s.html-I will begin by identifying the distinguishing characteristics of implicit and /2005/libro1s.html:explicit linguistic knowledge: /2005/libro1s.html-1. /Awareness/. Karmiloff-Smith (1979) distinguishes ‘epilinguistic’ and /2005/libro1s.html-‘metalinguistic data’. Both involve awareness, but of a different kind.

835 /2005/libro1s.html-Awareness /2005/libro1s.html-Learner is intuitively Learner is consciously /2005/libro1s.html:aware of linguistic aware of linguistic norms /2005/libro1s.html-norms /2005/libro1s.html-Type of knowledge

836 /2005/libro1s.html-Awareness /2005/libro1s.html-Learner is intuitively Learner is consciously /2005/libro1s.html:aware of linguistic aware of linguistic norms /2005/libro1s.html-norms /2005/libro1s.html-Type of knowledge

837 /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html-USING THE MEASURES OF EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE /2005/libro1s.html:Once relatively independent measures of implicit and explicit linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-knowledge are available it becomes possible to investigate some of the intractable /2005/libro1s.html-issues in SLA. In the final section of this paper I will outline an attempt to do so by

838 /2005/libro1s.html-223-236. /2005/libro1s.html-Gregg, K. 1989. “Second language acquisition theory: the case for a generative /2005/libro1s.html:perspective”. /Linguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition/. Eds. S. Gass & /2005/libro1s.html-J. Schachter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 15-40. /2005/libro1s.html-Hedgcock, J. 1993. “Well-formed vs. ill-formed strings in L2 metalingual tasks:

839 /2005/libro1s.html-San Diego: Academic Press. 375-409. /2005/libro1s.html-Schwartz, B. 1993. “On explicit and negative evidence effecting and affecting /2005/libro1s.html:competence and ‘linguistic behavior’”. /Studies in Second Language Acquisition /15: /2005/libro1s.html-147-163. /2005/libro1s.html-32

840 /2005/libro1s.html-Spanish-speaking early beginners of English from three intact 4th grade classes of a primary school /2005/libro1s.html-in Logroño (La Rioja, Spain). Of these, 43 were boys (60, 56 %), and 28 girls (39,43 %). To avoid /2005/libro1s.html:any linguistic/lexical constraint and any possible limitations of topic knowledge a 30 minute /2005/libro1s.html-composition on a broad subject-base theme was required from the participants. Subjects had to /2005/libro1s.html-write an introduction letter to their future English host-family. The resulting essays are variable in /2005/libro1s.html:length, content, linguistic structures, and lexical items, but all respond to the instructions. /2005/libro1s.html-These compositions were read twice and analyzed for lexical errors. To spot lexical errors, it /2005/libro1s.html-is necessary that a working definition of the object of study, i.e. the lexical error is disposed of. The

841 /2005/libro1s.html-being the lexical item an independent meaningful unit. Considering this, lexical errors were here /2005/libro1s.html-strictly counted and all lexical deviations, slight and small as they may have been, were registered /2005/libro1s.html:as lexical errors. Once the lexical errors were identified, a linguistic description (analysis) was /2005/libro1s.html-attempted at that would reveal the basic underlying nature of those lexical errors. Two main /2005/libro1s.html-structural patterns were distinguished: spelling errors, e.g /mather/, /verday/, /sarperner/; and errors in

842 /2005/libro1s.html-Sunderland, J. 2000. “Issues of language and gender in second and foreign language education”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Language Teaching/ 33: 203-223. /2005/libro1s.html:Trudgill, P.J. 1972. “Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of /2005/libro1s.html-Norwich”. /Language in Society/ 1: 179-195. /2005/libro1s.html-42

843 /2005/libro1s.html-could be considerably different. /2005/libro1s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro1s.html:Alonso-Vázquez, C. 2004. “Consolidated learning, learning speed and cross-linguistic transfer”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Vial/, 1: 1-32/./ /2005/libro1s.html-50

844 /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro1s.html:Alonso-Vázquez, C. 2004. “Consolidated learning, learning speed and cross-linguistic transfer”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Vial/, 1: 1-32/./ /2005/libro1s.html-Bialystock, E. 1990. /Communication strategies: a psychological analysis of second-language use. /

845 /2005/libro1s.html-Neff, J., J. M. Liceras, L. Díaz et al. 1998. /A Parametric Perspective of EFL Acquisition in / /2005/libro1s.html-/Institutional Contexts. /Madrid. /2005/libro1s.html:Odlin, T. 2003. Cross-Linguistic Influence. In /The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition./ /2005/libro1s.html-Blackwell Publishing: 436-487. /2005/libro1s.html-Selinker, L. 1972. Interlanguage. /International Review of Applied Linguistics /10:209-231.

846 /2005/libro1s.html-/of the principles and parameters approach of generative grammar. We will not study pure descriptive rules for / /2005/libro1s.html-/the languages under study. Rather, we will try to provide explanatory adequacy in the contrastive study of / /2005/libro1s.html:/English versus Spanish with respect to linguistic phenomena such us: minimal clauses, nominal phrases, verb / /2005/libro1s.html:/inflection, phrasal verbs, adverbs, relative clauses and focalisation. We include practice on those linguistic / /2005/libro1s.html-/phenomena with the aim of helping students hypothesize about the target language while contrasting it with their / /2005/libro1s.html-/own language. /

847 /2005/libro1s.html-Tenny, C.L. 1987. Grammaticalizing Aspect and Affectedness. Ph. D. thesis, Linguistics and /2005/libro1s.html-Philosophy. Cambridge (MA): MIT /2005/libro1s.html:Zubizarreta, M.L. 1996. “Prosody, Focus and Word Order”. /Linguistic Inquiry Monograph/ 33. MIT /2005/libro1s.html-Press /2005/libro1s.html-86

848 /2005/libro1s.html-/A good taxonomy of errors is necessary to fine-tune the detection, correction or treatment of errors. A previous / /2005/libro1s.html-/distinction must be made between two concepts which are often confused in the pertinent studies: mechanisms of / /2005/libro1s.html:/linguistic change and types of errors. Our proposal, in reference to Spanish language, is to establish four / /2005/libro1s.html-/criteria for the classification of errors, each of which will lead us to particular ends in analysis: its cause or / /2005/libro1s.html-/causes, the competence or competences affected, its pedagogical implications, and its degree of incidence in /

849 /2005/libro1s.html-Cambridge, MASS: MIT Press. /2005/libro1s.html-Liceras, J.M. 1989. “On some properties of the "pro-drop" parameter: looking for missing subjects /2005/libro1s.html:in non-native Spanish”. /Linguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition/ Eds. S.M. /2005/libro1s.html-Gass, J. Schachter. Cambridge: CUP. 109-133 /2005/libro1s.html-Liceras, J.M., Díaz, L. 1999. “Topic drop versus pro-drop: null subjects and pronominal subjects in

850 /2005/libro1s.html-Comunicación presentada en The Romance Turn, Universidad Nacional de Educación a /2005/libro1s.html-Distancia, (Madrid). /2005/libro1s.html:Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Paoli, S. 2004. “Cross-linguistic influence at the syntax-pragmatics /2005/libro1s.html-interface: Subjects and objects in English-Italian bilingual and monolingual acquisition”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Bilingualism: Language and Cognition /7: 183-205.

851 /2005/libro1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html:NSs’ responses followed the gradation of linguistic formulae for both requests and /2005/libro1s.html-suggestions on the basis of politeness criteria that included indirect, conventionally indirect and /2005/libro1s.html-direct forms (see Trosborg, 1995: 205 for a taxonomy of requests; and Martínez-Flor, 2003: 113 for

852 /2005/libro1s.html-between the two interlocutors in each situation. The teacher collected learners’ role-plays, and /2005/libro1s.html-finally explained the degree of politeness involved in each situation – following a deductive /2005/libro1s.html:approach –, and how different linguistic formulae (i.e. indirect, conventionally indirect and direct) /2005/libro1s.html-may be more appropriate when requesting or suggesting depending on politeness factors, such as /2005/libro1s.html-status. Two days later, learners completed the post-test and handed in to the teacher.

853 /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html-As regards the coding and analysis of the data obtained before and after the instructional /2005/libro1s.html:treatment, we considered the amount and type of the linguistic forms employed when producing /2005/libro1s.html-requests and suggestions, and classified these data adopting the taxonomies mentioned above /2005/libro1s.html-(Trosborg, 1995; Martínez-Flor, 2003).

854 /2005/libro1s.html-As can be seen in Figure 1, learners’ production of appropriate requests and suggestions /2005/libro1s.html-amounted to 74.44% in the post-test, which points to instructional effects. However, apart from the /2005/libro1s.html:overall amount of their appropriate use, we were also interested in analysing the type of linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-strategies employed. Thus, learners made use of a high number of direct forms for both equal and /2005/libro1s.html-higher status situations in the pre-test (56.34%). In contrast, the use of these forms decreased in the

855 /2005/libro1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro1s.html-As regards the coding and analysis of the data obtained before and after the instructional /2005/libro1s.html:treatment, we considered the amount and type of the linguistic forms employed when producing /2005/libro1s.html-requests and suggestions, and classified these data adopting the taxonomies mentioned above /2005/libro1s.html-(Trosborg, 1995; Martínez-Flor, 2003).

856 /2005/libro1s.html-As can be seen in Figure 1, learners’ production of appropriate requests and suggestions /2005/libro1s.html-amounted to 74.44% in the post-test, which points to instructional effects. However, apart from the /2005/libro1s.html:overall amount of their appropriate use, we were also interested in analysing the type of linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-strategies employed. Thus, learners made use of a high number of direct forms for both equal and /2005/libro1s.html-higher status situations in the pre-test (56.34%). In contrast, the use of these forms decreased in the

857 /2005/libro1s.html-whether learners improved their production of both requests and suggestions in a similar way after /2005/libro1s.html-receiving instruction on their appropriate use. Figure 2 below shows learners’ use of different /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic forms when requesting and suggesting in the pre- and post-test. As can be observed, the /2005/libro1s.html-amount of appropriate requests increased from the pre-test (28.57%) to the post-test (71.43%), and /2005/libro1s.html-a similar pattern was found for suggestions, whose appropriate use also improved from the pre-test

858 /2005/libro1s.html-In this sense, we may claim that the instructional treatment seemed to be effective to /2005/libro1s.html-develop learners’ pragmatic competence when requesting and suggesting in different situations. /2005/libro1s.html:We also paid attention to what kind of particular linguistic forms had been employed after being /2005/libro1s.html-engaged in the training period in order to ascertain whether learners had widened their use of /2005/libro1s.html-expressions to make requests and suggestions. Thus, our findings revealed that learners’ requests

859 /2005/libro1s.html-modal verbs and conditionals, as these were important grammatical aspects tackled in learners’ /2005/libro1s.html-syllabi at High School. /2005/libro1s.html:In contrast, learners’ performance in the post-test showed more variety of linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-strategies for both speech acts including the use of impersonals and hints in higher status /2005/libro1s.html-situations, which seems to provide a positive answer to our second research question. The

860 /2005/libro1s.html-/language teaching/. Castellón: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I. /2005/libro1s.html-Martínez-Flor, A. and E. Alcón 2004. “Pragmatic competence in the ESP context: A study across /2005/libro1s.html:disciplines”. Linguistic studies in academic and professional English. Eds. I. Fortanet, J. C. /2005/libro1s.html-Palmer and S. Posteguillo. Castellón: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I. 167-201. /2005/libro1s.html-Morrow, C. K. 1995. /The pragmatic effects of instruction on ESL learners' production of complaint /

861 /2005/libro1s.html-formal instruction. The study reported on here is part of a larger project (VALAL) that investigates /2005/libro1s.html-SA effects on the process of acquisition of English as a foreign language at an advanced stage by /2005/libro1s.html:measuring learners’ linguistic competence at three different times (before and after FI and SA /2005/libro1s.html-periods)2. The learners’ phonological competence is explored by means of two production tasks /2005/libro1s.html-aimed at producing a number of phonetic/phonological accuracy and fluency measures (e.g. VOT,

862 /2005/libro1s.html-conducted with the same group of subjects. It was expected, however, that a stay-abroad period /2005/libro1s.html-would have a much greater effect on the subject’s perceptual phonological competence than on the /2005/libro1s.html:subjects’ writing skills due to an intensive period of exposure to the spoken language in a linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-immersion context. Contrary to the findings of the study reported on here, significant gains in /2005/libro1s.html-perceptual ability were also expected to be greater after a stay-abroad term than after a period of

863 /2005/libro1s.html-conducted with the same group of subjects. It was expected, however, that a stay-abroad period /2005/libro1s.html-would have a much greater effect on the subject’s perceptual phonological competence than on the /2005/libro1s.html:subjects’ writing skills due to an intensive period of exposure to the spoken language in a linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-immersion context. Contrary to the findings of the study reported on here, significant gains in /2005/libro1s.html-perceptual ability were also expected to be greater after a stay-abroad term than after a period of

864 /2005/libro1s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro1s.html-Best, C. 1995. “A direct realistic perspective on cross-language speech perception”. /Speech / /2005/libro1s.html:/Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research./ Ed. W. Strange. /2005/libro1s.html-Timonium, MD: York Press. 171-206. /2005/libro1s.html-Best, C., Faber, A. and Levitt, A. 1996. “Perceptual assimilation of non-native vowel contrasts to

865 /2005/libro1s.html-/Acoustical Society of America /109: 775-794. /2005/libro1s.html-Brown, C. 2000. “The interrelation between speech perception and phonological acquisition from /2005/libro1s.html:infant to adult”. /Second language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory./ Ed. J. Archibald. Malden, /2005/libro1s.html-Mass.: Blackwell. 4-63. 1999. /2005/libro1s.html-Carbonell, J. C. and Llisterri, J. 1999. “Catalan”. /Handbook of the International Phonetic /

866 /2005/libro1s.html-for the effect of equivalence classification”. /Journal of Phonetics/ 15: 47-65. /2005/libro1s.html-Flege, J. E. 1991. “Perception and production: the relevance of phonetic input to L2 phonological /2005/libro1s.html:learning”. /Crosscurrents in Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theories. /Eds. T. /2005/libro1s.html-Huebner and C. A. Ferguson. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 249- 289. /2005/libro1s.html-Flege, J. E. 1992. “Speech learning in a second language”. /Phonological Development: Models, /

867 /2005/libro1s.html-York Press. 565-604. /2005/libro1s.html-Flege, J. E. 1995. “Second-language speech learning: theory, findings and problems”. /Speech / /2005/libro1s.html:/Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. /Ed. W. Strange. /2005/libro1s.html-Timonium, MD: York Press. 229-273. /2005/libro1s.html-Flege, J. E. 1997. “English vowel productions by Dutch talkers: more evidence for the “similar” vs

868 /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html-Hancin-Bhatt, B. and Govindjee, A. 1999. “A computational model of feature competition in L2 /2005/libro1s.html:transfer”. /Language and Thought in Development:Cross-Linguistic Studies./ Eds. P. Broeder and /2005/libro1s.html-J. Murre. Tuebingen: Gunter Narr. 145-161. /2005/libro1s.html-Lado, R. 1957. /Linguistics Across Cultures./ Ann Arbor: University

869 /2005/libro1s.html-Martínez-Celdrán, E., Fernández-Planas, A. M. and Carrera-Sabaté, J. 2003. “Castilian Spanish”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Journal of the International Phonetic Association /33, 2: 255-259. /2005/libro1s.html:Pérez-Vidal, C. and Juan-Garau, M. 2004. “The linguistic interest of mobility on the written /2005/libro1s.html-production of advanced Spanish/Catalan bilingual learners of English as an L3”. Poster /2005/libro1s.html-presented at the /14th EUROSLA Conference, San Sebastián (Spain),

870 /2005/libro1s.html- /2005/libro1s.html-ABSTRACT /2005/libro1s.html:/This paper deals with language transfer within interlanguage in the context of the current linguistic situation in / /2005/libro1s.html-/Galicia. Two languages, Galician and Spanish, co-exist in this area with different functional and use / /2005/libro1s.html-/distributions. As these two language varieties are closely in contact, it is possible to speak of the existence of two / /2005/libro1s.html-/interlanguages with mutual influences: a Spanish interlanguage and a Galician interlanguage. Both Galician / /2005/libro1s.html-/and Spanish are learnt in primary and secondary education; consequently, the concept of interlanguage, as / /2005/libro1s.html:/proposed by Selinker (1972, 1992), is expanded to analyse the linguistic situation in this bilingual context. Status / /2005/libro1s.html-/and corpus planning are taken into account and the attitudes of the speakers towards the two languages are also / /2005/libro1s.html-/reviewed. An important part of the study concentrates on the transfer and interlanguage principles that apply to /

871 /2005/libro1s.html-1. INTRODUCTION /2005/libro1s.html-In this paper we wil be dealing with the issue of interlanguage transfer as a feature of the current /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic situation in Galicia. Two languages co-exist in this small area, though not quite in the same /2005/libro1s.html-functional and use distributions since it is a bilingual diglossic society (Ferguson, 1959; Fishman, /2005/libro1s.html-1967; Rojo, 1981). The upper classes of society general y employ Spanish whereas lay workers,

872 /2005/libro1s.html-political spheres are clearly perceived. /2005/libro1s.html-As mentioned above, the purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary account of the existing /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic situation in Galicia by expanding Selinker’s (1972, 1992) original definition of the concept of /2005/libro1s.html-/interlanguage /(IL). Both Spanish and Galician are studied at primary and secondary education. Thus, /2005/libro1s.html:in our view, the notion of IL can be applied to refer to the two linguistic systems used in Galicia at the /2005/libro1s.html-moment and which are closely in contact, a variety of Spanish with an important Galician component /2005/libro1s.html-and a variety of Galician with a strong influence from Spanish. They are referred to by García (1976)

873 /2005/libro1s.html-are two factors that can explain this situation: the fact that the Castil ian nobility imposes over the /2005/libro1s.html-Galician and the lack of an autochthonous bourgeoisie class. As a consequence of al this, a situation of /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic conflict arises; literary and legal documents are written in Spanish and Galician is abandoned /2005/libro1s.html-in favour of the lat er. /2005/libro1s.html-2.2./ The 19th and 20th centuries /

874 /2005/libro1s.html-community. The official status of Galician is also established in the Statute of Autonomy (SA) (1981) /2005/libro1s.html-where the co-officiality of both languages is recognised; however, Galician is defined as “the natural /2005/libro1s.html:language of Galicia”. Two years later, the Law of Linguistic Normalization (LLN), approved by the /2005/libro1s.html-Galician Parliament, constituted the first serious at empt of language planning and real officiality, /2005/libro1s.html-including legal, administrative, educational and industrial use, and stating the political compromise to /2005/libro1s.html-promote Galician /2005/libro1s.html-The LLN led to the use of Galician in traditional y Spanish-speaking institutions; an office of /2005/libro1s.html:Linguistic Policy was created and courses of Galician for the administrative staff were offered. /2005/libro1s.html-However, this office has shown a limited planning capacity, especial y unsuccessful in dealing with /2005/libro1s.html:bilingual models that could be adapted to the different socio-linguistic needs of Galicia. /2005/libro1s.html-Education is probably the most successful aspect of this planning, since 1983 it is compulsory to /2005/libro1s.html-study at least one subject in Galician in primary education and two in secondary education; yet this law

875 /2005/libro1s.html-the lack of pedagogical materials in this language. /2005/libro1s.html-Nevertheless, the autonomous public radio and TV network formed the most popular area of /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic intervention. The broadcasting of Galician on radio and TV since 1986 meant the spreading /2005/libro1s.html-of the language to a large audience. However, most of the staff working in the mass media was /2005/libro1s.html:Spanish-speaking professionals, quite unaware of linguistic standardisation, which provoked the /2005/libro1s.html-criticism of a large sector of linguists in favour of that process. /2005/libro1s.html-

876 /2005/libro1s.html-rules are foreign to Galician pronunciation since they do not take into account phonological adequacy. /2005/libro1s.html- /2005/libro1s.html:Philological, historical, linguistic and pedagogical criteria have not reached yet a total /2005/libro1s.html-agreement although the 1982 Norms have obtained a high consensus. /2005/libro1s.html-

877 /2005/libro1s.html-upper middle and upper urban classes usual y speak it. At times, these speakers may show a prejudiced /2005/libro1s.html-at itude towards Galician, considering it a minor or secondary language. /2005/libro1s.html:Both standards, Galician and Spanish, form then a linguistic continuum with the two ILs /2005/libro1s.html-normal y and widely used: Galician IL and Spanish IL. It may be a common situation that the same /2005/libro1s.html-speaker uses both ILs depending on the social context. As we will see later, both ILs share general IL

878 /2005/libro1s.html-master the Galician IL too. In fact, it is quite common that both ILs overlap and it is extremely difficult /2005/libro1s.html-to know when transfer is coming from the NL or from the IL, mainly because on most occasions the IL /2005/libro1s.html:has become the NL. This is an extremely complex linguistic situation: two ILs becoming the NLs of a /2005/libro1s.html-bilingual native speaker. /2005/libro1s.html-a. Phonetics

879 /2005/libro1s.html-Monteagudo, H. 1993. “Aspects of corpus planning in Galician”. /Plurilinguismes /6: 121-153 /2005/libro1s.html-Monteagudo, H. and Santamarina, A. 1993. “Galician and Castilian in Contact: Historical, Social and /2005/libro1s.html:Linguistic Aspects”. /Trends in Romance Linguistics and Philology. Volume V: Bilingualism and /2005/libro1s.html:Linguistic Conflict in Romance/. Eds. Posner, Rebecca and John N. Trends in linguistics: Studies /2005/libro1s.html-and monographs, 71. Green Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 117-173. /2005/libro1s.html-Rabanal, M. 1967. /Hablas hispánicas/. /Temas gal egos y leoneses/. Ediciones Alealá: Madrid.

880 /2005/libro1s.html-methodological technique is based on the assumption that at the earliest stages (3, 4 and 5 years of /2005/libro1s.html-age), children need to rely on visual cues to understand the contents since they are still not familiar /2005/libro1s.html:with the linguistic input. They listen to the stories once and again while being exposed to language /2005/libro1s.html:and they are expected to gradually understand the contents and, finally, remember the linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-forms. However, in the context of this study, the use of pictures may have actually been counter- /2005/libro1s.html-productive. It seems that the visuals distracted the children and prevented them from concentrating /2005/libro1s.html:on the linguistic input. /2005/libro1s.html-The reliance on the visuals and the use of their knowledge about mothers’ reaction when /2005/libro1s.html-angry with their children and children doing things they are not supposed to do may lead to both

881 /2005/libro1s.html-ending. /2005/libro1s.html-.indd 171 /2005/libro1s.html: Secondly, it is necessary to pick up the linguistic cue (/not open one’s mouth/). 14/3/07 /2005/libro1s.html- 10:55:09 /2005/libro1s.html:Once the story has been understood and the linguistic cue recognised, the factor which seems to aid /2005/libro1s.html-the children’s understanding of /not open one’s mouth/ is the awareness of the functions of the mouth /2005/libro1s.html-(it is open when we speak and closed when we are quiet) and its relation to the context of the story.

882 /2005/libro1s.html-methodological technique is based on the assumption that at the earliest stages (3, 4 and 5 years of /2005/libro1s.html-age), children need to rely on visual cues to understand the contents since they are still not familiar /2005/libro1s.html:with the linguistic input. They listen to the stories once and again while being exposed to language /2005/libro1s.html:and they are expected to gradually understand the contents and, finally, remember the linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-forms. However, in the context of this study, the use of pictures may have actually been counter- /2005/libro1s.html-productive. It seems that the visuals distracted the children and prevented them from concentrating /2005/libro1s.html:on the linguistic input. /2005/libro1s.html-a The reliance on the visuals and the use of their knowledge about mothers’ reaction when /2005/libro1s.html-dquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS

883 /2005/libro1s.html-expression appears, is a necessary first step in the process of comprehending the figurative phrase. /2005/libro1s.html-If children do not understand the story, they will not be able to comprehend the meaning of the /2005/libro1s.html:idiomatic ending. Secondly, it is necessary to pick up the linguistic cue (/not open one’s mouth/). /2005/libro1s.html-Once th /2005/libro1s.html-G ei vseton ryt hhe asf abcet etnh uatn de

884 /2005/libro1s.html- . “Children's performance on a Spatial Analogies Task”. /Child Development/, 48: /2005/libro1s.html-1034-1039. /2005/libro1s.html:Gibbs, R. W. 1987. “Linguistic factors in children's understanding of idioms”. /Journal of Child / /2005/libro1s.html-/Language/, 14: 569-586. /2005/libro1s.html-Johnson, C. 1999. “Metaphor vs. conflation in the acquisition of polysemy: the case of see”.

885 /2005/libro1s.html-Gentner, D. 1977. “Children's performance on a Spatial Analogies Task”. /Child Development/, 48: /2005/libro1s.html-1034-1039. /2005/libro1s.html:Gibbs, R. W. 1987. “Linguistic factors in children's understanding of idioms”. /Journal of Child / /2005/libro1s.html-/Language/, 14: 569-586. /2005/libro1s.html-Johnson, C. 1999. “Metaphor vs. conflation in the acquisition of polysemy: the case of see”.

886 /2005/libro1s.html-Infants are born with the capacity of discriminating all speech sounds regardless of their /2005/libro1s.html-native language. Winifred Strange (1995: 19) refers to speech perception abilities in /2005/libro1s.html:pre-linguistic infants as /adult like/ and /language universal/. However, as early as the first /2005/libro1s.html-year of life, speech perception is attuned by experience with the sounds of the ambient /2005/libro1s.html-language. As a consequence, there is a loss in the ability to differentiate speech sounds

887 /2005/libro1s.html-“to discern the phonetic differences between certain L1 and L2 vowels” (Flege 1995: /2005/libro1s.html-native learners. /2005/libro1s.html:pre-linguistic infants as /adult like/ and /language universal/. However, as early as the first /2005/libro1s.html-243). /2005/libro1s.html-year Thi

888 /2005/libro1s.html-ess E. and /2005/libro1s.html-. 233-2 H /2005/libro1s.html:77. akuta, K. 1999. “Confounded age: Linguistic and cognitive factors /2005/libro1s.html-Hyl itn /2005/libro1s.html-e a

889 /2005/libro1s.html-Eds. C. Goodman and H. C. Nusbaum. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. /2005/libro1s.html-167-224. /2005/libro1s.html:Bialystok, E. and Hakuta, K. 1999. “Confounded age: Linguistic and cognitive factors /2005/libro1s.html-in age differences for second language acquisition”. /Second Language Acquisition / /2005/libro1s.html-/and the Critical period Hypothesis. /Ed. D. Birdsong. Mahwah, N. J.: Erlbaum. 161-

890 /2005/libro1s.html-perceived dissimilarity test”. /2005/libro1s.html-Strange, W. 1995. “Cross-language studies of speech perception. A Historical review”. /2005/libro1s.html:/Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience. /Ed. W. Strange. Baltimore: York /2005/libro1s.html-Press. 3-46. /2005/libro1s.html-181

891 /2005/libro1s.html-focus on meaning, and focus on form approaches. /2005/libro1s.html-/Focus on forms/ is a /synthetic/ approach, as defined in Wilkins (1976), since it first analyzes the /2005/libro1s.html:language to be taught and then organizes the syllabus around discrete linguistic features. Even if /2005/libro1s.html- /2005/libro1s.html-171

892 /2005/libro1s.html-(Krashen, 1981; 1982). In contrast to approaches that focus on forms, language syllabi that focus on /2005/libro1s.html-meaning are /analytic/ (Wilkins, 1976), since they are organized with respect to the purposes for /2005/libro1s.html:which people are learning a language and the linguistic items that they need to meet those purposes. /2005/libro1s.html-Finally, classes that /focus on form/ are meaning-oriented; yet, there are occasional explanations /2005/libro1s.html:of linguistic features that present problems for either production or comprehension. /2005/libro1s.html-One of the crucial issues behind the focus on form model is whether the knowledge that is /2005/libro1s.html-gained explicitly through grammar explanations can be automatized and used in fluent

893 /2005/libro1s.html-/Stage 4: overgeneralization of /his/ or /her / /2005/libro1s.html-3. Post-emergence (stages 5-8) /2005/libro1s.html:Gradual differentiation of /his/ and /her/ in all linguistic contexts /2005/libro1s.html-In relation to the metalinguistic activity, the coding criteria were those used in White and /2005/libro1s.html-Ranta (2002).

894 /2005/libro1s.html-their lack of enthusiasm could be that they are used to this type of metalinguistic instruction. Since /2005/libro1s.html-the treatment did not strike them as unusual, it did not attract their attention or interest. /2005/libro1s.html:To conclude, focusing explicitly on linguistic forms in the classroom can have positive effects /2005/libro1s.html-on tasks that demand a high concentration on language, as well as on spontaneous oral production, /2005/libro1s.html-which is probably less expected than the former effect. Nevertheless, a treatment that focuses

895 /2005/libro1s.html-their lack of enthusiasm could be that they are used to this type of metalinguistic instruction. Since /2005/libro1s.html-the treatment did not strike them as unusual, it did not attract their attention or interest. /2005/libro1s.html:To conclude, focusing explicitly on linguistic forms in the classroom can have positive effects /2005/libro1s.html-on tasks that demand a high concentration on language, as well as on spontaneous oral production, /2005/libro1s.html-a

896 /2005/libro1s.html-distractors. It was inferred from the participants’s detection and correction of the error that they had /2005/libro1s.html-analysed the incorrect form, as error-correction places great demands on language analysis /2005/libro1s.html:(Ricciardelli, 1993) and subjects are required to access and elaborate upon their linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-knowledge (Bialystok 1991, Bialystok and Ryan 1985, Birdsong 1989). Consequently, those items /2005/libro1s.html-that had not been corrected were considered as wrong.

897 /2005/libro1s.html-and BFF2001-3384. /2005/libro1s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro1s.html:Bialystok, E. 1988. “Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness”. /Developmental / /2005/libro1s.html-/Psychology/ 24: 560-567. /2005/libro1s.html-Bialystok, E. 1991. “Metalinguistic dimensions of bilingual language proficiency”. /Language /

898 /2005/libro1s.html-/Differences and Instructed Language Learning. /Ed. P. Robinson. Philadelphia: John Benjamins /2005/libro1s.html-Publishing Co. 159-180. /2005/libro1s.html:Ricciardelli, L. A. 1993. “Two components of metalinguistic awareness. Control of linguistic /2005/libro1s.html:processing and analysis of linguistic knowledge”. /Applied Psycholinguistics /14: 349-367. /2005/libro1s.html-Skehan, P. 1986. “Cluster Analysis and the Identification of Learner Types”. /Experimental / /2005/libro1s.html-/Approaches to Second Language Learning/. Ed. V. Cook. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 81-94.

899 /2005/libro1s.html-empirically identified through factor analyses. These components will be used in later studies as /2005/libro1s.html-variables to measure changes across age groups as well as to relate motivation with other factors /2005/libro1s.html:such as learning strategies and linguistic competence. /2005/libro1s.html-2.1. /The instrument / /2005/libro1s.html-The questionnaire that was used in this study was based on previous work by Cid, Grañena

900 /2005/libro1s.html-level response Likert scale. The first part (including 36 items, 16 of which negatively worded) aims /2005/libro1s.html-at measuring attitudes and the second (including 19 items) at measuring goal orientations. In /2005/libro1s.html:addition, data was also collected on students’ reported use of learning strategies, linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-competence (with a cloze test) as well as on personal background, even though these other sets of /2005/libro1s.html-data have not be used in this work.

901 /2005/libro1s.html-dichotomy between instrumental/integrative orientation (Dörnyei 1994; LoCastro 2001; Lamb /2005/libro1s.html-2004;). Instead, the division that has been found here between two orientations that require different /2005/libro1s.html:levels of linguistic competence seems to match Warschauer’s view (2000) that in the 21st centrury /2005/libro1s.html-people’s need for English will not be uniform but will vary depending on the type of job. According /2005/libro1s.html-to him, there will be a majority of jobs for which basic conversational skills will be needed whereas

902 /2005/libro1s.html-level response Likert scale. The first part (including 36 items, 16 of which negatively worded) aims /2005/libro1s.html-at measuring attitudes and the second (including 19 items) at measuring goal orientations. In /2005/libro1s.html:addition, data was also collected on students’ reported use of learning strategies, linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-ELSA TRAGANT /2005/libro1s.html-competence (with a cloze test) as well as on personal background, even though t

903 /2005/libro1s.html-/measurement times: an entrance test (T1), a pre-test (T2) after 100-hour instruction period and before stay / /2005/libro1s.html-/abroad, and a post-test (T3) after the stay has taken place. Different abilities (oral and written comprehension; / /2005/libro1s.html:/oral and written expression) and linguistic levels and areas are considered. / /2005/libro1s.html-/In this presentation the effect of stay abroad is measured only in relation to the macro-level oral narrative / /2005/libro1s.html-/competence of the 25 subjects considered, and two measurement times only: the pre-test (T2), before the stay /

904 /2005/libro1s.html-conducted in order to be able to shed some light on its nature and its implications in SLAL and /2005/libro1s.html-FoLAL contexts. Surprisingly, very little empirical research has been done on this area, and in /2005/libro1s.html:particular on the linguistic aspects involved. /2005/libro1s.html-In Great Britain, during the seventies (1969-1979) several studies involving several languages /2005/libro1s.html:were conducted in order to observe progress in several linguistic abilities (oral expression, oral /2005/libro1s.html-comprehension and reading) in a SA context (Carroll (1967), Willis et al. (1977)). All these studies /2005/libro1s.html-

905 /2005/libro1s.html-(Enomoto y Marriott, 1994), the problems encountered by Finnish students of English due to /2005/libro1s.html-cultural differences (Ylönen 1994). It is also worth mentioning the work done by Freed (1993) to be /2005/libro1s.html:able to establish rigorous data collection procedures and undertake an analysis of linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-competence and practice in the pre-test and post-test in order to make up for the lack of information /2005/libro1s.html:on the learners’ real linguistic abilities. Her book, though, which addresses issues related to /2005/libro1s.html-significant measurement, contrastive studies in different languages, sociolinguistic approaches and /2005/libro1s.html-the use of the diary as an instrument to structure the stay from the point of view of cultural /2005/libro1s.html-objectives, does not really contribute data and results on real language use before and after the stay. /2005/libro1s.html-All this means that as for today there is not a study describing the effect of SA on the different /2005/libro1s.html:variables related to linguistic competence (that is, phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico- /2005/libro1s.html-semantic), sociolinguistic, pragmatic and discourse competence in the acquisition and learning of a /2005/libro1s.html-particular language.

906 /2005/libro1s.html-Interesting results come up when our dependent variable (improvement of narrative /2005/libro1s.html-competence) is considered in terms of the effect of SA measured vis-à-vis other independent /2005/libro1s.html:variables that relate the subjects to their previous linguistic history (English private courses in /2005/libro1s.html-Secondary education, long or short stays in English-speaking countries, English certificate, and /2005/libro1s.html-stays in non-English speaking countries). Due to space restrictions, it is not possible to comment on

907 /2005/libro1s.html-fact that there seems to exist a lot of intra-individual variation that we haven’t investigated yet but /2005/libro1s.html-whose analysis will certainly shed more light on the combined effect of other independent variables. /2005/libro1s.html:In conclusion, we need to take a more micro-linguistic approach – more in the line of character /2005/libro1s.html-introduction and markers of reference - which will also allow us to compare our data to the other /2005/libro1s.html-competences considered (Juan Garau and Pérez Vidal 2004) and draw more general conclusions

908 /2005/libro1s.html-language teaching and language acquisition: The interdependence of theory, practice and /2005/libro1s.html-research/. Ed. J. Atlatis. Washington D. C.: Georgetown University Press. 459-477. /2005/libro1s.html:Freed, B. 1993. “Assessing the linguistic impact of study abroad: What we currently know –what /2005/libro1s.html-we need to learn”. /Journal of Asian Pacific Communication/ 4(4): 151-166. /2005/libro1s.html-Gass, S. 1990. “Second and foreign language learning: same, different or none of the above?”.

909 /2005/libro1s.html-Juan Garau, M. and Pérez Vidal, C. 2000. “Syntactic development and subject optionality”. /2005/libro1s.html-/Bilingualism. Language and Cognition /(special issue on syntactic development) 3: 173-191. /2005/libro1s.html:Juan Garau, M. and Pérez Vidal, C. 2004. “The linguistic interest of mobility on the written /2005/libro1s.html-production of advanced Spanish/Catalan bilingual learners of English as an L3”. Paper presented /2005/libro1s.html-at EUROSLA (14th European Second Language Association Conference, Donostia- San

910 /2005/libro1s.html-/City/. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. /2005/libro1s.html-Lapkin, S., Hart, D. & Swain. 1995. “A Canadian interprovincial exchange: Evaluating the /2005/libro1s.html:linguistic impact of a three-month stay in Québec”. /Second Language Acquisition in a Study /2005/libro1s.html-Abroad Context/. B. Freed. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 67-79. /2005/libro1s.html-Marriott, H.E. 1995. “The acquisition of politeness patterns by exchange students in Japan”. Ed. B.

911 /2005/libro1s.html-Buyse, K. 2003. /Basisuitspraak Spaans voor Nederlandstaligen. /Deurne: Wolters-Plantyn. /2005/libro1s.html-[aplicación en www.e-tutor.be] /2005/libro1s.html:Carter, R.A. 1987. /Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives./ London: Allen & Unwin. /2005/libro1s.html-Cervero, M.J. y Pichardo F. 2000. /Aprender y enseñar vocabulario./ Madrid: Edelsa. /2005/libro1s.html-Ellis, N. C. 1997. “Vocabulary acquisition: word structure, collocation, word-class and

912 /2005/libro1s.html-/discussing the concept of blended learning insofar as a particular integration of e-learning and / /2005/libro1s.html-conventional-classroom/ instruction, a case study is presented describing the implementation of a blended / /2005/libro1s.html:/learning programme aiming to increase and improve the EFL linguistic competence of B.A. students. In / /2005/libro1s.html-/particular, we focus on such dimensions as curriculum design; selection of relevant e-learning resources / /2005/libro1s.html-/and construction of an online database in the multimedia language laboratory for EFL students; and the /

913 /2005/libro1s.html-blended learning programme in EFL tuition for first-cycle English Philology students at the /2005/libro1s.html-University of Castilla-La Mancha. The experience, which has been working for four years /2005/libro1s.html:now, was triggered by the urgent need to increase and improve the EFL linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-competence of B.A. students. As in many other universities all over the country, the students /2005/libro1s.html-embarking on the B.A. in English at the University of Castilla-La Mancha are assumed to

914 /2005/libro1s.html-completion of their studies. However, it is often the case that university entrance exams – /2005/libro1s.html-/Selectividad /– do not guarantee this minimal requirement. Many undergraduates are heavily /2005/libro1s.html:burdened with this linguistic deficit in EFL throughout a great part of their studies, which /2005/libro1s.html-likewise prevents their progress in other subjects taught in English. As a result, mastering the /2005/libro1s.html-language at a real Proficiency level seems an insurmountable project for many

915 /2005/libro1s.html-been how to design and sequence tasks in such a way that they will foster a balanced /2005/libro1s.html-development of L2 learners’ fluency, complexity, and accuracy. While traditionally in /2005/libro1s.html:synthetic syllabi linguistic units (i.e. structures, words, or functions) have been /2005/libro1s.html-organized according to various notions of /frequency/, /usefulness/, or /difficulty/, in analytic /2005/libro1s.html-syllabi which have used tasks as units of syllabus construction a number of researchers

916 /2005/libro1s.html-participants. Difficult tasks require more attention than easy tasks”. They have /2005/libro1s.html-suggested that tasks should be organized in a syllabus by considering their code /2005/libro1s.html:complexity (e.g. the linguistic and lexical complexity and variety of texts involved in /2005/libro1s.html-tasks), cognitive familiarity (i.e. with task type, discourse genre, or topic), cognitive /2005/libro1s.html-processing (i.e. amount, organization, clarity, and sufficiency of information), and

917 /2005/libro1s.html-impact of increasing the cognitive demands of task on learners’ narrative oral /2005/libro1s.html-production. The main objective of the study was to measure the level of fluency (i.e. /2005/libro1s.html:speech rate), linguistic complexity (i.e. structural complexity and lexical variety), and /2005/libro1s.html-accuracy (i.e. in terms of errors and self-repairs) of learners’ production under different /2005/libro1s.html-degrees of cognitive complexity. The following sections provide information about the

918 /2005/libro1s.html-to grasp, nor it is particularly revolutionary. In involves injecting relevant and meaningful /2005/libro1s.html-subject-matter (content) into second or foreign language classes, making content classes /2005/libro1s.html:more sensitive to the linguistic demands posed by specific subject-matter, or doing both /2005/libro1s.html-simultaneously, either through two or more languages or through the primary language of /2005/libro1s.html-the mainstream classroom.

919 /2005/libro1s.html-ABSTRACT /2005/libro1s.html-/This paper considers the use of visual images to prompt recall of idioms in two EFL texts aimed at / /2005/libro1s.html:/advanced learners. The visual, because it does not constitute the linguistic expression itself, / /2005/libro1s.html-/interprets the idiom in question, offering the learner an external representation of it. While in / /2005/libro1s.html-/principle visual images may be a particularly appropriate means of prompting recall of imageable /

920 /2005/libro1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html:The relationship established between a linguistic string and a visual representation /2005/libro1s.html-constitutes a multi-modal presentation of these items, an approach that is essentially /2005/libro1s.html:interpretative in nature. The visual, because it does not constitute the linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-expression itself, interprets the idiom in question, offering the learner a representation /2005/libro1s.html:of the expression, which isolates it from the local linguistic and wider communicative /2005/libro1s.html-context in which it may occur. In principle, this type of mnemonic is eminently suitable /2005/libro1s.html-for prompting recall of idioms. After all, these fossilised units often render a scenario

921 /2005/libro1s.html-14/3/07 10:57:43 /2005/libro1s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro1s.html:The relationship established between a linguistic string and a visual representation /2005/libro1s.html-constitutes a multi-modal presentation of these items, an approach that is essentially /2005/libro1s.html:interpretative in nature. The visual, because it does not constitute the linguistic /2005/libro1s.html-expression itself, interprets the idiom in question, offering the learner a representation /2005/libro1s.html:of the expression, which isolates it from the local linguistic and wider communicative /2005/libro1s.html-context in which it may occur. In principle, this type of mnemonic is eminently suitable /2005/libro1s.html-for prompting recall of idioms. After all, these fossilised units often render a scenario

922 /2005/libro1s.html-idioms frequently to express the community values they represent, presumably because, /2005/libro1s.html-just as in any discourse community, full membership is displayed by mastery of the /2005/libro1s.html:appropriate linguistic forms that express its ideology or world view, and before this /2005/libro1s.html-age, individuals do not see themselves, nor are they seen by the community at large, as /2005/libro1s.html-fully acculturated members.

923 /2005/libro1s.html-loved ones, death need not always be judged a tragedy, arousing emotions of pity or /2005/libro1s.html-fear, particularly if it affects a stranger -and these alternative perspectives on dying are /2005/libro1s.html:reflected in the different linguistic construals of the event available to English speakers. /2005/libro1s.html-Thus, if we consider how a person’s death might be talked about in different contexts, /2005/libro1s.html-we note that in a neutral expression such as /die/, the action is reported as an intransitive

924 /2005/libro1s.html-adquiSición y aPrendizaJe de lenguaS en contextoS PlurilingüeS. enSayoS y ProPueStaS aPlicadaS /2005/libro1s.html-And when an inanimate object /flies/ through the air, there may very well be a human /2005/libro1s.html:agent involved in the process, although this is not encoded in the linguistic expression. /2005/libro1s.html-Apart from not distinguishing between these two senses of /fly,/ the illustration fails to /2005/libro1s.html-render the negative assessment of the anger displayed because of the very means used

925 /2005/libro1s.html-This is a serious issue because, as has been pointed out (Leach 1964, Lakoff and Turner /2005/libro1s.html-1989), when people or the situations that involve them are “seen as” animals, the /2005/libro1s.html:implications are, in general, negative. However, not all linguistic realisations of the /2005/libro1s.html-PEOPLE ARE ANIMALS metaphor negatively evaluate events and behaviour with equal /2005/libro1s.html-strength. For example, in those interactions in which solidarity, rather than conflict, is /2005/libro1s.html:the aim of the interlocutors, linguistic instantiations of the A IS B formula (/He’s such a /2005/libro1s.html-cold fish/ or /What a snake in the grass!/) are not usually used in direct address but /2005/libro1s.html-339

926 /2005/libro1s.html-The visual interpretations of animal idioms in English may induce learners to /2005/libro1s.html-think that such expressions are equally benign in the way they assess the situations they /2005/libro1s.html:describe, and lead them to regard such linguistic expressions as fundamentally different /2005/libro1s.html-from those with which they will be familiar in the mother tongue. By using simplified /2005/libro1s.html-cartoon representations of the animal world, we may encourage learners to see such

927 /2005/libro1s.html-existe un creciente interés por los corpus de aprendices como instrumento de /2005/libro1s.html-investigación. Tal es el caso del /International Corpus of Learner English/ (ICLE) /2005/libro1s.html:(Granger et al. 2002) y de COALA (/Computer-aided Linguistic Analysis/) (Pienemann /2005/libro1s.html-1992), que se utilizan para el análisis de las características de la IL. /2005/libro1s.html-Además de estos grandes corpus, aumenta el número de investigadores y

928 /2005/libro1s.html-/model designed by Bernie Dodge in 1995 which use has spread widely in numerous areas of / /2005/libro1s.html-/education. However, it has been noticed that its influence has been a minor in the area of second / /2005/libro1s.html:/languages. This contribution aims to bring the WebQuest closer to Applied Linguistic, with this / /2005/libro1s.html-/objective we present a study in which we have defined a WebQuest model for second languages / /2005/libro1s.html-/and have applied it specifically to vocabulary acquisition and reading. In addition, we present an /

929 /2005/libro1s.html-Ponterotto 1994; Kövecses and Szabò 1996; Lazar 1996; Deignan, Gabrys and Solska /2005/libro1s.html-1997 or Herrera and White 2000) have shown that understanding the figurative /2005/libro1s.html:motivation for diverse types of linguistic expressions in English can aid their /2005/libro1s.html-comprehension and memorisation. Nevertheless, all these studies have focused on /2005/libro1s.html-adolescent and adult learners of English. Given the fact that EFL is introduced at ever

930 /2005/libro1s.html-Ponterotto 1994; Kövecses and Szabò 1996; Lazar 1996; Deignan, Gabrys and Solska /2005/libro1s.html-1997 or Herrera and White 2000) have shown that understanding the figurative /2005/libro1s.html:motivation for diverse types of linguistic expressions in English can aid their /2005/libro1s.html-comprehension and memorisation. Nevertheless, all these studies have focused on /2005/libro1s.html-adolescent and adult learners of English. Given the fact that EFL is introduced at ever

931 /2005/libro1s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro1s.html-Deignan, A., Gabrys, D. and Solska, A. 1997. “Teaching English metaphors using /2005/libro1s.html:cross-linguistic awareness-raising activities”. /ELT Journal/ 51 (4): 352-360. /2005/libro1s.html-Herrera, H. and. White. M. 2000. “Cognitive linguistics and the language learning /2005/libro1s.html-process: a case from economics”. /Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense

932 /2005/libro1s.html-actividad motivadora que captará la atención de los alumnos. Su utilización permite que /2005/libro1s.html-los niños desarrollen su competencia literaria, que Brumfit y Carter (1986: 18) /2005/libro1s.html:definieron como, “a combination of linguistic, socio-cultural, historical and semiotic /2005/libro1s.html-awareness”. /2005/libro1s.html-Contar cuentos supone un ejemplo de /input/ para que el niño desarrolle sus

933 /2005/libro2s.html-1462-34234-34263 UIB Usos.indd 7 /2005/libro2s.html-3/5/07 14:41:58 /2005/libro2s.html:A CROSS-LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOME GESTURES RELATED TO HEAD AND MIND /2005/libro2s.html-/Javier Herrero Ruiz / /2005/libro2s.html-THE ANALYSIS OF INTERPERSONAL METADISCOURSAL FEATURES IN GENRES FROM

934 /2005/libro2s.html-RELACIÓN ENTRE EL RETRASO TEMPRANO DEL HABLA (3/4 AÑOS) Y EL NIVEL LECTOR (7/8) /2005/libro2s.html-/Eva Aguilar Mediavilla y Mª Fernanda Lara Díaz / /2005/libro2s.html:SYNAESTHESIA: A LINGUISTIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CONCEPTUAL REALITY /2005/libro2s.html-/Carmen M. Bretones Callejas / /2005/libro2s.html-VARIACIONES EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE /S/ Y /S/ EN CATALANOHABLANTES DE 3 A 7 AÑOS:

935 /2005/libro2s.html-/Tejerina es/ /2005/libro2s.html-17 /2005/libro2s.html:A CROSS-LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOME GESTURES RELATED TO HEAD AND MIND /2005/libro2s.html-/Javier Herrero Ruiz / /2005/libro2s.html-*PRAGMÁTICA

936 /2005/libro2s.html-/Mª Fernanda Lara Díaz y Eva Aguilar Mediavilla / /2005/libro2s.html-*PSICOLINGÜÍSTICA* /2005/libro2s.html:SYNAESTHESIA: A LINGUISTIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CONCEPTUAL REALITY /2005/libro2s.html-/Car/ /2005/libro2s.html-RE /m/

937 /2005/libro2s.html-/Lorena Suárez Tejerina / /2005/libro2s.html-*PRAGMÁTICA* /2005/libro2s.html:A CROSS-LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOME GESTURES RELATED TO HEAD AND MIND /2005/libro2s.html-/Javier Herrero Ruiz / /2005/libro2s.html-THE ANALYSIS OF INTERPERSONAL METADISCOURSAL FEATURES IN GENRES FROM

938 /2005/libro2s.html-TOR (7/8) /2005/libro2s.html-/Mª Fernanda Lara Díaz y Eva Aguilar Mediavilla / /2005/libro2s.html:SYNAESTHESIA: A LINGUISTIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CONCEPTUAL REALITY /2005/libro2s.html-/Carmen M. Bretones Callejas / /2005/libro2s.html-VARIACIONES EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE /S/ Y /S/ EN CATALANOHABLANTES DE 3 A 7 AÑOS:

939 /2005/libro2s.html-metaphor in other languages. And, even if the approach does so apply, there is the issue of whether /2005/libro2s.html-different languages use the same view-neutral mapping adjuncts. /2005/libro2s.html:It would also be interesting to investigate the applicability of the approach to non-linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-forms of expression, such as pictures. Some initial work on applying the approach to graphical /2005/libro2s.html-forms of expression used in computer interfaces is reported in Barnden /et al. /(2004b).

940 /2005/libro2s.html-Charteris-Black, J. 2002. Second language Figurative proficiency: A comparative study of Malay /2005/libro2s.html-and English. /Applied Linguistics, 23/, 104.133. /2005/libro2s.html:Deignan, A., Gabrys, D. & Solska, A. 1997. Teaching English metaphors using cross-linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-awareness raising activities. /ELT Journal, 51/, 352.360. /2005/libro2s.html-Grady, J.E. 1997a. /Foundations of meaning: primary metaphors and primary scenes. /Ph.D. Thesis,

941 /2005/libro2s.html-constraining the hearer’s interpretation, to make it easier for them to reach the speaker’s intended /2005/libro2s.html-meaning. They do this by constraining the context within which the interpretation of the meaning is /2005/libro2s.html:made. Consequently, we can say that some linguistic meaning is representational (the basic /2005/libro2s.html:message, for instance), but other linguistic meaning (that of the markers such as /so/, /well/, /and/, /like/ /2005/libro2s.html-etc) is procedural – it guides the hearer towards the most relevant interpretation (cf within a /2005/libro2s.html-different framework Redeker’s (1990) distinction between ideational and pragmatic markers of

942 /2005/libro2s.html-shortened what would be a longer list by avoiding repetition of features that are similar.. /2005/libro2s.html-meaning. They do this by constraining the context within which the interpretation of the meaning is /2005/libro2s.html:made. Consequently, we can say that some linguistic meaning is representational (the basic /2005/libro2s.html-______________________________________________________________________ /2005/libro2s.html:message, for instance), but other linguistic meaning (that of the markers such as /so/, /well/, /and/, /like /2005/libro2s.html-/1 They occur outside the syntactic structure or are only loosely attached to it. /2005/libro2s.html-etc) is procedural – it guides the hearer towards the most relevant interpretation (cf within a

943 /2005/libro2s.html-3 They are short and (often) phonologically reduced. /2005/libro2s.html-discourse structure). /2005/libro2s.html:4 They may be multifunctional, operating on several linguistic levels simulataneously. /2005/libro2s.html-5 They have little or no propositional meaning, or at least they are difficult to specify lexically. /2005/libro2s.html-They may have a vague meaning, or be reflexive (of the language of the speaker)

944 /2005/libro2s.html-3 They are short and (often) phonologically reduced. /2005/libro2s.html-Andersen (2000:40) argues against the importance traditionally given to non-propositionality /2005/libro2s.html:4 They may be multifunctional, operating on several linguistic levels simulataneously. /2005/libro2s.html-as an essential property of pragmatic markers, preferring to consider this feature as usual but not /2005/libro2s.html-5 They have little or no propositional meaning, or at least they are difficult to specify lexically.

945 /2005/libro2s.html-the hearer, selecting, not creating, a relationship, as Schiffrin has suggested. /2005/libro2s.html-I have been using the verb ‘index’ throughout this study instead of ‘encode’. Indexicality is /2005/libro2s.html:the property of linguistic and other cultural forms to point to what Ochs (1996) calls situational /2005/libro2s.html-dimensions. These include not only the dimensions of time and space but also of social identity, /2005/libro2s.html-social acts such as giving advice and stance, whether epistemic, evidential or affective. As I have

946 /2005/libro2s.html-genre in which the interaction occurs. One could call all pragmatic markers ‘indexicals’, as rather /2005/libro2s.html-than encoding a semantic meaning, they indicate or index certain recurring relations in the /2005/libro2s.html:immediate social and linguistic context and become associated with them, so that when the form /2005/libro2s.html-occurs the marker evokes those situational dimensions. The less semantic content a marker has, the /2005/libro2s.html:less it encodes linguistic meaning; rather, it will index a meaning that can be inferred by taking /2005/libro2s.html-contextual factors into consideration. /2005/libro2s.html-Possibly all markers are at the same time reflexive in the sense they signal the speakers’s

947 /2005/libro2s.html-Zorraquino y Montolío Durán eds. 177-192. /2005/libro2s.html-Goffman, E. 1974. /Frame Analysis. /New York: Harper and Row. /2005/libro2s.html:Gumperz, J.J. and S.C. Levinson eds. 1996. /Rethinking Linguistic Relativity/. Studies in the Social /2005/libro2s.html-and Cultural Foundations of Language 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /2005/libro2s.html-72

948 /2005/libro2s.html-Martín Zorraquino, Mª A. and E. Monotolío Durán. (Coords.) 1998. /Los marcadores del discurso/. /2005/libro2s.html-Arco Libros. 121-142. /2005/libro2s.html:Ochs, E. 1996. “Linguistic Resources for Socializing Humanity”. In Gumperz and Levinson, eds., /2005/libro2s.html-438-469. /2005/libro2s.html-Redeker, G. 1990. “Ideational and pragmatic markers of discourse structure”. /Journal of /

949 /2005/libro2s.html-Schwenter, S. 1996. “Some reflections on /o sea/: A discourse marker in Spanish”. /Journal of / /2005/libro2s.html-/Pragmatics/ 25, 1996. 855-874. /2005/libro2s.html:Stein, D. and S. Wright. 1995. (eds.) /Subjectivity and Subjectivisation. Linguistic Perspectives/. /2005/libro2s.html-Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 31-54. /2005/libro2s.html-Traugott, E.C. 1995. “Subjectification in grammaticalization”. In Stein and Wright (eds.) 1995. 31-

950 /2005/libro2s.html-discourse specific and, therefore, should be explored accordingly. For despite the invaluable source of insight /2005/libro2s.html-provided by the abundant discussion in the literature, a more realistic approach is still found missing for /2005/libro2s.html:explaining a linguistic resource that not only occurs abundantly in English narrative texts, but also, and most /2005/libro2s.html-importantly, may be revealing of some of their idiosyncratic features –particularly those responding to the texts’ /2005/libro2s.html-generic affiliation. Before engaging in this discussion, the paper starts with a brief introduction of motion

951 /2005/libro2s.html-should be explored accordingly. For despite the invaluable source of insight provided by the /2005/libro2s.html-abundant discussion in the literature, a more discursive approach is still found missing for /2005/libro2s.html:explaining a linguistic resource that not only occurs abundantly in English narratives, but also, and /2005/libro2s.html-most importantly, may be revealing of some of the texts’ idiosyncratic features –particularly those /2005/libro2s.html-responding to their generic affiliation.

952 /2005/libro2s.html-particulars of motion, and the more or less dynamic tone achieved by the expressions. In other /2005/libro2s.html-words, differences in rhetorical style are seen as largely resting upon the aspects of the events /2005/libro2s.html:narrated which are backgrounded or foregrounded by their linguistic expression. Thus, Spanish /2005/libro2s.html-narratives using motion constructions have been characterised as particularly focused on static- /2005/libro2s.html-scene elaboration versus English narratives, characterised by their placement of narrative attention

953 /2005/libro2s.html-typological differences since the different way(s) in which languages are used to communicate /2005/libro2s.html-respond to factors other than the lexico-grammatical patterns available. In order to make an /2005/libro2s.html:appropriate use of motion patterns –indeed, of any other linguistic device– one needs to know not /2005/libro2s.html-only the /what/ and the /how/, but also, and most importantly, the /when/ and /what for/ aspects involved. /2005/libro2s.html-The concomitant need to adopt a discourse approach to the different ways in which motion events

954 /2005/libro2s.html-narrative and the allocation of attention –especially to features of path and manner. Rather than put /2005/libro2s.html-languages into typological categories, it might be more profitable to lay out the collection of factors /2005/libro2s.html:that, together, interact to contribute to particular rhetorical styles. The linguistic locus of path /2005/libro2s.html-expression is only one of such factors […] cultural patterns of narrative style can act to foster or limit /2005/libro2s.html-repetition and elaboration of path components.

955 /2005/libro2s.html-2004.519 /2005/libro2s.html- “T . /2005/libro2s.html:he many ways to search for a frog: Linguistic typology and the expression of /2005/libro2s.html-Slobin, /2005/libro2s.html-mo t D.

956 /2005/libro2s.html-order to show where aspects of oral and written language can intervene. I will analyse some types of discourse /2005/libro2s.html-that are linked to political life. I will focus on the mix of characteristics of oral and written language and its /2005/libro2s.html:influence on the linguistic production itself. More concretely, I will demonstrate how the genres of official /2005/libro2s.html-speech, parliamentary debate, interview and political cartoon contain both oral and written characteristics, /2005/libro2s.html:thus increasing the complexity of the linguistic analysis of these discursive genres. / /2005/libro2s.html-1. HABLA ORAL Y ESCRITA /2005/libro2s.html-Después de un largo periodo de predominio del habla escrita en la investigación lingüística, el

957 /2005/libro2s.html-/discourse: a corpus-based pragmatic analysis/. Unpublished PhD thesis. /2005/libro2s.html-Jungbluth, K. 2003. "Deictics in the conversational dyad. Findings in Spanish and some cross- /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic outlines". /Deictic conceptualisation of space, time and person. Pragmatics and / /2005/libro2s.html-/Beyond new series 112/. Ed. F. Lenz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 13-40. /2005/libro2s.html-Mollfulleda, S. 1988. "La lectura, ¿eslabón entre la lengua escrita y la hablada?". /Revista de /

958 /2005/libro2s.html-Rohrer, T. 2001. "Even the internet is for sale: Metaphors, visual blends and the hidden ideology of /2005/libro2s.html-the internet". /Language and Ideology. Volume II: Descriptive cognitive approaches. Current / /2005/libro2s.html:/issues in Linguistic Theory 205/. Eds. R. Dirven, R.M. Frank y C. Ilie. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: /2005/libro2s.html-John Benjamins. 189-214. /2005/libro2s.html-------------------------------------------------------------------------

959 /2005/libro2s.html-/discourse: a corpus-based pragmatic analysis/. Unpublished PhD thesis. /2005/libro2s.html-Jungbluth, K. 2003. "Deictics in the conversational dyad. Findings in Spanish and some cross- /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic outlines". /Deictic conceptualisation of space, time and person. Pragmatics and / /2005/libro2s.html-/Beyond new series 112/. Ed. F. Lenz. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 13-40. /2005/libro2s.html-Mollfulleda, S. 1988. "La lectura, ¿eslabón entre la lengua escrita y la hablada?". /Revista de /

960 /2005/libro2s.html-Rohrer, T. 2001. "Even the internet is for sale: Metaphors, visual blends and the hidden ideology of /2005/libro2s.html-the internet". /Language and Ideology. Volume II: Descriptive cognitive approaches. Current / /2005/libro2s.html:/issues in Linguistic Theory 205/. Eds. R. Dirven, R.M. Frank y C. Ilie. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: /2005/libro2s.html-John Benjamins. 189-214. /2005/libro2s.html-

961 /2005/libro2s.html-implementing Fairclough’s CDA framework over a sample from /Later/ magazine, a case study is completed /2005/libro2s.html-exploring the construction of the new man at all three layers of discourse including (i) text, (ii) interaction, and /2005/libro2s.html:(iii) socio-cultural action. Results substantiate initial objectives, showing how specific linguistic options have a /2005/libro2s.html-fundamental role in the discursive articulation of the ideological apparatus of the new man in the textual sample /2005/libro2s.html-of the genre analysed. /

962 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:all three discursive layers, and specific linguistic features (lexis, verbal processes, modality, /2005/libro2s.html-cohesion, presupposition, implicature, speech acts, etc.) have a fundamental role in this process. /2005/libro2s.html-CDA has proved effective as a resource to decipher the mechanisms regulating the articulation of

963 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:all three discursive layers, and specific linguistic features (lexis, verbal processes, modality, /2005/libro2s.html-cohesion, presupposition, implicature, speech acts, etc.) have a fundamental role in this process. /2005/libro2s.html-CDA has proved effective as a resource to decipher the mechanisms regulating the articulation of

964 /2005/libro2s.html-/University of Leeds,Universidad Politécnica de Valencia / /2005/libro2s.html-ABSTRACT /2005/libro2s.html:/This paper aims to present a corpus-approach to the description of linguistic metaphors in scientific business /2005/libro2s.html-discourse, as represented by the genre of business research article. An electronic corpus was examined for this /2005/libro2s.html-study, first, by a close reading of a sample corpus, and then, by a thorough search for the Vehicles identified /2005/libro2s.html:with a concordancer. The linguistic metaphors identified in this way were analysed according to their degree of /2005/libro2s.html-activity and inactivity (Goatly 1997). They were also described in terms of their functional varieties (Henderson /2005/libro2s.html-1986; Lindstromberg 1991). The results obtained show that all the metaphors identified are of inactive type.

965 /2005/libro2s.html-Metaphor research in economics discourse was principally undertaken from the point of view /2005/libro2s.html-of philosophy of science without adopting a truly corpus-based approach. By contrast, metaphor /2005/libro2s.html:studies in the popularised economic and business discourse have benefited from the linguistic turn /2005/libro2s.html-in metaphor investigation in recent years, and have been especially productive (e.g. Charteris-Black /2005/libro2s.html-& Ennis 2001; Charteris-Black & Musolff 2003; White 2003; Charteris-Black 2004).

966 /2005/libro2s.html-metaphor studies with a corpus approach, as well as from the relevance of the methodological issues /2005/libro2s.html-arising in such investigation. Therefore, the main goals set for this research were, first, to identify /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic metaphors used in a corpus of business research articles; second, to define the metaphors /2005/libro2s.html-identified in terms of their types and functions; and, third, to discuss the quantitative data related to /2005/libro2s.html-metaphor frequencies.

967 /2005/libro2s.html-Henderson (1986) and Lindstromberg (1991) referred as the central organizing principle of all /2005/libro2s.html-language, which characterises the use of metaphor in any text type. In our opinion, the metaphors /2005/libro2s.html:fulfilling the generic functions could be defined as the linguistic articulation of the systems of /2005/libro2s.html-conventional conceptual metaphors. They are well established and deeply entrenched in the usage /2005/libro2s.html:of a linguistic community (Lakoff & Johnson 1980; Kövecses 2000), providing conceptual and /2005/libro2s.html-textual coherence to different types of discourse and genre. /2005/libro2s.html-On the specific genre-based level, we could first consider descriptive /ad hoc /metaphors used

968 /2005/libro2s.html-*sensitivity*, *life cycle*) show high frequencies of use in our data. It should also be noted that the /2005/libro2s.html-alternative gaming view of business (*game*), as well as its mechanistic perception (*flow*), is actively /2005/libro2s.html:involved in the conceptual and linguistic articulation of the business domain from the scientific /2005/libro2s.html-point of view. /2005/libro2s.html-4. CONCLUSION

969 /2005/libro2s.html-Charteris-Black, J. 2004. /Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis/. Houndmills, /2005/libro2s.html-Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. /2005/libro2s.html:Deignan, A. 1999. “Linguistic metaphors and collocations in nonliterary corpus data”. /Metaphor / /2005/libro2s.html-/and Symbol/ 14/1: 19-36. /2005/libro2s.html-Goatly, A. 1997. /The Language of Metaphors/. London: Routledge.

970 /2005/libro2s.html-Undoubtedly, this non-literal level of meaning—where one thing or idea is basically represented as /2005/libro2s.html-another—is pervasive in everyday life: our daily communicative exchanges are fraught with /2005/libro2s.html:figurative expressions which we use and understand straightforwardly. This powerful linguistic and /2005/libro2s.html-rhetorical ‘mechanism’ has not remained unnoticed by the media, especially by advertising experts, /2005/libro2s.html-who have found in figurative meaning a powerful tool to communicate more effectively with their

971 /2005/libro2s.html-usually includes previous publications, awards won, current interests, and occasionally details of /2005/libro2s.html-his/her private life. /2005/libro2s.html:In order to perform their function, blurbs make use of a wide range of linguistic and discourse /2005/libro2s.html-conventions, amongst which complimenting stands out as the most pervasive and effective of all. /2005/libro2s.html-One of the most interesting means of complimenting is through figurative language, especially

972 /2005/libro2s.html-disciplines, such as philosophy, linguistics and psychology. Within linguistics, one of the most /2005/libro2s.html-influential accounts of metaphor has undoubtedly been the ‘conceptual metaphor theory’ proposed /2005/libro2s.html:by Lakoff (1980), one of the most renowned scholars in cognitive linguistic research. According to /2005/libro2s.html:this author, metaphors are not primarily linguistic phenomena, but they play an essential role in the /2005/libro2s.html-way we talk about and perceive the world: “The essence of metaphor is understanding and /2005/libro2s.html-experiencing one kind of things in terms of another” (1980: 5). All human conceptualisation is

973 /2005/libro2s.html-speakers apply them in actual sentences so that speaker meaning can coincide with sentence /2005/libro2s.html-meaning, or it can require a metaphorical interpretation. /2005/libro2s.html:If metaphors can be handled by a single linguistic theory, there is no need to appeal to extra- /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic knowledge to account for them. However, naturally occurring metaphors are frequently /2005/libro2s.html-incomprehensible if the context in which they occur is not considered. If we have to refer to a /2005/libro2s.html-context of use in order to identify a metaphor, a purely semantic account seems too restrictive.

974 /2005/libro2s.html-terms of other creative processes as diverse as weaving, cooking, painting, building, etc. As a matter /2005/libro2s.html-of fact, the most frequent metaphorical domains invoked in blurbs are the following (we use capital /2005/libro2s.html:letters according to conventional procedure in cognitive linguistic research): /2005/libro2s.html--The textile domain (BOOKS ARE CLOTH, WRITING IS WEAVING): /2005/libro2s.html-“‘A rich tapestry of a book, researched with meticulous accuracy and blazing with strong

975 /2005/libro2s.html-The assignment of grammatical gender to each substantive anglicism in German follows probably a specific /2005/libro2s.html-criteria; the thing is to find the reason why they are masculine, feminine or neuter. /2005/libro2s.html:Our aim is to pay attention to the German linguistic situation, the amount of anglicisms and in particular the /2005/libro2s.html-gender of these words borrowed from English. In order to do it we analyse the journalistic language of the year /2005/libro2s.html-2002 of one of the most known weekly publications among the German readers, the magazine Der Spiegel./

976 /2005/libro2s.html-1. INTRODUCTION /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:This research is based on the linguistic analysis of the novel /Bleak House. /It has a peculiar /2005/libro2s.html-narrative technique, which consists of telling the story from the perspective of two narrators, Esther, /2005/libro2s.html-the first person narrator and an omniscient speaker.

977 /2005/libro2s.html-Table 1. /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:The linguistic corpus was copied and div ided u /2005/libro2s.html-T n /2005/libro2s.html-hd

978 /2005/libro2s.html-1462-34234-34263 UIB Usos.indd 172 /2005/libro2s.html-3/5/07 14:43:28 /2005/libro2s.html:chapters and the three last ones are between the shortest ones. After the analysis of the linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-feature selected I will compare the results with the length of the original parts. /2005/libro2s.html-

979 /2005/libro2s.html-een linguis /2005/libro2s.html-the sh tic /2005/libro2s.html:ortest ones. After the analysis of the linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-feature selected I will compare the results with /2005/libro2s.html-fe t

980 /2005/libro2s.html-1. At the macro-level: first, the frequencies of occurrence of stance verbs and of the rest of /2005/libro2s.html-evaluation-loaded grammatical categories identified in the corpus -adjectival phrases, /2005/libro2s.html:adjectives, adverbs, adverbial phrases, clauses (those linguistic units whose evaluative /2005/libro2s.html-meaning is lost if any of their components is taken separately), nouns, noun phrases and /2005/libro2s.html-prepositional phrases- were counted. Second, the specific book review sections where all the

981 /2005/libro2s.html-e thos /2005/libro2s.html-e whos /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic e /2005/libro2s.html-linguis evaluative /2005/libro2s.html-units

982 /2005/libro2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro2s.html-Usos sociales del lengUaje y aspectos psicolingüísticos: perspectivas aplicadas /2005/libro2s.html:*A CROSS-LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOME GESTURES RELATED TO * /2005/libro2s.html-*HEAD & MINDi* /2005/libro2s.html-JAVIER HERRERO RUIZ

983 /2005/libro2s.html-(1) Metaphoric gestures are iconic for the source domain of the metaphoric mapping. /2005/libro2s.html-(2) Metaphors vary in culture-specificity. /2005/libro2s.html:(3) Like linguistic metaphor, gestural metaphors show coherent structure although, as we have /2005/libro2s.html-just mentioned, the kind of structure may vary across different languages and cultures. /2005/libro2s.html-(4) In the same way that discourse happens in multiple mental spaces, gestures can prompt

984 /2005/libro2s.html-This gesture can be described as the one in which the speaker’s right hand (usually) is closed /2005/libro2s.html-and with the index finger extended and rotating in circles near the front side part of the head. In /2005/libro2s.html:English, it underlies linguistic usages as /I´m thinking, let me reflect on that for a few seconds, I´m / /2005/libro2s.html-/working it out, /etc; these expressions are similar in Spanish, i.e. /Estoy pensando, déjame reflexionar / /2005/libro2s.html-/sobre eso un rato; lo estoy sacando, /etc.

985 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html-Usos sociales del lengUaje y aspectos psicolingüísticos: perspectivas aplicadas /2005/libro2s.html:normally accompanies linguistic usages in Spanish and English related to anger such as “estoy hasta /2005/libro2s.html-la coronilla” (“to be fed up to the back teeth”), “me tienes hasta el gorro” (“I´ve had it up to here”), /2005/libro2s.html-“estar harto” (“I´m fed up”), etc.

986 /2005/libro2s.html-usually interpret that he is referring to that part contained in his head (brain) which in turn leads us /2005/libro2s.html-to focus on its attribute, i.e. intelligence. /2005/libro2s.html: This gesture, which is really pervasive in English and Spanish, is present in many linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-expressions related to being intelligent or aware of something such as “soy muy inteligente” (“I´m /2005/libro2s.html-very intelligent”), “hay que ser conscientes de lo que hacemos” (“we should be conscious of what

987 /2005/libro2s.html-conceived of as a sort of cooker or pan because of its form. In English, we can employ terms such /2005/libro2s.html-as nut (as in “to go off one’s nut”), loaf (as in /use your loaf, don´t lose it!/), coconut, pumpkin, etc. /2005/libro2s.html: All these linguistic usages can be accompanied by gestures in which the speaker reflects that /2005/libro2s.html-he is losing his head. One of this gestures consists of the same gesture which has been described in /2005/libro2s.html-section 3.1., i.e. the speaker’s right hand (usually) is closed and with the index finger extended and

988 /2005/libro2s.html-conceived of as a sort of cooker or pan because of its form. In English, we can employ terms such /2005/libro2s.html-as nut (as in “to go off one’s nut”), loaf (as in /use your loaf, don´t lose it!/), coconut, pumpkin, etc. /2005/libro2s.html: All these linguistic usages can be accompanied by gestures in which the speaker reflects that /2005/libro2s.html-he is losing his head. One of this gestures consists of the same gesture which has been described in /2005/libro2s.html-section 3.1., i.e. the speaker’s right hand (usually) is closed and with the index finger extended and

989 /2005/libro2s.html-Eds. R. Dirven & R. Pörings. Berlin. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. /2005/libro2s.html-Casey, S. (2003). Relationships between gestures and signed languages: Indicating participants in /2005/libro2s.html:actions. In A. Baker, B. van den Bogaerde, and O. Crasborn (Eds.), /Cross-linguistic / /2005/libro2s.html-/perspectives in sign language research/ (pp. 95-117). Hamburg: Signum Verlag. /2005/libro2s.html-Grady, J. 1997. "THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS revisited". /Cognitive Linguistics 8.-261-/ 290.

990 /2005/libro2s.html-Over the last few years, several pragmatic frameworks have been adopted for the analysis of /2005/libro2s.html-disciplinary rhetoric variation. Some researchers like Hyland (1996) or Salager Meyer (1994, 1998) /2005/libro2s.html:suggested “hedging” as a framework combining sociological, linguistic and discourse analytic /2005/libro2s.html-perspectives that could account for a wide range of interpersonal phenomena. This wide /2005/libro2s.html-interpretation of the concept of hedging was criticised by Crompton (1997), who proposed

991 /2005/libro2s.html-in the medical corpus is rather significant, as previous research indicated that writers from the hard /2005/libro2s.html-sciences are usually less present in their texts (Hyland 2001: 217). The pronoun /We/ showed a /2005/libro2s.html:higher relative frequency in the Medical corpus than in the Linguistic corpus and the relative /2005/libro2s.html-incidence of the pronoun /Our/ was the highest in all the corpora. In the medical corpus this pronoun /2005/libro2s.html-was frequently found in collocations such as: /our series/, /our study/, /our patients/ or /our results/.

992 /2005/libro2s.html-4. CONCLUSIONS /2005/libro2s.html-The research presented so far suggests that many of the features commonly regarded as /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic conventions of academic writing are in fact dependant on disciplinary constrains. Vague /2005/libro2s.html-language, personal pronouns and other expressions of personal attribution, are acceptable and /2005/libro2s.html-common in certain disciplines even though they contradict the advice often given in the pedagogical

993 /2005/libro2s.html-majority of text and genre analysis studies. In such view, interdisciplinarity in its theoretical and methodological /2005/libro2s.html-orientation is promoted, drawing on theories and research methods as varied as second language acquisition, /2005/libro2s.html:composition and rhetoric, anthropology, translation studies, linguistic discourse analysis, and genre analysis. /2005/libro2s.html-Some aspects of this comprehensive perspective will be illustrated with my present research. / /2005/libro2s.html-RESUMEN

994 /2005/libro2s.html-teaching composition to foreign students. As he (1988: 277) later claimed, these teachers “were able /2005/libro2s.html-to tell with astonishing accuracy what the native-language of the writer was”. This fact made /2005/libro2s.html:Kaplan suggest that there were some regularities in the ways foreign students from certain linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-backgrounds wrote in English, as well as in the way native English speakers write. Kaplan’s aim /2005/libro2s.html-was to help the foreign students in their writing tasks, so it seemed logical to find out where their /2005/libro2s.html-writing deviated from that of English native speakers. The deviations Kaplan was thinking of were /2005/libro2s.html:deviations at the rhetorical level, rhetoric understood as the choice of linguistic and structural /2005/libro2s.html-aspects of discourse chosen to produce an effect on an audience (Purves 1988: 9). Thus, the ultimate /2005/libro2s.html-objective of research activity in Contrastive Rhetoric has been to prove the hypothesis that different

995 /2005/libro2s.html-The second half of the 20th century has been their heyday and has brought into existence a /2005/libro2s.html-mass of contrastive studies conducted in many parts of the world, involving many languages, /2005/libro2s.html:implementing many linguistic frameworks, and covering many aspects of language. With regard to /2005/libro2s.html-English-Spanish contrastive studies, Fernández Polo (1999) mentions the research carried out in the /2005/libro2s.html-70s by Santiago (1970), Strei (1971) and Santana-Seda (1974) which highlighted the specific

996 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:/Text linguistic/ analyses have been the major research approach in contrastive rhetoric. They go back /2005/libro2s.html-to the Prague School of text linguistics, Hallidayan’s systemic linguistics and the new school of /2005/libro2s.html-222

997 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html:/Text linguistic/ analyses have been the major research approach in contrastive rhetoric. They go back /2005/libro2s.html-to the Prague School of text linguistics, Hallidayan’s systemic linguistics and the new school of /2005/libro2s.html-written discourse analysis, led by scholars such as Nils Enkvist and Robert de Beaugrande. With the

998 /2005/libro2s.html-results obtained. /2005/libro2s.html-In agreement with previous contrastive studies (Burgess 2002; Martín Martín 2002), I argue /2005/libro2s.html:that an explanation for divergences should be sought not only in the different linguistic background /2005/libro2s.html-of the two sets of writers but mainly in the relationship between the writer and the discourse /2005/libro2s.html-community s/he belongs to, that is, in the interaction between the big or national culture

999 /2005/libro2s.html-Hyland, K. 2002. “Authority and invisibility: authorial identity in academic writing”. /Journal of / /2005/libro2s.html-/Pragmatics/ 34: 1091-1112. /2005/libro2s.html:Jordan, M.P. (1991). “The Linguistic Genre of Abstracts” . /The Seventeenth LACUS Forum 1990/. /2005/libro2s.html-Ed. Della Volpe, A. Lake Bluff, Illinois: LACUS: 507-527. /2005/libro2s.html-Kaplan, R. B. 1988. “Contrastive rhetoric and second language learning: Notes toward a theory of

1000 /2005/libro2s.html-Vázquez Ayora, G. 1977. /Introducción a la Traductología: Curso básico de traducción/. /2005/libro2s.html-Washington D.C. Georgetown University Press. /2005/libro2s.html:Ventola, E. 1994. “Abstracts as an Object of Linguistic Study”. /Writing vs. Speaking: Language, / /2005/libro2s.html-/Text, Discourse, Communication/. mejrková, S, F. Dane and E. Havlová. Tübingen: Gunter /2005/libro2s.html-Narr: 333-352.

1001 /2005/libro2s.html-towards what is being reported, thus, establishing a particular interactive relationship with their /2005/libro2s.html-readers. Those lexico-grammatical features that accompany propositional meanings are /2005/libro2s.html:encompassed under the term metadiscourse. Metadiscourse has attracted linguistic researchers’ /2005/libro2s.html-attention for a number of years. It has been investigated in different academic genres, such as, /2005/libro2s.html-textbooks (Hyland 2000), dissertations (Bunton 1999), popularizations (Crismore and Fansworth

1002 /2005/libro2s.html-Several definitons of metadiscourse —or metatext, according to some scholars2— have been /2005/libro2s.html-proposed. In those definitions most scholars coincide in signalling that metadiscourse refers to that /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic material in the text which does not add propositional meanings, but which is included for /2005/libro2s.html-interpersonal reasons. The extent of use of metadicourse will therefore be very much dependent on /2005/libro2s.html-the potential readers’ expectations, values and beliefs. Crismore and Fansworth (1990: 119) state

1003 /2005/libro2s.html-Several definitons of metadiscourse —or metatext, according to some scholars2— have been /2005/libro2s.html-proposed. In those definitions most scholars coincide in signalling that metadiscourse refers to that /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic material in the text which does not add propositional meanings, but which is included for /2005/libro2s.html-interpersonal reasons. The extent of use of metadicourse will therefore be very much dependent on /2005/libro2s.html-the potential readers’ expectations, values and beliefs. Crismore and Fansworth (1990: 119) state

1004 /2005/libro2s.html-interpersonal view on metadiscourse: “all metadiscourse is interpersonal in that it takes account of /2005/libro2s.html-the reader’s knowledge, textual experiences, and processing needs [...]”. He insists on the need to /2005/libro2s.html:consider metadiscursive only those linguistic resources that directly relate to the particular /2005/libro2s.html-organisation and development of the text in which they appear, excluding those resources that refer /2005/libro2s.html-to events and experiences in the external world. He proposes in such a line a change of terminology,

1005 /2005/libro2s.html- The appearance of cognitive linguistics around the mid 1970´s brought a new way of /2005/libro2s.html-understanding metaphor and communication. On the one hand, it claimed that metaphor is not only a /2005/libro2s.html:rhetorical figure or a linguistic device of flowery talk but a component of our conceptual system; that /2005/libro2s.html-is, a matter of thought (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). On the other hand, it put forward that it is possible /2005/libro2s.html-to interpret metaphorically the domain of communication in terms of a more concrete domain of

1006 /2005/libro2s.html- The appearance of cognitive linguistics around the mid 1970´s brought a new way of /2005/libro2s.html-understanding metaphor and communication. On the one hand, it claimed that metaphor is not only a /2005/libro2s.html:rhetorical figure or a linguistic device of flowery talk but a component of our conceptual system; that /2005/libro2s.html-is, a matter of thought (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). On the other hand, it put forward that it is possible /2005/libro2s.html-to interpret metaphorically the domain of communication in terms of a more concrete domain of

1007 /2005/libro2s.html-understanding metaphor and communication. On the one hand, it claimed that metaphor is not only a /2005/libro2s.html-the persuadee (the Self) are located within the same person. Although it is true that, as Larson (1983) /2005/libro2s.html:rhetorical figure or a linguistic device of flowery talk but a component of our conceptual system; that /2005/libro2s.html-contends, all persuasion is, in a sense, self-persuasion, considering that we are unlikely to be persuaded /2005/libro2s.html-is, a matter of thought (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). On the other hand, it put forward that it is possible

1008 /2005/libro2s.html-Cambridge University Press. /2005/libro2s.html-Fillmore, Ch. 1975. “An alternative to checklist theories of meaning”. /Proceedings of the First / /2005/libro2s.html:/Annual Meeting of the Berkely Linguistic Society/, 1, 123-131. /2005/libro2s.html-Fauconnier, G. 1985. “Linguistics as a tool for discourse analysis”, en van Dijk (ed.) /A Handbook / /2005/libro2s.html-/of Discourse Analysis/. Vol. 1, 11-39.

1009 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html-Talmy, L. 1985. “Force dynamics in language and thought”. Ed. W. Eilfort /et al. Papers from the / /2005/libro2s.html:/Parasession on Causatives and Agentivity at the 21st Regional Meeting/. Chicago Linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-Society: University of Chicago. /2005/libro2s.html-Talmy, L. 1988. “Force dynamics in language and cognition”. /Cognitive Science/, 12, 49-100.

1010 /2005/libro2s.html-Hudson, R. A. 1980. /Sociolinguistics/. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /2005/libro2s.html-Laver, J. 1974. “Communicative Functions of Phatic Communion”. /Work in Progress/ 7: 1-17. /2005/libro2s.html:Laver, J. 1981. “Linguistic Routines and Politeness in Greeting and Parting”. /Conversational / /2005/libro2s.html-/Routine. Explorations in Standardized Communication Situations and Prepatterned Speech/. Ed. /2005/libro2s.html-F. Coulmas. The Hague: Mouton. 289-304.

1011 /2005/libro2s.html-Ventola, E. 1979. “The Structure of Casual Conversation in English”. /Journal of Pragmatics/ 3: /2005/libro2s.html-267-298. /2005/libro2s.html:Wilson, D. 1999. “Metarepresentation in Linguistic Communication”. /UCL Working Papers in / /2005/libro2s.html-/Linguistics/ 11: 127-161. /2005/libro2s.html-egarac, V. 1998. “What Is Phatic Communication?”. /Current Issues in Relevance Theory/. Eds. V.

1012 /2005/libro2s.html-intentional referent of the speaker (Romero and Soria 2002). Utterances such as “it won’t happen while I still breathe”, /2005/libro2s.html-“she turned pale”, etc. are sometimes considered cases of metonymy. We won’t take into account this type of examples /2005/libro2s.html:because, as Warren (1999: 121-122) reveals, not all of them are equivalent from a conceptual nor a linguistic point of /2005/libro2s.html-view. Even if we admitted that both the examples excluded and those considered “referential metonymies” had a /2005/libro2s.html-common cognitive basis, it can be still defended that within this group there are different types of metonymy that

1013 /2005/libro2s.html-intentional referent of the speaker (Romero and Soria 2002). Utterances such as “it won’t happen while I still breathe”, /2005/libro2s.html-“she turned pale”, etc. are sometimes considered cases of metonymy. We won’t take into account this type of examples /2005/libro2s.html:because, as Warren (1999: 121-122) reveals, not all of them are equivalent from a conceptual nor a linguistic point of /2005/libro2s.html-view. Even if we admitted that both the examples excluded and those considered “referential metonymies” had a /2005/libro2s.html-common cognitive basis, it can be still defended that within this group there are different types of metonymy that

1014 /2005/libro2s.html-frequent in judgments than –ing action nominals. In lexical or action nominalizations a verb appears /2005/libro2s.html-with no accompanying arguments and creates a new item which designates a generic type of action /2005/libro2s.html:or event which is conceptualized as a Thing. This is what judges very frequently refer to: linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-units abstracted from usage events: /2005/libro2s.html-(11) *Failure*/ to display permits as prescribed is considered a /*violation*/ of the rules and will /

1015 /2005/libro2s.html-necessary to refer to the entities that take part in the corresponding interaction, which are normally referred to by nouns. /2005/libro2s.html-decreasing negotiability” (1993: 41). Nominalizations are less negotiable16 than clauses. When a /2005/libro2s.html:8. The notion of “grounding” linguistic units means situating them relative to the speech event. An entity is epistemically /2005/libro2s.html-grounded when its location is specified relative to the speaker and hearer and their spheres of knowledge. For verbs, /2005/libro2s.html-clause is realized metaphorically by a group or a phrase, it is deprived of the interpersonal status of a

1016 /2005/libro2s.html-/nouns. Thus you can say We have had very few instances of luggage being lost, but not … of luggage’s being lost/. /2005/libro2s.html-is not part of the grammar of ordinary, spontaneous conversation that children meet at home; rather, it is associated with /2005/libro2s.html:10. This is due to the fact that that lectures are a hybrid genre, which combines features from spoken and written linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-the discourses of science, bureaucracy and the law. That is the reason why we study this phenomenon in very specialized /2005/libro2s.html-events.

1017 /2005/libro2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro2s.html-Usos sociales del lengUaje y aspectos psicolingüísticos: perspectivas aplicadas /2005/libro2s.html:*SYNAESTHESIA: A LINGUISTIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CONCEPTUAL REALITY * /2005/libro2s.html-CARMEN M. BRETONES CALLEJAS /2005/libro2s.html-/University of Almería /

1018 /2005/libro2s.html-synaesthesia consists on giving a thing a quality that in fact it cannot have because the thing and the quality are /2005/libro2s.html-perceived by different senses (e.g. white voices, sweet melody). But the physiological and the conceptual or /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic reality are in fact part of a whole which can be approached from different perspectives. This paper /2005/libro2s.html-shows some of them and tries to support the idea that an interdisciplinary approach is crucial for a better /2005/libro2s.html-understanding of synaesthesia./

1019 /2005/libro2s.html-a rhetoric figure, synaesthesia consists on giving a thing a quality that in fact it cannot have because /2005/libro2s.html-both, the thing and the quality, are perceived by different senses. For instance: ‘white voices’. In the /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic interpretation of synaesthesia, we must first distinguish the psycho-physiological process /2005/libro2s.html:and its linguistic projection. The opinions of linguists concerning the concept of synaesthesia are /2005/libro2s.html-contradictory too: /2005/libro2s.html-1. Taking interest in the acoustic synaesthesia, conferring sensorial properties to the sounds of

1020 /2005/libro2s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro2s.html-Usos sociales del lengUaje y aspectos psicolingüísticos: perspectivas aplicadas /2005/libro2s.html:2. Considering synaesthesia as a linguistic category, or according to a more restricted /2005/libro2s.html-interpretation, the sphere of syneasthesia is limited only to sensorial fields (e.g. White /2005/libro2s.html-stillness, velvet warmth. This sphere can be widened to the sensorial combinations proper,

1021 /2005/libro2s.html-behavioral experiments suggesting that synaesthetic binding occurs before attention (Robertson /2005/libro2s.html-2003). /2005/libro2s.html:2003).I n conclusion, both the physiological and the conceptual or linguistic reality are in fact part of /2005/libro2s.html:In conclusion, both the physiological and the conceptual or linguistic reality are in fact part of /2005/libro2s.html-a whole. Synaesthesia takes place when ordinary stimuli elicit extraordinary conscious experiences, /2005/libro2s.html:In conclusion, both the physiological and the conceptual or linguistic reality are in fact part of /2005/libro2s.html-a whole. Synaesthesia takes place when ordinary stimuli elicit extraordinary conscious experiences, /2005/libro2s.html-and as conceptual feature, synaesthesia consists on giving a thing a quality that in fact it cannot

1022 /2005/libro2s.html-Slawson, W. 1985. /Sound Color/. University of California Press. /2005/libro2s.html-Ullmann, S. 1964. /Language and style./ Oxford: Basil Blackwell. /2005/libro2s.html:Ward, J. & Simner, J. 2003. “Lexical-gustory synaesthesia: linguistic and conceptual factors.” /2005/libro2s.html-/Cognition 89: /237-261. /2005/libro2s.html-Williams, J. M. 1976. "Synaesthetic Adjectives: A possible Law of Semantic Change". /Language/

1023 /2005/libro2s.html-Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., Erskine, J. M., y Defior, S. 2003. "Foundation literacy acquisition in /2005/libro2s.html-european orthographies". /British Journal of Psychology 94/: 143-174. /2005/libro2s.html:Sprenger-Charolles, L. 2004." Linguistic processes in reading and spelling: The case of alphabetic /2005/libro2s.html-writing system: English, French, German and Spanish". /Handbook of children´s literacy/. Eds. /2005/libro2s.html-T. Nunes y P. Bryant. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 43-66

1024 /2005/libro2s.html-lingüística. / /2005/libro2s.html-ABSTRACT /2005/libro2s.html:/Systematic analyses of the distribution of linguistic competence by age sheds light on the processes key to /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic normalization: transmission (0-4 years old), rapid early acquisition in school (5-9), diminishing /2005/libro2s.html-acquisition in later grades, integration of immigrants and loss of competence in adult and senior years. We /2005/libro2s.html:show how to carry out such an analysis and apply it in all six communities that have undertaken linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-normalization of the three historic languages, Catalan, Euskara and Galician. Our analysis takes account of the /2005/libro2s.html-variability of the processes among the comarcas in a community. The kind of results obtained, involving many

1025 /2005/libro2s.html-Casesnoves Ferrer, R., M.Teresa Turell y D. Sankoff 2004. ‘La base démolinguistique pour évaluer /2005/libro2s.html-l’aménagement linguistique dans un contexte bilingue’. Paper presented at the Linguapax /2005/libro2s.html:Conference on Linguistic diversity, sustainability and peace. Fòrum de les Cultures, Barcelona /2005/libro2s.html-May 2004 [Documento de Internet disponible en: /2005/libro2s.html-[http://www.linguapax.org/congres04/pdf/3_turell.pdf]

1026 /2005/libro2s.html-/Cuadernos de filología inglesa /2005/libro2s.html-Cuadernos de filología inglesa/ /2005/libro2s.html:Monograph issue on: “Variation and Linguistic Change in English: Diachronic and /2005/libro2s.html:Monograph issue on: “Variation and Linguistic Change in English: Diachronic and /2005/libro2s.html-Synchronic Studies.” The abstracts can be found on the web and it seems a good idea to /2005/libro2s.html-Synchronic Studies.” The abstracts can be found on the web and it seems a good idea to

1027 /2005/libro2s.html-c) Web-based publications /2005/libro2s.html-/Cuadernos de filología inglesa/ /2005/libro2s.html:Monograph issue on: “Variation and Linguistic Change in English: Diachronic and /2005/libro2s.html-Synchronic Studies.” The abstracts can be found on the web and it seems a good idea to /2005/libro2s.html-have a look and see what researchers are interested in. If any of the articles interest you,

1028 /2005/libro2s.html-Usos sociales del lengUaje y aspectos psicolingüísticos: perspectivas aplicadas /2005/libro2s.html-e) Language planning and policy /2005/libro2s.html: The EU at a linguistic crossroad: Multilingualism or “English Only”? /2005/libro2s.html-The debate about the use of English in the instititutions of the EU is basically a /2005/libro2s.html-conflict between those who opt for more efficiency and uniformity – and therefore /2005/libro2s.html:welcome one lingua franca – and those who wish to preserve the rich linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-repertoire of Europe. This website provides some interesting insights on these issues. /2005/libro2s.html-http://afa.at/globalview/112000/sprachenstreit.html

1029 /2005/libro2s.html-e) Language planning and policy /2005/libro2s.html-e) Language planning and policy /2005/libro2s.html: The EU at a linguistic crossroad: Multilingualism or “English Only”? /2005/libro2s.html: The EU at a linguistic crossroad: Multilingualism or “English Only”? /2005/libro2s.html-The debate about the use of English in the instititutions of the EU is basically a /2005/libro2s.html-The The E

1030 /2005/libro2s.html-– anically /2005/libro2s.html-d ther ae fore /2005/libro2s.html:welcome one lingua franca – and those who wish to preserve the rich linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-co /2005/libro2s.html-w nelflcic

1031 /2005/libro2s.html-pcl03/pace /2005/libro2s.html-http://www.hawaii.edu/spcl03/pace /2005/libro2s.html: Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights. This document was approved on 6 /2005/libro2s.html-http://www.hawaii.edu/spcl03/pace /2005/libro2s.html-June in Barcelona, Spain, by two hundred and twenty persons from almost ninety /2005/libro2s.html- Universal Declaration http://www. /2005/libro2s.html:of Linguistic hawaii. /2005/libro2s.html-Rights. edu/s /2005/libro2s.html- This pcl03/pace /2005/libro2s.html- document was approved on 6 /2005/libro2s.html-s tUniver /2005/libro2s.html:ates. sal Declaration of Linguistic Rights. This document was approved on 6 /2005/libro2s.html-June in Barcelona, Spain, by two hundred and twenty persons from almost ninety /2005/libro2s.html-J uUniver

1032 /2005/libro2s.html-indexes and download any article that looks interesting to you. /2005/libro2s.html-http://www.hawaii.edu/spcl03/pace /2005/libro2s.html: Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights. This document was approved on 6 /2005/libro2s.html-June in Barcelona, Spain, by two hundred and twenty persons from almost ninety /2005/libro2s.html-states.

1033 /2005/libro2s.html-Sociolinguistic/ (Geeraerts 2003a) perspective is used to carry out the analysis in the sense that some ideas from /2005/libro2s.html-both disciplines are easily integrated and the results widen the scope of both disciplines in isolation. The /2005/libro2s.html:analysis focuses on the linguistic choices such as the use of pronouns –/ you, thou/-, etymology of words, the /2005/libro2s.html-nature of grammatical constructions, iconicity, and how these fit to the sociolinguistic concerns of style, power, /2005/libro2s.html-and emotional involvement of the participants (Wardhaugh 1986: 48).

1034 /2005/libro2s.html-tools from both disciplines and the result widens the scope of both disciplines in isolation. Here, the /2005/libro2s.html-distinction standard/ non-standard is relevant as far as variation, creative activity and innovation are /2005/libro2s.html:concerned. More specifically, it pays attention to the /linguistic choices/ in the use of pronouns –/ you, / /2005/libro2s.html-/thou/- in Early Modern English, etymology and nature of words in Middle English and collocations /2005/libro2s.html:and even /iconic /linguistic features in Contemporary English, all this analyzed in terms of the /2005/libro2s.html-incongruity-resolution processes before mentioned. /2005/libro2s.html-In methodological terms, it studies the macro-structure of the three texts under analysis by /2005/libro2s.html:taking into consideration situations involving /incongruity-resolution/. In so doing, a /micro-linguistic/ /2005/libro2s.html:approach is performed by looking at the linguistic units (mainly sociolinguistic) or word form –In /2005/libro2s.html-Chaucer and Shakespeare- and conceptual and semantic concerns in Woody Allen’s texts. /2005/libro2s.html-Finally, a comparative approach to the texts under analysis belonging to three relevant

1035 /2005/libro2s.html- /2005/libro2s.html-Brône and Feyaerts (2003) use the title “The cognitive linguistics of incongruity resolution” /2005/libro2s.html:to refer to the cognitive-linguistic phenomenon taken place in jokes and funny lines. The main aim /2005/libro2s.html-of this paper is to show how incongruity-resolution can be applied to a wide range of narrative and /2005/libro2s.html:linguistic creations involving creative shifting or /frame-shifting/ –in Coulson’s (2000) own words- /2005/libro2s.html-and conceptual integration patterns. In this connection, Koestler (1964) already advanced that all /2005/libro2s.html-creative activities –the conscious and unconscious processes underlying artistic originality, and

1036 /2005/libro2s.html-the incongruity can be quite varied” (Ritchie 1999: 11), as we will see in the analysis. So the nature /2005/libro2s.html-of these phenomena varies in each text –belonging to different periods- as well as the nature of the /2005/libro2s.html:language itself enabling some contrastive considerations on linguistic change. /2005/libro2s.html-Although the concept has been vastly applied to the analysis of jokes and humor, we propose /2005/libro2s.html-to widen its scope to Chaucer and Shakespeare as these authors genuinely created artistic and /2005/libro2s.html-inspired discourses involving /ironical mode adoption/ as well as /non-bonna fide communication/. So, /2005/libro2s.html-the term is used in a wide sense and applied to the three texts in a contrastive way. In each case, the /2005/libro2s.html:nature of this process differ so we will attend to the particular properties (linguistic, semantic, /2005/libro2s.html:pragmatic, socio-linguistic and cognitive-cultural) involved in them. /2005/libro2s.html-Psychological models (Schultz 1976) argue that it is necessary for the incongruity to be /2005/libro2s.html-resolved. Also, there exists a conflict with some specific prediction. This can happen at various

1037 /2005/libro2s.html-which is a spoken mode written down and the social background of the narrator who adopts the /2005/libro2s.html-character of a miller, from village life. This contrast between the noble story and the “cherles tale” /2005/libro2s.html:styles prominent because of the different registers –involving here the linguistic choices in words /2005/libro2s.html-from different origin (Romance –Latin, French and Old English-Germanic)- attends a incongruity- /2005/libro2s.html-resolution process. These choices are filled with ideological connotations. If we consider the

1038 /2005/libro2s.html-/soft!/ and the imperative /strike! /shows the sociolinguistic nature of the relationship between the two /2005/libro2s.html-murderers, that is, a confident relationship involving a particular colloquial register. If you look at /2005/libro2s.html:passage (4), the two linguistic choices –/thou, you/- take place (/Where art *thou*/*, */Keeper?/; /*You *shall / /2005/libro2s.html-/have wine enough, my lord/). It is well known that the choice of /you /was normally performed to /2005/libro2s.html-address to a person from a higher social class. However, the use of the pronoun does not fit well

1039 /2005/libro2s.html-The significant switching from one meaning to another can take many forms in the different /2005/libro2s.html-texts under analysis due most prominently to the nature of the language at any period. Switching /2005/libro2s.html:between /thou/ and /you/ is particularly interesting as these linguistic choices are proved to be critical /2005/libro2s.html-in incongruity resolution. In this case, the switching from one to another is motivated by what /2005/libro2s.html-Wardhaugh (1986) calls “emotional involvement of the participants”. The murderers of Clarence

1040 /2005/libro2s.html-servants). This was the conventional establishment. Moreover, it also reflects a relationship of /2005/libro2s.html-/power /by means of the different social class. However, there appears a conflict in these predictions /2005/libro2s.html:by means of a variety in the linguistic choices. /2005/libro2s.html-In Woody Allen’s /Deconstructing Harry/ (see appendix), incongruity resolution takes /2005/libro2s.html-place in a different way. The language at this stage of the history of English builds up ironical

1041 /2005/libro2s.html-can find Geeraerts’ work of what is called /Cognitive Sociolinguistics/ (2003a). Geeraerts (2003b) /2005/libro2s.html-also establishes a bridge between /cultural models/, found in the cognitive-cultural view of Holland /2005/libro2s.html:and Quinn (1987) and Wierzbicka (1996) and the notion of linguistic standarization. Our analysis is /2005/libro2s.html-rather different so that the notion of standard is here contrasted to variation –and more specifically /2005/libro2s.html-to personal variation- in order to analyse a particular author’s creative activity. Thus, here I follow /2005/libro2s.html-Crystal (2003) when he speaks about /personal variation/ applied to humor. He speaks about lexical /2005/libro2s.html-variation. I show how is the construction of lexical meaning of incongruity-resolution in each /2005/libro2s.html:author in order to find out afterwards how is the line across them, that is linguistic change, within /2005/libro2s.html-the scope of diachronic semantics. /2005/libro2s.html-The kind of lexical creative variation in each text is different serving incongruity resolution. /2005/libro2s.html-In Chaucer’s time, the words had enough strong evaluative assessment and they evoked a charge of /2005/libro2s.html-sociolinguistics features (extra-textual/ intra-textual). In Shakespeare, we find similar features /2005/libro2s.html:although here the linguistic choice implies a wider range of possibilities due to the historical factors. /2005/libro2s.html-By contrast, the analysis of the two texts in Woody Allen shows a different nature of the language /2005/libro2s.html-in creating such situations. The iconic nature of the phrases /floated away /and /Mel’s out of focus/

1042 /2005/libro2s.html-general (not language specific) cognitive system”. /2005/libro2s.html-In Chaucer, it is the language -“normal” as it is, in Katz et al’s (1998) own terms- that evokes /2005/libro2s.html:the sociolinguistic meanings. So, the ironical mode is achieved by means of linguistic units pointing /2005/libro2s.html-socio-cultural values. The process is from the set of rules making contact with the general cognitive /2005/libro2s.html-structures and these set of rules composed in a creative and particular way. It therefore clashes with

1043 /2005/libro2s.html-In Woody Allen the process is rather different. It implies an input both from rules making /2005/libro2s.html-contact with general cognitive structure as well input from the general cognitive system. This is /2005/libro2s.html:caused by the motivated physical nature of the signs under analysis. The nature of the linguistic /2005/libro2s.html-expression /flow away/ enables the connections to the metaphorical sense or FAR image-schema /2005/libro2s.html-referred to “ideas”, thus implying an activity not finished. /Out of focus/ represents literally an image

1044 /2005/libro2s.html-morphology, word formation, syntax, the text, and in the domain of language change”. Thus, in an /2005/libro2s.html-evolutionary perspective, incongruity-resolution processes can shed light on many aspects of the /2005/libro2s.html:nature of linguistic change. Finally, as it is also shown in Bernárdez (1999: 200) “El signo /2005/libro2s.html-lingüístico no es tan arbitrario como dicen”, but “existen muchos rasgos de naturalidad y fonética /2005/libro2s.html-expresiva, cuyo origen en el hombre es principalmente gestual y acústico”, at least in incongruity-

1045 /2005/libro2s.html-Sociolinguistics”. /VIII International Cognitive Linguistics Conference/. Universidad de la Rioja: /2005/libro2s.html-20-25 July. /2005/libro2s.html:Geeraerts, D. 2003b. “Cultural Models of Linguistic Standarization” in René Dirven, Roslin Frank /2005/libro2s.html-and Martin Pütz (red.), /Cognitive Models in Language and Thought. Ideology, Metaphors and / /2005/libro2s.html-/Meaning./ Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 25-68

1046 /2005/libro3s.html-learners need to communicate in the target language to come to an agreement about /2005/libro3s.html-where to go, where to stay, and how to travel. A variety of such tasks are used in SLA /2005/libro3s.html:research to elicit learners’ linguistic knowledge and language use. /2005/libro3s.html-Computer technology presents new opportunities for three facets of research on /2005/libro3s.html-SLA. First, technology affords new options for SLA researchers to construct tasks for

1047 /2005/libro3s.html-but that non-native speakers may learn in terms of the semantics and pragmatics of the language of /2005/libro3s.html-scholarship and the academic Englishes, thereby knowing MORE than native speakers regarding a /2005/libro3s.html:central (core?) linguistic structure in use. This shows that learning these Englishes is for everyone a /2005/libro3s.html-second dialect and involves one in interdialect creation. /2005/libro3s.html-DEFINITE NOUN PHRASES: The strong rhetorical effect of these noun phrases occurs when there is

1048 /2005/libro3s.html-Lingüística apLicada en La sociedad de La información y La comunicación /2005/libro3s.html-yet, however, on the other hand. The hard part in comparison and contrast writing is to decide which /2005/libro3s.html:connective to use. (This is an area of linguistic research.) It looks as if the fol owing two points are clear: 1) /2005/libro3s.html-there are general connectives like but and yet, and more specific ones like conversely, despite, and instead. 2) /2005/libro3s.html-Contrasts themselves seem to be divided between information inside the text that is being contrasted and

1049 /2005/libro3s.html-'two or more' and what they signify. First dictionary definition: The 1987 /Unabridged Random House /2005/libro3s.html-Dictionary of the English Language /defines 'interlanguage' as: /2005/libro3s.html:. (in second-language acquisition) the linguistic system characterizing the output of a non-native speaker /2005/libro3s.html-at any stage prior to full acquisition of the target language. (p.995) /2005/libro3s.html-(T=C+D) YES/NO? Concerning the logic of this definition, discuss the concept of ‘full acquisition’,

1050 /2005/libro3s.html-FOSSILIZATIONx. The /Unabridged Random House Dictionary/ defines 'fossilize' in the following /2005/libro3s.html-way: /2005/libro3s.html:Ling. (of a linguistic form, feature, rule, etc) to become permanently established in the interlanguage of /2005/libro3s.html-a second-language learner in a form that is deviant from the target-language norm and that continues to /2005/libro3s.html-appear in performance regardless of further exposure to the target language. (p. 755)

1051 /2005/libro3s.html-What would be the key elements to such a definition? Try to create a definition that will work. /2005/libro3s.html-Consider the following: Interlanguage thus faces two ways, each potentially informing the other: one /2005/libro3s.html:way is towards theoretical concerns in terms of linguistic and cognitive structures at their most /2005/libro3s.html-fundamental level; and, the other way is towards practical concerns regarding empirical language /2005/libro3s.html-pedagogy, which seriously looks at changes in interlanguage systems as a result of documented

1052 /2005/libro3s.html-acquisition (SLA) researchers.’ (p. 1)xii /2005/libro3s.html-‘Learners must grapple with verb inflections, nominal inflections, particles, determiners, and /2005/libro3s.html:other FMCs as they work their way towards the creation of a linguistic system that bears resemblance /2005/libro3s.html-to the L2. (p. 1) /2005/libro3s.html-37

1053 /2005/libro3s.html-often report, even at advanced levels, and even with large amounts of exposure to the target language. In order to help to /2005/libro3s.html-ameliorate this problem, I suggest careful longitudinal research - in local settings - into stabilization, fossilization and their /2005/libro3s.html:interfaces with language transfer, especially in those linguistic contexts where important tasks are being worked on, that is, /2005/libro3s.html-‘real life’ tasks which are important to the learner. /2005/libro3s.html-xi Cf. Douglas (2000). This is a very intelligent book, which works through the contextual ‘discourse domains’ view of

1054 /2005/libro3s.html------------------------------------------------------------------------- /2005/libro3s.html-Lingüística apLicada en La sociedad de La información y La comunicación /2005/libro3s.html:Leckie-Tarry, H. y D. Birch. 1995. /Language & Context. A Functional Linguistic Theory of / /2005/libro3s.html-/Register/. London and New York: Pinter Publishers. /2005/libro3s.html-Moliner, M. 1990. /Diccionario de uso del español/. Madrid: Gredos.

1055 /2005/libro3s.html-Ibi which is known worldwide as the /Spanish Toy Centre/. /2005/libro3s.html-The purpose of the survey was twofold. Firstly, we tried to find out whether Spanish toy /2005/libro3s.html:manufacturers were aware of the existence of any linguistic or cultural barriers that might /2005/libro3s.html-hinder their international business relationships. Secondly, we wanted to analyse the type of /2005/libro3s.html-communication strategies they use to overcome such barriers. Toy manufacturers were given

1056 /2005/libro3s.html-diversity when they wrongly assume that people from other cultures share the same /2005/libro3s.html-orientations, and may think others are eccentric if they show a deviant behaviour. Whereas /2005/libro3s.html:lack of linguistic competence in English may lead to /noncommunication/, /i.e/. no message is /2005/libro3s.html-communicated, lack of cross-cultural communicative competence may give rise to /2005/libro3s.html-/miscommunication/, /i.e/. an unintended message is communicated, and /social distance/ may /2005/libro3s.html-emerge between the participants in conversation. To illustrate what has been said so far, let us /2005/libro3s.html-consider the following situations. When Spanish toy manufacturers converse in English with /2005/libro3s.html:non-native speakers, lack of linguistic competence may give rise to noncommunication; /2005/libro3s.html-however, the participants in conversation, being aware of the existence of tangible, explicit /2005/libro3s.html-language barriers, will try to remedy the communication breakdown through the negotiation

1057 /2005/libro3s.html-responsible for the flaws put forward by the book reviewer: is it the book itself? A /2005/libro3s.html-chapter of the book? The author(s)? The rhetorical choices made by the book reviewer /2005/libro3s.html:to refer to him/herself will also be analyzed in each linguistic sample. /2005/libro3s.html-3. CORPUS AND METHODS /2005/libro3s.html-144

1058 /2005/libro3s.html-responsible for the flaws put forward by the book reviewer: is it the book itself? A /2005/libro3s.html-chapter of the book? The author(s)? The rhetorical choices made by the book reviewer /2005/libro3s.html:to refer to him/herself will also be analyzed in each linguistic sample. /2005/libro3s.html-Lingüística apLicada en La sociedad de La información y La comunicación /2005/libro3s.html-3. CORPUS AND METHODS /2005/libro3s.html-We analyzed a corpus of 150 randomly selected BRs, 50 in each language (See Table /2005/libro3s.html-1). Critical speech acts were manually identified in each BR. The percentage of BRs /2005/libro3s.html:containing CSAs was then calculated in each linguistic sample. The length of the CSA /2005/libro3s.html-recorded in each sample was calculated as the number of running words making up the CSA /2005/libro3s.html-over the total number of running words making up the book review in which these CSAs had

1059 /2005/libro3s.html-We analyzed a corpus of 150 randomly selected BRs, 50 in each language (See Table /2005/libro3s.html-1). Critical speech acts were manually identified in each BR. The percentage of BRs /2005/libro3s.html:containing CSAs was then calculated in each linguistic sample. The length of the CSA /2005/libro3s.html-recorded in each sample was calculated as the number of running words making up the CSA /2005/libro3s.html-over the total number of running words making up the book review in which these CSAs had

1060 /2005/libro3s.html-/effect at different levels (Lackstrom, Selinker, and Trimble, 1973). Later studies (Salager-Meyer, / /2005/libro3s.html-/Swales, Posteguillo) have demonstrated that scientific papers have a clear and typical overall / /2005/libro3s.html:/linguistic structure that corresponds to a specific rhetorical function. This paper will explore the / /2005/libro3s.html-/functional division of Chemistry texts, their rhetorical structure, and the realization of this / /2005/libro3s.html:/function in specific linguistic forms in English and Spanish texts. Specifically, we will explore the / /2005/libro3s.html-/finite verbal tense and modality usage in Chemistry articles. Our corpus is made up of 100 / /2005/libro3s.html-/Chemistry articles. /

1061 /2005/libro3s.html-/ABSTRACT /2005/libro3s.html-/In the specialized discourse as well as in general language, there are lexical combinations that are / /2005/libro3s.html:/not easily predictable both for trainees of the subject field and linguistic mediators who do not / /2005/libro3s.html-/know sufficiently the field in which they interact and develop their work. The interpretation and / /2005/libro3s.html-/production of correct combinations are both a subject field knowledge guarantee and a filter that /

1062 /2005/libro3s.html-Katamba, F. 1993. /Morphology/. London: MacMillan. /2005/libro3s.html-Kastovsky, D. 1992. “Semantics and vocabulary”. /The Cambridge History of the English / /2005/libro3s.html:Lass, R. 1994. /Old English. A historical linguistic companion/. Cambridge: Cambridge /2005/libro3s.html-/Language. Vol. I: The Beginning to 1066/. Ed. R. Hogg. Cambridge: Cambridge /2005/libro3s.html-University Press.

1063 /2005/libro3s.html-Katamba, F. 1993. /Morphology/. London: MacMillan. /2005/libro3s.html-in word formation processes: the case of agent nominalizations”. /Revista Española de / /2005/libro3s.html:Lass, R. 1994. /Old English. A historical linguistic companion/. Cambridge: Cambridge /2005/libro3s.html-/Lingüística Aplicada/ 14: 271-294. /2005/libro3s.html-University Press.

1064 /2005/libro3s.html-/sémantique cognitive n’a pas d’appareil suffisamment souple et puissant pour décrire de façon adéquate une / /2005/libro3s.html-/telle complexité./ /2005/libro3s.html:1. ONOMASIOLOGY. A TRANS-LINGUISTIC METHODOLOGY /2005/libro3s.html-209 /2005/libro3s.html-1462-34264 UIB Ling.indd 209

1065 /2005/libro3s.html-/telle complexité./ /2005/libro3s.html-Lingüística apLicada en La sociedad de La información y La comunicación /2005/libro3s.html:1. ONOMASIOLOGY. A TRANS-LINGUISTIC METHODOLOGY /2005/libro3s.html-During the last quarter of a century, we have seen the birth and development of a loosely /2005/libro3s.html-defined paradigm referred to as Cognitive Linguistics. This school seeks to capture the widest /2005/libro3s.html:possible range of linguistic phenomena and treats these phenomena as a structured and /2005/libro3s.html-interrelated whole. From this perspective, the lexicon, once treated as a learnt inventory of words, /2005/libro3s.html-becomes a complex and open collection of form-meaning pairs. At no level is lexis clearly /2005/libro3s.html:delineable from other linguistic structures; no line is drawn between lexemes, morphemes, and /2005/libro3s.html-syntactic constructions, just as creative use and language function are only distinguished from /2005/libro3s.html-“fixed denotational” structure as a degree of conventionalisation, referred to as entrenchment.

1066 /2005/libro3s.html-described through the description of their semasiological variation. It seems, therefore, that this /2005/libro3s.html-distinction, between the onomasiological and the semasiological approach to language structure, /2005/libro3s.html:is universal to cognitive linguistic investigation. This is directly due to the fact that Cognitive /2005/libro3s.html-Linguistics holds that there is a symbolic relationship between form and meaning with no /2005/libro3s.html-“intermittent” modules. Thus, any study of language has two possible starting points, the concept /2005/libro3s.html-(onomasiology) or the form (semasiology). /2005/libro3s.html-Theoretically, the picture could not be neater, but the proof of the pudding is in the eating. /2005/libro3s.html:Other linguistic schools have distinguished various language structures for sound reasons. Firstly, /2005/libro3s.html-though it maybe impossible to distinguish lexis from morphology or syntax, the core of the /2005/libro3s.html-lexicon obviously functions in a very different way to morpho-syntax. This entails the necessity /2005/libro3s.html-of different analytical tools. Secondly, by modularising language structure, earlier schools of /2005/libro3s.html-linguistics were able to simplify their object of study in such a way to arguably allow more /2005/libro3s.html:rigorous treatment. Although we do not agree that such modularisation of linguistic structures, /2005/libro3s.html-except most artificially, is possible, we must now deal with the complexities that flow from a /2005/libro3s.html-monolithic theory of language structure. Although Cognitive Linguistics has more than

1067 /2005/libro3s.html-by Geeraerts (1993a) article on vagueness and polysemy and Sandra & Rice’s (1995) study on /2005/libro3s.html-the conceptual reality of semasiological variation. With no distinction between /langue/ and /parole /2005/libro3s.html:/or between linguistic semantics and encyclopaedic semantics, the identification of semasiological /2005/libro3s.html-variation, or polysemy, can easily slide into a subjective interpretative description of an infinite /2005/libro3s.html:number of semantic shades that have little or nothing to do with linguistic structure /per se/. We /2005/libro3s.html-argue that cognitive lexicology faces this problem because it has yet to deal rigorously with the /2005/libro3s.html-theory of entrenchment: how exactly do we distinguish between entrenched form-meaning pairs

1068 /2005/libro3s.html-speaker chose to express him-herself with these expressions instead of other expressions. This is /2005/libro3s.html-precisely why onomasiological research is vital. It allows us to link language use, in the /2005/libro3s.html:functionalist sense, and language structure, in the conceptual ‘cognitive linguistic’ sense. /2005/libro3s.html-However, for purely practical reasons, onomasiological study of the lexicon cannot hope to /2005/libro3s.html-account for every possible utterance that could be used signify a given concept in every

1069 /2005/libro3s.html-‘take up the slack’. If we could resolve this issue, Cognitive Semantics would be one step closer /2005/libro3s.html-to integrating its findings into the work on discourse analysis and pragmatic inference, as well as /2005/libro3s.html:the processing structures of Cognitive Grammar. With no distinction between linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-semantics and encyclopaedic semantics or denotational and connotational signification, let alone /2005/libro3s.html-/langue/ and /parole/, Cognitive Linguistics must find a rigorous way of addressing this issue.

1070 /2005/libro3s.html-Cuyckens, H. 1995. “Family Resemblance in the Dutch Spatial Prepositions /Door/ and /Langs/”. /2005/libro3s.html-/Cognitive Linguistics/ 6: 183-207. /2005/libro3s.html:Dirven, R., L. Goossens, Y. Putseys and E. Vorlat. 1982. /The scene of linguistic action and its / /2005/libro3s.html-/perspectivization by SPEAK, TALK, SAY, and TELL. /Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2005/libro3s.html-Fillmore, C. and B. Atkins. 1992. “Toward a frame-based lexicon: The semantics of RISK and its

1071 /2005/libro3s.html-Oxford University Press. /2005/libro3s.html-Van Valin, R. D. 2004. “Lexical Representation, Co-composition, and Linking Syntax and /2005/libro3s.html:Semantics”. Universidad de Búfalo: /Linguistic Specialities: Role and Reference Grammar/. /2005/libro3s.html-Nueva /2005/libro3s.html-York.

1072 /2005/libro3s.html-/the recurrence of certain patterns in information processing. These patterns start off in the mental / /2005/libro3s.html-/representation of the space where we navigate, and contributes to the organization of complex systems of / /2005/libro3s.html:/information that reveal themselves at linguistic level. The language, that for logistic questions, has / /2005/libro3s.html-/received more attention in this respect is English. My purpose is to highlight the uniformity of this / /2005/libro3s.html-/phenomenon cross-linguistically. For that reason I have chosen Polish as the language of study. This /

1073 /2005/libro3s.html-/be used for the study of certain phraseological units in Spanish which refer to the semantic field of / /2005/libro3s.html-/plants. When analyzing those units we can see that in their analysis it is important to take into / /2005/libro3s.html:/account not only linguistic factors but also cultural, because national characteristics may also be / /2005/libro3s.html-/present. Every nation has a particular idea about what is characteristic of the different plants, and it / /2005/libro3s.html-/is because of this that in similar phraseological units the same component feature of “plant” may /

1074 /2005/libro3s.html-Inchaurralde, C. 1997. “What is behind a word: Lexical scripts”. /The Cultural Context in / /2005/libro3s.html-/Foreign Language Teaching/. Ed. M. Pütz. Berlín: Peter Lang, 55-66. /2005/libro3s.html:Kay, P. y Ch. Fillmore. 1999. “Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations: /2005/libro3s.html-The /What’s X Doing Y?/ Construction”. /Language/ 75: 1-33. /2005/libro3s.html-Kunin, A. V. 1964. /Bases para la comprensión de la fraseología inglesa como disciplina /

1075 /2005/libro3s.html-potential sexual partner. This response is comparable to the strong physical forces that /2005/libro3s.html-are produced by engines, chemical reactions, etc. /2005/libro3s.html:Some linguistic realizations of BEING ATTRACTIVE IS HAVING PHYSICAL /2005/libro3s.html-FORCE are the following ones: /2005/libro3s.html-/(30)/

1076 /2005/libro3s.html-essential tools that help us understand, and in fact condition, the basic meaning of the /2005/libro3s.html-expressions of our language. Furthermore, these two cognitive operations have a strong /2005/libro3s.html:linguistic impact, as may be appreciated within the domain of Spanish informal speech, /2005/libro3s.html-in which we have provided additional evidence in support of the thesis that metaphor /2005/libro3s.html-and metonymy may be considered crucial mechanisms of lexical creation.

1077 /2005/libro3s.html-k: Mouton de /2005/libro3s.html-Gruyter. 202-277. /2005/libro3s.html:Díez Velasco, O. 2000. “A cross-linguistic analysis of the nature of some /hand/ /2005/libro3s.html-REFERENCES /2005/libro3s.html-metonymies in English and Spanish.” /Atlantis/ 2: XXII: 51-67.

1078 /2005/libro3s.html-Gruyter. 202-277. /2005/libro3s.html-Frath, P. 2005. /'Why is there no ham in a hamburger?' A Study of Lexical Blends and / /2005/libro3s.html:Díez Velasco, O. 2000. “A cross-linguistic analysis of the nature of some /hand/ /2005/libro3s.html-/Reanalysed Morphemisation. /[Internet document available at: http://u2.u- /2005/libro3s.html-metonymies in English and Spanish.” /Atlantis/ 2: XXII: 51-67.

1079 /2005/libro3s.html-of SEE”./ Cultural, Typological and Psychological Issues in Cognitive Linguistics. / /2005/libro3s.html-& Philadelphia: Benjamins/./ /2005/libro3s.html:Current issues in Linguistic Theory 152. Eds. M. K. Hiraga, C. Sinha and S.Wilcox. /2005/libro3s.html-Frath, P. 2003. “Metaphor, Polysemy and Usage”. /Phraseological Units: Basic / /2005/libro3s.html-Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

1080 /2005/libro3s.html-Kövecses, Z. 1990. /Emotion Concepts/. New York: Springer-Verlag. /2005/libro3s.html-/Reanalysed Morphemisation. /[Internet document available at: http://u2.u- /2005/libro3s.html:Kövecses, Z. and G. RADDEN. 1998. “Metonymy: developing a cognitive linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-strasbg.fr/spiral/Equipe/Pierre/Articles/HAM-NEW.doc]. /2005/libro3s.html-view”. /Cognitive Linguistics/ 9, 1: 37-77. /2005/libro3s.html-Johnson, C. 1997. “Metaphor vs. Conflation in the Acquisition of Polysemy: The Case /2005/libro3s.html-of SEE”./ Cultural, Typological and Psychological Issues in Cognitive Linguistics. /2005/libro3s.html:/Current issues in Linguistic Theory 152. Eds. M. K. Hiraga, C. Sinha and S.Wilcox. /2005/libro3s.html-Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2005/libro3s.html-275

1081 /2005/libro3s.html-18/4/07 13:02:33 /2005/libro3s.html-Kövecses, Z. 1990. /Emotion Concepts/. New York: Springer-Verlag. /2005/libro3s.html:Kövecses, Z. and G. RADDEN. 1998. “Metonymy: developing a cognitive linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-view”. /Cognitive Linguistics/ 9, 1: 37-77. /2005/libro3s.html-------------------------------------------------------------------------

1082 /2005/libro3s.html-and Contrast. /Eds. R. Dirven and R. Pörings. Berlin/ New York: Mouton de /2005/libro3s.html-Gruyter. 202-277. /2005/libro3s.html:Díez Velasco, O. 2000. “A cross-linguistic analysis of the nature of some /hand/ /2005/libro3s.html-metonymies in English and Spanish.” /Atlantis/ 2: XXII: 51-67. /2005/libro3s.html-Dirven, R. 1999. “Conversion as a conceptual metonymy of event schemata”.

1083 /2005/libro3s.html-ingüística apLicada en La sociedad de La información y La comunicación /2005/libro3s.html-of SEE”./ Cultural, Typological and Psychological Issues in Cognitive Linguistics. /2005/libro3s.html:/Current issues in Linguistic Theory 152. Eds. M. K. Hiraga, C. Sinha and S.Wilcox. /2005/libro3s.html-Amsterdam: John Benjamins. /2005/libro3s.html-Koch, P. 2001. /Metonymy. Unity in diversity./ Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2.2: 201- /2005/libro3s.html-244. /2005/libro3s.html-Kövecses, Z. 1990. /Emotion Concepts/. New York: Springer-Verlag. /2005/libro3s.html:Kövecses, Z. and G. RADDEN. 1998. “Metonymy: developing a cognitive linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-view”. /Cognitive Linguistics/ 9, 1: 37-77. /2005/libro3s.html-Lakoff, G. and M. Turner 1989. /More Than Cool Reason. A Field Guide to Poetic /

1084 /2005/libro3s.html-/the /meaning/ of this verb as a case study (and of reporting verbs in general). In fact, the /meaning/ of verbs / /2005/libro3s.html-/of report is here regarded as a pragmatic /function/ depending on a semantico-conceptual configuration, / /2005/libro3s.html:/and as resulting from the modulation with the linguistic and communicative contexts. This work is part of / /2005/libro3s.html-/a broader project on /lexical complexity/ (directed by Prof. Bertuccelli Papi at Pisa University). The / /2005/libro3s.html-/general notion of /complexity /taken into consideration is grounded on Merlini Barbaresi 2003 and is /

1085 /2005/libro3s.html-It should be born in mind that by /meaning/ of reporting verbs I actually intend a /2005/libro3s.html-pragmatic /function/ depending on a specific semantico-conceptual frame, which is constantly /2005/libro3s.html:modulated by the linguistic and communicative contexts. /2005/libro3s.html-Whenever we come across acts of reporting, we have to come to terms with the /2005/libro3s.html-reporter’s subjectivity. Indeed, the lexico-semantic meaning of verbs of speaking used for

1086 /2005/libro3s.html-such as that of Frame Semantics can give us cues as to how the very existence and relevance /2005/libro3s.html-of certain meaning dimensions are motivated, thus providing system-external, substantive /2005/libro3s.html:grounds for linguistic inquiry. /2005/libro3s.html-2.2./ The pragmatics side / /2005/libro3s.html-On the pragmatic perspective, Sbisà’s (1989) approach is an Austinian re-appraisal of

1087 /2005/libro3s.html-existing abstract categorisations and devise a more powerful (i.e. cross-linguistically valid) /2005/libro3s.html-top ontology. In any case, only by making reference to a systematic mapping between lexical /2005/libro3s.html:structure and an abstract conceptual level such as that proposed here, can we base linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-inquiry on a substantive /tertium comparationis/ and organise both lexicographic descriptions /2005/libro3s.html-and contrastive analyses of lexical meaning accordingly.

1088 /2005/libro3s.html-existing abstract categorisations and devise a more powerful (i.e. cross-linguistically valid) /2005/libro3s.html-top ontology. In any case, only by making reference to a systematic mapping between lexical /2005/libro3s.html:structure and an abstract conceptual level such as that proposed here, can we base linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-inquiry on a substantive /tertium comparationis/ and organise both lexicographic descriptions /2005/libro3s.html-and contrastive analyses of lexical meaning accordingly.

1089 /2005/libro3s.html-Publishing Company. 1-35. /2005/libro3s.html-Croft, W. and D. A. Cruse. 2003. /Cognitive Linguistics/. Cambridge: CUP. /2005/libro3s.html:Fillmore, C. 1982. “Frame Semantics”./ Linguistics in the Morning Calm/. Ed. The Linguistic /2005/libro3s.html-Society of Korea. Seoul: Hanshin Publishing Co. 111-137. /2005/libro3s.html-Langacker, R. W. 1987. /Foundations of

1090 /2005/libro3s.html-distributed across several different grammatical categories in Spanish. The subjunctive mood /2005/libro3s.html-in Spanish is the second most common modal category co-occurring with /probablemente/, /2005/libro3s.html:revealing that in cross-linguistic relations the semantics of English modal verbs will often /2005/libro3s.html-find functional-semantic equivalents in the subjunctive mood in Spanish. /2005/libro3s.html-The expression of modality is a broad and complex issue in grammar and further

1091 /2005/libro3s.html-En /The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language/ (Crystal 1987: 410), corpus se /2005/libro3s.html-define como “/a representative sample of language, compiled for the purpose of /2005/libro3s.html:linguistic analysis/,” y, entre las finalidades, se apunta que por medio de un corpus, el /2005/libro3s.html-lingüista puede realizar observaciones objetivas sobre la lengua, basadas en la /2005/libro3s.html-frecuencia de su uso dentro de ese corpus. Biber /et al./ (1998: 1) añaden que los análisis

1092 /2005/libro3s.html-/corpus criteria design and the methodology of its selection and indexation. / /2005/libro3s.html-/Methodological accuracy, textual typology and the representativeness of the genre within the / /2005/libro3s.html:/field, unsure the adequacy of the corpus analysis and its linguistic coverage, all this issues / /2005/libro3s.html-/warrant its terminological and traductological adecuacy. / /2005/libro3s.html-/This paper describes the procedure followed to compile the cited corpus and the design of a /

1093 /2005/libro3s.html-/The aim of this article is to present RICOTERM-2, that is a project based on efficient terminology / /2005/libro3s.html-/and discourse descriptions in economics in Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Basque and English with / /2005/libro3s.html:/the applied objective of creating multilingual linguistic resources in order to be used in various IR / /2005/libro3s.html-/techniques. The use of linguistically processed corpora will allow the design of other applications, / /2005/libro3s.html-/as the enrichment of processing dictionaries, the development of an ontology in economics linked /

1094 /2005/libro3s.html-composed of similar native language (NL) texts in two languages, can be used. However, a corpus /2005/libro3s.html-with both parallel and comparable components offers greater analytical potential (Johansson 1998; /2005/libro3s.html:Teich 2003). Analysis of NL texts establishes TL norms and reference values for linguistic items of /2005/libro3s.html-interest; comparison of SL and TL texts reveals translation behaviour, and comparison of TL and /2005/libro3s.html-comparable NL texts brings out typical and idiosyncratic features of translation products. In an

1095 /2005/libro3s.html-/of / /2005/libro3s.html-/the Spanish NL texts / /2005/libro3s.html:In the linguistic prIof /2005/libro3s.html-n ile /2005/libro3s.html-the identified /2005/libro3s.html:linguistic in /2005/libro3s.html-pr the /2005/libro3s.html-of Spanis

1096 /2005/libro3s.html-3.2./ Contextual analysis of the Spanish NL texts /2005/libro3s.html-/ /2005/libro3s.html:In the linguistic profile identified in the Spanish NL texts (Table 2), rhetorical features of /2005/libro3s.html-/observar/ were co-occurrence with first-person verbs to present results and comments or in self- /2005/libro3s.html-citation, and use in citation of other researchers’ work. Reference to tables or figures was typically a

1097 /2005/libro3s.html-instances translated directly. In the other 12 cases, other means or omission were justified by the /2005/libro3s.html-local context. In the contextual study of the TL texts, alternatives appeared more suitable in another /2005/libro3s.html:nine contexts. Nevertheless, 79 of the 100 instances coincided with the linguistic profile identified /2005/libro3s.html-in this study. /2005/libro3s.html-3.3.2. Alternatives to /observar/

1098 /2005/libro3s.html-instances translated directly. In the other 12 cases, other means or omission were justified by the /2005/libro3s.html-local context. In the contextual study of the TL texts, alternatives appeared more suitable in another /2005/libro3s.html:nine contexts. Nevertheless, 79 of the 100 instances coincided with the linguistic profile identified /2005/libro3s.html-in this study. /2005/libro3s.html-3.3.2. Alternatives to /observar/

1099 /2005/libro3s.html-Baker, M. 1995. “Corpora in translation studies: An overview and some suggestions for future /2005/libro3s.html-research”. /Target /7: 223-243. /2005/libro3s.html:Johansson, S. 1998. “On the role of corpora in cross-linguistic research”. /Corpora and Cross-/ /2005/libro3s.html:/linguistic Research/. Eds. S. Johansson and S. Oksefjell. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 3-24. /2005/libro3s.html-418 /2005/libro3s.html-1462-34264 UIB Ling.indd 418

1100 /2005/libro3s.html-at /2005/libro3s.html-http://liv.ac.uk/~ms2928/wordsmit.htm]. /2005/libro3s.html:Teich, E. 2003. /Cross-linguistic Variation in System and Text/. Berlin-New York: Mouton de /2005/libro3s.html-Gruyter. /2005/libro3s.html-Williams, I. A. 1997. “Presentation-type structures in medical reports”. /La palabra vertida: /

1101 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hickey y M. Steward. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 317-330. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ide, S., ed. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Politeness, I, II y III /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- = /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Multilingua /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 7 (1988), 8 (1989) y 12 (1993). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Kasper, G. 1990. “Linguistic Politeness: Current Research Issues”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Journal of Pragmatics /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 14:

1102 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meaning cannot be predicted from the meaning of the constitutive parts. Thus, this same view /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- holds that the overall meaning of idioms is arbitrary. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: While the cognitive linguistic view agrees with the traditional view that the meaning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of idioms cannot be predicted in full, it also maintains that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- to a large extent it can be

1103 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ENTHUSIASM IS FIRE /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Such fire-related idioms are not single, distinct expressions but form a part of conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: metaphors, each manifested by additional linguistic examples. Below are some other /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: instances of linguistic metaphors (though not n /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ecessarily idioms) that belong to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual metaphors:

1104 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This is based on the notion of mappings. Given that a conceptual metaphor consists of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a set of mappings, we can motivate the meanings /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: of the words and phrases that are linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- examples of the conceptual metaphors. For example, the mappings for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ANGER IS FIRE

1105 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The type of motivation discussed above would /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: be especially useful for applied linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- purposes if we found it not only /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in one language (in this case

1106 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Such (at least near-)universal metaphors and their mappings may acquire special /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: significance in an applied linguistic context. The fact that we find such a generic-level /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor in such diverse languages and that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- speakers of these languages share the same

1107 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphoric expressions and their meanings across a wide range of different languages, and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- this may facilitate the teaching/ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: learning of such linguistic items. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- H

1108 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 62 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: If we study the linguistic expression /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of a single conceptual metaphor in two /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- languages, we need to take into account the following four factors: the words used for the

1109 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor(s)? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As we will see shortly below, the answers provided to these questions may vary from one /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic example to another. The different answers fit different pattern /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- s. Such patterns give /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: us a way of characterizing the linguistic expression of a single conceptual metaphor in two /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- languages. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Lakoff and Johnson (1980) list 16 linguistic examples for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- TIME IS MONEY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual metaphor. The consensual opinion /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the 20 Hungarian students yielded three /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- patterns with which the metaphor is expressed. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The first pattern can be exemplified with the following English linguistic metaphor /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and its Hungarian equivalent: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- You’re

1110 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- favored in the expression of figurative meaning in relation to other languages and other /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual metaphors. If couched in the appropriate methodological /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and applied linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- framework, such findings may again facilitate the teaching/learning of metaphor-based /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language.

1111 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 64 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The same students who translated into /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Hungarian the linguistic examples of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- TIME /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- IS MONEY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: conceptual metaphor also translated the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- examples of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- LOVE IS A JOURNEY

1112 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- LOVE IS A /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- JOURNEY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: conceptual metaphor and its linguistic exam /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ples are familiar to native speakers of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hungarian.

1113 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relationship /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . In other /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: words, it seems that although the linguistic expression of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- LOVE IS A JOURNEY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor in

1114 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in two languages and th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e conceptual metaphor /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: is expressed by means of similar linguistic items, but we find certain subtle differences in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: way of expression. The really interesting question is whether these subtle linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- differences remain “subtle differences,” or /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- they constitute broader cultural-ideological /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- differences. I have the feeling that the latter is the case. As I tried to point out in the analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the examples, the insignifican /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: t-looking subtle linguistic differences may derive from larger /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and systematic differences in cultural and id /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- eological context underlying the two languages. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Such cultural differences include /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- opposing values, like activity-passivity, optimistic-fatalistic, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and extroverted-introverted in the world view of the two cultural-linguistic communities. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1115 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- idiomatic expressions (together with their /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meanings) derive from some (near-)universal conceptual metaphors and the systematic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: mappings constituting them. (3) However, the linguistic expression of the same conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor may vary from language to language. Speakers of diffe /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rent languages seem to have

1116 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- systematicity in the teaching of idioms in foreign languages than we presently do. If the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- suggestions for greater systematicity described in this paper are found by the applied /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic community as potentially rewarding, we could begin designing new, large-scale /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- projects between two or more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- languages that would map the

1117 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Eds. T. K. Bhatia y W. C. Ritchie. Malden: Blackwell. 32- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 63. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Kay, P. y Ch. Fillmore. 1999. “Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 75: 1-33.

1118 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. A. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Yanguas y F. J. Salguero. Sevilla: Kronos. 229-238. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Louden, M. L. 1997. “Linguistic structure and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sociolinguistic identity in Pennsylvania /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- German society”.

1119 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- C. Ritchie. Malden: Blackwell. 91-113. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Otheguy, R. 1995. “When contact speakers /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: talk, linguistic theory listens”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Meaning as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Explanation: Advances in Linguistic Sign Theory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. E. Contini-Morava y B. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Sussman. Berlín: Mouton de Gruyter. 213-242.

1120 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. C. Kramsch y S. McConnell- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ginet. Boston: D.C. Heath. 98-112. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Sankoff, G. 2002. “Linguistic outcomes of language contact”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The Handbook of Language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Variation and Change

1121 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Benjamins. 225-246. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Silva-Corvalán, C. 2003a. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: “Linguistic consequences of reduced input in bilingual first /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language acquisition”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Theory and Language Development in Hispanic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- C /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ONFERENCIAS PLENARIAS

1122 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. I /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- NTRODUCTION /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The cognitive-linguistic idea that metaphor may be defined as a set of correspondences /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- between two conceptual domains has revolutionized the study of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor (Lakoff and

1123 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cognitive linguistics (cf. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Lakoff 1987; Langacker 1987). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The cognitive-linguistic approach accords /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- with a long-standing view in philosophy, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interaction theory of metaphor (e.g. Richards 1936; Black 1962; Ricoeur 1978), but it was not

1124 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- anslation. These findings have considerably /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- strengthened the validity and appeal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: of the cognitive-linguistic approach. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The proposal has consequently not only replaced the standard grammatical model of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor as deviance numerous metaphorical expressions are not deviant but the norm for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conventional usage. It has also /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- surpassed the standard pragmatic model of metaphor of Grice /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: (1975) and Searle (1979) and become the most promising linguistic theory of metaphor with /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- an interest in cognition that ca /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- n be experimentally tested (Gibbs 1994). Alternative cognitive /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- theories cannot avoid formulating a standpoint /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: regarding the cognitive-linguistic view or /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- have indeed attempted to refute it /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (e.g. Murphy 1996; Vervaeke and Kennedy 1996;

1125 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2001a, 2002b, 2005a; Pragglejaz Group, in press). Yet this development has only begun to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- redress the balance. Metaphor in discourse is still an underdeveloped area of research. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The shift of attention from linguistic and conceptual metaphors to their use in discourse /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is not the only rela /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- tively novel point of

1126 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discourse-analytical research on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor has been performed has concentrated /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: on linguistic metaphor. Yet not every cross- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- domain mapping in the conceptual structure of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discourse is expressed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- by means of a classic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic metaphor. Many cross-domain mappings /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- are so expressed, but it has also been /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pointed out that cross-domain mappings may be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- realized by, for instance, similes or analogies /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (e.g. Lakoff and Johnson 1980; Lakoff and Turner 1989; Fauconnier 1997; Fauconnier and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Turner 2002). What is more, not all of these distinct linguistic forms for metaphor employ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language in nonliteral or indirect ways (e.g. Glucksberg and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- McGlone 1999). Paradoxical as

1127 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- domain mapping in conceptual st /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ructure and its expression in va /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: rious linguistic forms. A new /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: usage-based model will be proposed here which combines three factors of the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- expression of metaphors conceptual structure. Th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: e basic claim is that the distinct linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- forms of metaphor represent different degrees of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- explicitness regarding

1128 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- distribution, and effect of metaphor in four types of discour /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- se: conversation, fiction, news, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and science. We are looking at the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- forms and conceptual structures of all /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphorical expressions in these four registers, by analyzing four samples of about 100,000

1129 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sociolinguistics that all /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meaning in discourse (defined as its conceptual structure) displays /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: varying degrees of explicitness (defined as its linguistic structure). Cognitive linguists have /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- also drawn attention to this property of discourse, pointing to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the crucial role of backstage

1130 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- If metaphor is modelled as a conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cross-domain mapping, it may be expressed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: in diverging linguistic forms. These linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- forms display varying degrees of explicitness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of expression in comparison with the presum /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ed underlying conceptual structure. These /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- degrees may be modelled with reference to at least three factor /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: s: rhetorical form, linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- completeness, and metaphor signalling: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1131 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- € /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic completeness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- deals with the presence or absence of overt expression of source /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and target domains in the linguistic form. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- €

1132 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Metaphor signalling /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- involves the presence or absence of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: a linguistic signal for the need to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- perform a cross-domain mapping. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Goatly (1997) has formulated comparable views, but does not start out from a model of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual structure of metaphor. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The model for the linguistic forms of expression of metaphors in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual structure /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is best explained by an example. The following poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson provides an

1133 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The first factor of the model, rhetorical form, makes a distinction between metaphor, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analogy, and extended comparison. Each category is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: a more explicit linguistic rendition of a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor in conceptual structure because it explicates more correspondences: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA

1134 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- football is war /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- may in principle be just as rich as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the conceptual structure for analogies and extended comparisons, but linguistic expression is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- less informative for metaphors than for analogies, and for analogies than for extended /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- comparisons. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The second factor, linguistic completeness, makes a distinction between various /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- categories on the basis of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- absence or presence of (part of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ) the domains in the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- form; the more aspects are present, the more explicit a metaphor is: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1135 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Complete source, complete target /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: In this category, there are no obvious linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- omissions from the expression of both source and target domain. All illustrations of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: factor rhetorical form above are complete linguistic forms. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- €

1136 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- comparison, it includes allegory. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The discourse interest in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: factor of linguistic completeness is this: even /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- though any cross- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- domain mapping will probably have number of

1137 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- more or less prominent ways to help the addressee. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The three factors have to be crossed to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: produce a complete analysis of a linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor form in discourse. Thus, the first part /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of line 1 would be an analogy with part of

1138 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- expressed and signalled by parallelism, not /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- by non-literal meaning, which makes it less /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: comparable to linguistic metaphor. Extensive study may be able to define prototypical and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- less prototypical instances of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the various linguistic forms. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The complexity of the field can only be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- addressed by the application of a clear and

1139 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysis of metaphor as a cross-domain mapping. The method adopted in this research for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- revealing the relation between the various /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic forms on the one hand and their /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- underlying conceptual structure on the other /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is the discourse-analytical technique of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- propositionalization (e.g. Kintsch 1998). This technique turns /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic structures into /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual structures. These are part of an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- encompassing text base, which is a conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: equivalent of the linguistic structure of texts (cal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- led the surface text). It /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- consists of a linearly

1140 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- when they are present in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the surface text. Given the close relation between /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the linguistic structure of the text and the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1141 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e two units. Relational propositions are /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- explications of coherence relations between discourse units (Mann and Thompson 1988). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Such relational propositions may hence be explicit conceptual renderings of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor signals in the text. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1142 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . These correspondences in fact need to be derived /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- by a separate analytical procedure, called the five-step method, which turns the analogical /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic form into a cross-domain mapping in conceptual structure (Steen 1999a, in press b). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I will return to this method in the next section. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic metaphors, as opposed to linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analogies, contain a smaller selection of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- concepts from the two domains, as explained above. Thus, in

1143 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphorical because /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- there is no actual war referent in the text world. We have less conceptual material for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: cross-domain mapping in the linguistic metaphor th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: an in the linguistic analogy in lines 7 and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 8, and this can simply be read off from the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- text base. When we aim to reveal the cross-

1144 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Propositionalization can also reveal the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- difference between the three levels of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic completeness. Here is the propositional anal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ysis of the second analogy from line 1: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- C

1145 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- - /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- DOMAIN MAPPINGS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Since all diverging linguistic forms in discourse /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- have to be able to be related to the same /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- baseline of conceptual cross-domain mappings, the methodological problem is how to get

1146 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cf. Semino, Heywood, and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Short 2004). It was /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: originally designed for relating linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphors to cross-domain mappings, but is now /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- being refined to distinguish between metaphor, analogy, and ex

1147 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- not all metaphors in discourse display /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphorically used words which act as the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic focus of the metaphor. This is a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- problem for procedures which rely on the detection of vehicle incongruity, such as Cameron /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (2003) and Charteris-Black (2004).

1148 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- proposition, by its very nature, presents a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- semantic puzzle. The reason why has not received much attention, but what is actually at /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: stake when people use linguistic metaphor is nothing less than the refere /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ntial coherence of a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- stretch of discourse (e.g. Perfetti 1999). In particular, a solution has to be found to the

1149 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- belonging to source and target domains in step 2. Indeed, the formal input to this formula can /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- now also be managed by the prior step of propositionalization, and the step that precedes that, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic metaphor identification. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- C /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ONFERENCIAS PLENARIAS

1150 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The five-step procedure is a logical reconstructi /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- on of what has to happen if analysts want to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: get from linguistic to conceptual metaphors. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- There are fundamental questions about the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- procedure, as has been made clear by Semino et

1151 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ONCLUSION /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In this paper I have sketched a usage-based model for the study of metaphor in discourse. The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: model assumes that the linguistic expression /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of metaphor displays various degrees of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- explicitness, which may be accounted for by examining three factors: rhetorical form, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic completeness, and metaphor signalling. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Each of these factors contributes to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- greater or lesser degree of a metaphors explicitness in discourse.

1152 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ONFERENCIAS PLENARIAS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 161 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The method to reveal these degrees involves the transformation of the linguistic forms /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of metaphor into a series of conceptual structures. An encompassing five-step model guides /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the transformation of the linguistic form to the ultimate underlying cross-domain mapping. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The step from linguistic form to conceptual st /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ructure itself is effected by the technique of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- propositionalization, a technique which has been

1153 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- paper are currently a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pplied in large-scale /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: empirical research. Linguistic metaphor identification turns out to be possible at high levels /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of reliability, in various registers in English as well as Dutch. Their subsequent analysis in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terms of conceptual structures and discourse

1154 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- London: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Longman. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Steen, G. J. 1999a. From linguistic to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual metaphor in five steps. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1155 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Navarro i Ferrando and J.-L. Otal. Berlin /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Steen, G. J. In press b. From linguistic form to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual structure in five steps: Analyzing /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor in poetry. To appear in

1156 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ed. M. DeGraff. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Bley-Vroman, R. 1990. “The logical problem of foreign language learning”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 20: 30-49.

1157 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Clahsen, H. 1988. “Parametrized grammatical theory and language acquisition: a study of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- acquisition of verb placement and inflection by children and adults”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic theory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in Second Language Acquisition /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. S. Flynn y W. O’Neil. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

1158 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Fontana, J. 1994. “A variationist account of the development of the Spanish clitic system”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Papers from the 13th regional Meeting of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Chicago Linguistic society, vol. 2: The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: parasession on variation in linguistic theory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. K. Beals. Chicago: Chicago /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Society. 87-100. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Guéron, J. y T. Hoekstra. 1989. “T-chains and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the constituent structure of auxiliars”.

1159 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ms. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Holmberg, A. 2005. “Is there a little pro? Evidence from Finnish”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Inquiry /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 36(4): /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 533-564.

1160 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Regional Meeting, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Chicago Linguistic Society /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: . Ed. K. Beals. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 180- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 201. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Lardiere, D. 2005. “On morphological competence”.

1161 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1: 4-36. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Liceras, J. M. 1986. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Theory and Second Language Acquisition: The Spanish Non- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- native Grammar of English Speakers /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

1162 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Acquisition /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , 23:321-343. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Ijaz, I. 1986. “Linguistic and cognitive determinants of lexical acquisition in Second /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language”, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Learning,

1163 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 182 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: appropriate, since presenting a list of linguistic forms is hi /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ghly unlikely to result in pragmatic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learning.

1164 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- from a language processing perspective. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the case of direct and conventi /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: onally indirect requests, learners can rely on their linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge to identify the request strategies. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Nevertheless, as the level of indirectness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: increases, it seems to demand sufficient processing capacity to activate both linguistic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- contextual knowledge. In this sense, it is possible that through instruction, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- utterances such as

1165 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- consciousness-raising tasks or input enhancement techniques, which in the past have proved /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- effective for developing lear /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ners’ linguistic competence, present new challenges for those /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- who need to acquire pragmatic competence in a target language. Finally, further research /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- needs to be conducted to investigate some limitations of the present study. Among these, in

1166 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , Paris, Klincksieck. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2000. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic genocide in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Education /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , London: LEA

1167 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language. A time-based analysis is included regarding the number of studies published in two different /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- periods of time: from 1980 to 1992, and from 1993 to 2005. Besides these quantitative comparisons, both the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: type of linguistic knowledge assessed in the studies and the type of methodological approach has also been /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- considered. Results indicate a considerable increase in the number of publications devoted to this research /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- field. Some remarkable differences are also attested between the method and contents in general of the

1168 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Gass, S., Mackey, A., Alvarez-Torres, M. J., & Fe /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rn‡ndez-Garc’a, M. 1999. The Effects of Task /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Repetition on Linguistic Output. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Learning, 49 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , 549-581. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Gathercole, V.C.M. Sebastián, E & Soto P. 2002 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: . The emergence of linguistic person in Spanish- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- speaking children. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Learning, 52

1169 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ntly and, thus, they were acquainted with the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- text type used in this study. As Díez (1998: 147), who followed Parsons’ (1990) advice, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: texts were edited so the evaluators were not influenced by extra-linguistic errors. The changes /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- made were: orthography errors, incorrect use /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of articles, prepositions, and punctuation. The

1170 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- expert writers and they also made more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- revisions of synonyms. Examination of the repetitions may also indicate whether or not the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: writers used derivation similarly, which suggests a higher linguistic development than the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- simple repetition of terms. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The study on the native and non-native expert

1171 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Universitat Pompeu Fabra /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: In the present paper we analyse the role that linguistic typology and the [+/-] value of the interpretable /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features play in the acquisition of the Spanish aspectual past tenses (Imperfecto and Indefinido). In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- order to do so, we look at experimental and semi-experimental written data

1172 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1996); Turkish/German, English/German, Dutch/Turkish, Swedish/Spanish etc. investigated /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- under the European Science Foundation Project, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: a cross-linguistic longitudinal study on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- acquisition of temporality by untutored adult /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learners (Klein and Perdue 1992; Klein,

1173 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- difficulties to Greek learners. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- We hypothesize that the above-mentioned cros /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: s-linguistic characteristics may cause /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- visible differences in the acquisitional patterns of Spanish aspectual tenses. Morphology (but /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- not only morphology) triggers the aspectual

1174 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- eatures are parametrized, yielding different syntactic options /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that separate grammars of different languages and are the locus /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: of cross-linguistic variation. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Interpretable features have an effect at different interface levels /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (semantic, discourse or

1175 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 231 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Rivero, M. L. 1994. Clause Structure and V-movement in the languages of the Balkans. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Natural Language and Linguistic Theory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 12, 63-120. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Salaberry, M. R. 2000.

1176 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- own theses. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Understanding a text depends not only on the re /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: aders' linguistic comp /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- etence, but also on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- their background and knowledge of the world, as well as affective

1177 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In this paper we provide an analysis of spontaneous and experimental language production data from a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pair of English/Spanish bilingual twins. We focus on utterances which involve separation of languages /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: (natural translation) and mixing of languages (code-switching). We argue that linguistic theory, and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- specifically the Minimalist Program can provide a unified account of both phenomena. In the case of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- natural translation we argue that the interpretative level (LF) takes two spell-outs, one for each

1178 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- retation, University of Ottawa. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Slobin, D. 1985. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The cross-linguistic study of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language acquisition: The data /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Hillsdale, NJ:

1179 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Tesis doctoral, University of California at /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Irvine. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Swain, M.K. y M.B. Wesche 1975. “Linguistic interaction: case study of a bilingual child”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language sciences /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 37: 17-22.

1180 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- early production of English during the first /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- three years at school and provides evidence on how very young learners internalize the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: second language in this linguistic environment. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The aims of this study are: firstly, to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- gain understanding on to what extent very

1181 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- information can be of help to teachers. If /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learning English at school is a data-driven /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: process in which the learners build up the language from the linguistic data (input) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- around them, this type of learning will resemble the manner in which native children /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- approach their language grammar: step by step and following developmental stages.

1182 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and the amount of time and exposure play /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- important roles and determine /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the amount of linguistic data children have access to and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as a consequence, they influen /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ce on children’s language learning.

1183 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 268 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a main strategy for L2 learning, to compensate learners’ lack of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic proficiency. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- According to this author, at the beginning, ch /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ildren use this type /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of utterances in a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: mechanical way and later, these utterances become part of the creative linguistic process. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In our data, formulas play a role and children use them during the first stages of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language acquisition:

1184 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Best, C. T. 1995. A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Speech Perception /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ed. W. Strange.

1185 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Speech /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Perception and Linguistic Experience: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Theoretical and Methodological Issues. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1186 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Eds. A. Braun y H.R. Masthoff. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Marlborg: Universität Trier. 178-188. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Kuhl, P. K. 1993. Early linguistic experience and phonetic perception: implications for theories /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of develeopmental speech production. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Journal of Phonetics

1187 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- typological structures and ergativ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ity in English L2 acquisition”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , Eds. Susan G. and S. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Jacqueline. New York: Cambridge University Pr

1188 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the logical meanings. Understanding narratives as a genre in the cl /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- assroom context (cf. Christie 2002), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: we analyse the linguistic choices that teachers and children make when creating a story. First, the study /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- presents the different processes and logical connecto /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rs materialised in this

1189 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , it unveils the differences and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- similarities in high and low immersion contexts. The findings reveal that (i) there is indeed a pattern /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: common to all the narratives in the linguistic instantiation of the ideational function and (ii) that there is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a correlation in the teachers’ and children’s production. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS

1190 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ideational Function /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ) through the co-constructed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: realisation of oral narratives in the L2. We will compare the linguistic realisations of teachers /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and children, as well as in high- and low-immersion contexts. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2.

1191 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- United Kingdom, inspired in the research carried out by Bernstein and later developed by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Halliday (1989). Today, studies such as Chris /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: tie (2002), among others, focus on the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features that characterise the different school /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: disciplines. This linguistic model provides a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- valuable tool for genre research in second/foreign language contexts. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As far as the narrative genre is concerned, Georgakopoulo and Goutsos (2000)

1192 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and used in simple present tense (Halliday 1994: 131), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: two simple linguistic devices which can be both understood and produced by children at this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- stage. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Thus, there seems to be no difference in the instantiation of the experiential function in

1193 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- comprehension, production and appropriate use of those features. It is believed in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- literature that there exists a bi-directional relationship between the adult’s and the child’s /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: speech. Not only is CDS the mould shaping the child’s linguistic development, i.e. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- “scaffolding” (Bruner 1975), but results from /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a “fine-tuning” process (Ellis and Wells 1980). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: In other words, in the same way the adult provides the linguistic model to the child, the adult /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- speech modifications change directly as a reflection of the infant’s behaviour (Penman, Cross, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Milgrom-Friedman and Meares 1983; Harris

1194 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1988). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In this study we have focused on the oral narrative genre in the EFL context, analysing /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: one of the linguistic functions studied by Aust /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ralian systemic-functional linguists in different /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- school genres, the realisation of the ideational /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- function. However, in order to complete the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: description of that particular genre, further research will consider other linguistic features (the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interpersonal and textual metafunctions), compare the children’s realisations with native /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- children of the same age and look at the linguis

1195 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 332 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Harris, M., Barrett, M., Jones, D. and S. Brookes. 1988. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: “Linguistic input and early word /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meaning”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Journal of Child Language

1196 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- s worked first individually and then negotiated /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in pairs. We analysed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the linguistic markers which were influencing our –seemingly intuitive- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- decisions in a sample of the texts, and found th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- at, in fact, the categories of the markers used

1197 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hillsdale, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- NJ: Erlbaum. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Bhatia, V. 1999. “Analysing genre: an applied linguistic perspective”. Keynote presentation. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 12 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- th

1198 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- iting task can show /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- teachers about ‘good writing’”. Ed. B. Couture. 241-265. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Martín Úriz, A and R. Whittaker. 2003. "Composition in EFL in Spanish schools: linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features of different genr /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- es in writing". Presentation.

1199 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learning process and discover the differences /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- between their production and that from NSs. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The responses by NSs followed the gradation of linguistic formul /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ae on the basis of politeness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- criteria, and included the indirect, conventionally indirect and direct forms illustrated in

1200 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of different request formulae before receiving in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- struction was very limited, since they mainly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: resorted to the use of the ability linguistic realisations /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- can you/could you /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (69% out of 78.9%)

1201 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 360 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: test, they resorted again to a massive use of ability linguistic formulae when making their /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- requests in different situations, that is, the use of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- can

1202 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The study of speech acts in interlanguage pragmatics has received a great deal of attention. In particular, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- speech act of requesting has been widely examined in both second and foreign language contexts. However, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: most of this research has focused on the linguistic formulae to express the request head act and has given /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- little attention to modifiers used in requests. Given the fact that studies focusing on learners’ use of both /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- internal and external modifiers when requesting point to different results, the present study investigates (1)

1203 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- items (i.e. peripheral modification de /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- vices), which can be either internal or external to the request /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: head act. As Sifianou (1999: 158) points out, internal modifiers consist of linguistic elements that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- appear within the same request act in order to mitigate or intensify its force (e.g. Could you /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- possibly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: open the window?), whereas external modifiers appear in the immediate linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- context rather than in the request act itself (e.g. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- It is quite hot in here.

1204 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Universitat Jaume I. 161-184. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Márquez Reiter, R. 2000. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic politeness in Britain an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- d Uruguay. A contrastive study of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- requests and apologies

1205 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Flege, J. E. 1995. “Second-language speech learning: theory, findings and problems”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Speech /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Perception and Linguistic Experience: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Theoretical and Methodological Issues. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ed.

1206 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- [8] Best, C.T. ( 1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- W.Strange ( Ed.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Speech perception and linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- experience. Issues in cross- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language research

1207 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- En W. Strange CEd.) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Speech perception and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic experience. Issues /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in cross-language research /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , pp.207-232. Timonium,

1208 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Internet disponible en http://www.acoustics.org/press/) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Escudero, P. 2005. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Perception and Second Language Acquisition. Explaining the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- attainment of optimal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- phonological categorization.

1209 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Bel 2001, 2002) favours the presence of functional categories like Inflection (Infl) or Tense (T) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in early grammars, whereas the maturation hypothesis (Radford 1990) argues that, initially, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: children lack functional categories. In the light of this debate, we will study the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- production, focused on verbal forms, of a set of English-Spanish bilingual twins in order to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- determine whether agreement features of inflected verbs in both languages are present in the

1210 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 69:1-33. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Pollock, J-Y. 1989. “Verb movement, universal grammar, and the structure of IP”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Inquiry /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 20-3: 365-425.

1211 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- negotiation brings about the same benefits as NS-NNS is supposed to foster. Although three components /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of negotiation seemed to be significant, we concluded that NNS-NNS negotiation was not dependent on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic competence. Finally, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the limitations and benefits of ne /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- gotiation among non-native speakers

1212 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Learning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , 45, 605-655. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Long, M. H. 1996. The role of linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- W.C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Handbook of second language acquisition

1213 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the experimental tasks and the same number of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Spanish children per age group participated in the control tasks. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The critical linguistic items to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- be tested in the tasks included null and overt pronominal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- subjects in main and embedded

1214 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that percentages of correctness of non-native /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 5 year-olds are considerably high in most /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic items, bearing in mind that these children had been exposed to Spanish only for a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- year at the time of the experimental task, which might confirm our hypothesis that UG is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- entirely involved in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- child L2A /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . A comparison between experimental and control groups for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: each linguistic property examined enables us to study L2 subject development more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- accurately and examine the effects that L1 Tr /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ansfer has on the L2. For each age group, two

1215 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- “Parametrizing AGR: Word Order, V- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Movement and EPP checking”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 16: 491- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 540.

1216 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Initial to Final State”. In J. Archibald /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Ed.) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , Oxford: Blackwell. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- White L. 2003.

1217 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- My own working hypothesis is that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- bilingualism provides a person with a comparative, three-dimensional insight into language, a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: type of stereo linguistic optic on communication that the monolingual rarely experiences” /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (1990, p.212). In line with Lambert's hypothesis, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hoffmann (2001) argues that the learners' /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ability to create their own linguistic means and adapt them to suit particular communicative /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 468

1218 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- agmatic competence, Hoffmann presents a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- description of trilingual competence. According to this author, trilingual competence not only /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: includes the linguistic aspects from the thre /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e language systems but also the pragmatic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- component, consisting of sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic competences pertaining to

1219 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ge use addressing /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- issues like those of switching phenomena (Hammarberg, 2001; Williams & Hammarberg, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: 1998), cross-linguistic influence (Cenoz /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- et al /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . 2001), communicative sensitivity,

1220 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- author, developmental stages were identified which referred to an increase in the use of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mitigation devices and more variation in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: request linguistic formulations used. Taking /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- these facts into account, we may say that our results shared some characteristics with Ellis’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- study (1992), as a wider use of

1221 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 15: 195-207. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cenoz, J. Hufeisen, B. and Jessner, U. 2001. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Cross-linguistic Influence in Third Language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

1222 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The interaction of L1, L2 and L3 on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language mode continuum”. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Cross-linguistic influence in Third Language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (pp. 69-89). J. Cenoz,

1223 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hammarberg, B. 2001. “Roles of L1 and L2 in L3 production and acquisition”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cross- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic Influence in Third Language Acqui /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (pp.

1224 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Oxford: Oxford University Press. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Takahashi, S. and Dufon, M.A. 1989. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Cross-linguistic influence in indirectness: The case /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- English directives performed by native Japanese speakers /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Unpublished manuscript,

1225 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Languages in contact /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . New York, Publications /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: of the Linguistic Circle /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of New York 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Weinrich, H. 1978. “Preposizioni incolori? Sulle preposizioni, franc.

1226 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Universitat Jaume I /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SUMMARY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: It is the purpose of this paper to find out which are the linguistic forms that both teacher and students /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mainly address in an EFL communicative language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- classroom in which attention to form occurs

1227 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- early stages of acquisition. Our findings match Williams’ (1999) in that students are usually concerned /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- with vocabulary issues. However, they also indicate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: that in some cases, students address other linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- matters such as grammar or pronunciation. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS

1228 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- than two decades now, these methods have /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- been adopted by a considerably amount of current teaching materials. Yet, the teaching of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic forms, especially grammar, still /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- plays a fundamental role in language pedagogy /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Ellis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- et al. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: 2002). Forms include any linguistic aspect, that is phonological, graphological, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- lexical or grammatical (Long 1991). Therefore, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- FonF instruction can be directed at

1229 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . 2001). Attention to form also /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- involves consideration of the meaning (function) that a particular form conveys. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Miscommunication can lead learners to recognize that a linguistic problem exists, switch /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- from focus on message to focus on form, identif /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- y the problem and notice the needed item in

1230 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- those of Focus on Forms (FonFs) and Focus on Form (FonF). In short, FonF differs from /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- FonFs in that FonF entails a prerequisite engage /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ment in meaning before attention to linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features can be expected to be effective (Doughty and Williams 1998). Within FonF /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- instruction, Ellis (2001) and Ellis

1231 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- actual or perceived error. This is then addr /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- essed usually by the teacher or sometimes by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: another learner. It was the purpose of our study to find out which were the linguistic items /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that concerned both the teacher and students /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in a communicative language classroom and

1232 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a) What aspects of language are addressed in a communicative language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- classroom in which Incidental Focus on Form takes place? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: b) Which linguistic forms do both the teacher and the students pre-empt? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: c) Will vocabulary be the main linguistic aspect pre-emptied by students as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Williams’ (1999) study suggests? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3. M

1233 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- occasions, some students rehearsed a dialogue that they had prepared for the lesson or they /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- were given a topic to discuss. From that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: communicative process some linguistic matters /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- arose, and it was then when the focus of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- class shifted from strictly meaning-based to

1234 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- they involved various turns. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As the purpose of this paper is to show /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the nature of the linguistic issues mainly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- addressed in the classroom, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- unit of analysis used /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- to code data for such instances was the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- focus on form episode (FFE). FFEs have been defined as the discourse from the point where /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the attention to a linguistic form starts to the point where it ends, this might be caused by a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- change in topic back to message or another focus on form (Ellis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- et al.

1235 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the pre-emptive type, that is teacher and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- student initiated FFEs and then, we analysed the FFEs with regards to the aspects of language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: addressed by the participants. We analysed four linguistic aspects: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- grammar, vocabulary, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pronunciation and spelling. Our purpose was to find out which one of them was addressed

1236 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in a communicative language classroom in which Incidental Focus on Form took place, we /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- grouped the FFEs related to grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling (as shown in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Figure 1). From this grouping, we can infer that the linguistic aspects attended to are almost /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- entirely lexical or grammatical, as in studies of reactive focus on form (e.g. Chaudron 1977). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In Figure 1, the FFEs were both pre-emptive and reactive

1237 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- emptive FFEs analysed usually addressed vocabulary items. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Our second research question addressed the i /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ssue of linguistic forms pre-emptied by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- participants of the study /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- while communicating. In order to pr

1238 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 490 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Figure 3 shows how the linguistic aspects that the teacher pre-emptied were concerned /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- with vocabulary and grammar. Neither spelling nor pronunciation were targeted by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- teacher in the pre-emptive FFEs analysed. The teacher takes time out from focussing on

1239 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the Student-initiated Pre-emptive FFEs. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- A comparison may be drawn regarding aspects of language addressed by the teacher /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and the students. Vocabulary was the linguistic aspect that both th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e teacher and students /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- addressed more often (see Figure 3 and Figure

1240 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- matters, whilst it was fifty-seven per cent in the case of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- teacher. This result would provide an answer to our third research question, vocabulary is the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: main linguistic aspect pre-emptied by students. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Regarding grammar, twelve per cent of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- episodes were addressed to this issue in stude

1241 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 491 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: LINGUISTIC ASPECTS PERCENTAGES /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Aspects of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language in the

1242 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- TABLE 1. Percentages of Incidental attention to Form in the CLT. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Our data also provided us with other fo /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: cus on linguistic aspects. In the case of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pronunciation, it was only addressed in the reactive episodes that have not been presented /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- here. In these cases, the teacher or other students corrected an erroneous elocution. The

1243 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As already stated, the transcripts analysed belonged to 17 EFL sessions in which a teacher /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and 12 students engaged in several conversations. We were interested in the participants’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: contributions in order to analyse whether there was a focus on linguistic aspects. From the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: coded focus on form episodes (FFEs) we analysed which linguistic issues were addressed. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: We decided only to look for four linguistic as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pects namely those of grammar, vocabulary, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pronunciation and spelling. Our purpose was to find

1244 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Michigan State University /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SUMMARY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Incidental focus on form draws learners’ attention to linguistic items as they arise spontaneously, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- without prior planning, in meaning-focused L2 classroom activities. Such a combination of form and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meaning is argued to be beneficial for L2 learners. While previous studies have investigated the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- effectiveness of incidental focus on form in promoting second language learning through measures such /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as uptake and individualised test scores, the present study considers effectiveness by examining learners’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ability to incorporate the targeted linguistic items into their own subsequent production. In the present /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- study, 4.5 hours of naturally-occurring, meaning-focused L2 lessons were observed in 3 different classes /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of young adults in a private language school in Auckland, New Zealand. The focus on form episodes in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the classroom interaction were identified and learners’ subsequent use of the targeted linguistic forms /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- was analysed. The results indicate that learners used about 20% of the targeted forms, with an accuracy /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rate of almost 75%. The implications of this study for both SLA research and L2 teaching will be

1245 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- form-focused instruction (Hulstijn 1995; Skehan 1998; Ellis 2001). Incidental focus on form /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- occurs without prior planning, in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: response to whichever linguistic structures arise during a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- meaning-focused activities (Long 1991; Long /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1996; Spada, 1997; Ellis 2001). Incidental

1246 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 334 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: may draw their attention to linguistic items and help them in the process of form-meaning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: mapping. However, because the linguistic form /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- s occur spontaneously, it is not possible to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: pre-test the linguistic items /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- targeted during the meaning-focused activities (Swain 2001; /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Loewen 2005). Therefore, in order to investigate the effectiveness of incidental focus on

1247 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and some studies have found evidence of learning without the production of uptake (Mackey /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and Philp 1998). Another measure of the effectiveness of incidental focus on form consists of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: individualised testing, which allows researchers to target the specific linguistic items raised /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- spontaneously in classroom /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discourse (Swain 2001; Loewen 2005). However, since the

1248 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- occurred, it is not possible to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- investigate learner’s prior knowle /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: dge of the linguistic item, and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- it may be that the error is a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- performance error. Nevertheless, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the fact that an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- error in production has occurred or a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: question about a linguistic item has been raised indicates learner difficulty with that item /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Ellis, Basturkmen et al. 2001) and that further consolidation of learning may be needed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Swain 2001). Thus, learning can be operationalised

1249 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relationship between incidental focus on form /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and L2 learning by individually testing the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic items that have arisen incidentally; these studies have shown generally encouraging /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rates of accuracy on the tests. However, the results have been interpreted cautiously due to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the limitations of such testing.

1250 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1a. Do learners use the targeted lingu /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- istic items subsequent to the FFEs? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: 2b. If so, how accurately do they use the linguistic items? /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2. M /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ETHOD

1251 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- focused activities were defined as those in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- which the primary goal of the activity was to exchange information, rather than to learn about /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: or practice specific linguistic forms (Pica, Kanagy, & Falodun 1993). The activities observed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- included two information and opinion gap tasks, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a picture narration/drawing task and a

1252 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- corrective feedback, FFEs, consisting of ‘the discourse from the point /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- where the attention to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic form starts to the poin /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- t where it ends, due to a change in topic back to message or /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sometimes another focus on form’ (Ellis et al., 2001: 294), were transcribed. In episode 843,

1253 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- After the FFEs were identified, they were analysed to identify a) the learner who /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- instigated that FFE and b) the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: specific linguistic structure ta /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rgeted in the FFE. After this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- identification process, the transcripts were loaded into

1254 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Raw frequencies and percentages were calculated /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: for the number of targeted linguistic items /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- used subsequent to the FFEs. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In addition, a percentage accuracy score was calculated using

1255 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3. R /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ESULTS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Table 1 shows that learners used the targeted linguistic forms after the FFEs an average of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- almost 20%, with some variation among the three classes. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Class Not used

1256 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- was almost 75%, again with variation among the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- three classes. The minimum score of zero, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: however, shows that some linguistic items were not used accurately at all following the FFE. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Class Mean Sd median minimum Maximum /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- MS 72.9 43.6 100 0 100

1257 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 4. D /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ISCUSSION /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The answer to the first research questions is that there was some use of the targeted linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- structure subsequent to the FFEs, at 20% (n = 24). Although this figure is not particularly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- high, it is higher than the 10% found in Williams (2001). However, even when the targeted

1258 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 39-52. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Long, M. 1996. "The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition". /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Handbook of second language acquisition /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Eds. W. Ritchie and

1259 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysis of levels of competence. Secondly, a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- fourth mid-term measurement will allow a better assessment of the stay abroad. Thirdly, the identification of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: variables making for successful stays will be identified by analyzing initial levels of linguistic competence, degrees /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of contact with native speakers and learners' attitudes. Fi /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- nally, an analysis of the differences between the uses and

1260 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- perception research with adults. En W. Strange (ed.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Speech Perception and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Timonium, MD: York /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Press. 207-232.

1261 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ning: theory, findings and problems. En W. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Strange (ed.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Methodological Issues. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Timonium, MD: York Press. 229-273.

1262 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Washington, DC: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Center for Applied Linguistics. 1-26. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Long, M. H. 1996. The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. En /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (eds.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Handbook of language acquisition.

1263 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cambridge: CUP. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Pérez-Vidal, C. & Juan-Garau, M. 2004. The linguistic interest of mobility on the griten /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- production of advanced Catalan/Spanish bilingual learners of English as an L3. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- EUROSLA, San Sebastián.

1264 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Identidad, idiomas, cultura, literatura e historia del arte /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Acquiring linguistic and communicative competence in a foreign language may not be enough. Fully effective /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communication requires a deep knowledge of the peculiarities of the culture behind that language. In this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sense, both literature and art history may be used to analyse certain cultural constructions and reflect on the

1265 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Awareness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 14, 1. 21-38. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Long, M. H. 1996. “The role of the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- environment in second language acquisition”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Eds. W. Richie & T. Bhatia.

1266 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- highlighted the Introduction and Discussion as bei /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ng the most difficult parts of the text to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: write: it was evident that the need to argue convincingly stretched their linguistic resources to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the limit. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- It was notable that none of the scientists

1267 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and that papers of considerable scientific /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interest may fail to reach public /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ation because they do not meet the linguistic requirements set /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- by journals. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Textbooks on writing scientific research articles, such as Pechenik (1993) and Zeiger

1268 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- English-speaking world is still placed at a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- genuine disadvantage /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: for linguistic reasons. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Scientific institutions need to provide adequate training in the writing of research papers in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- English, aimed at doctoral students and pract

1269 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ed. Johns, A. M. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 43-69. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Flowerdew, J. 2002. "Genre in the cl /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: assroom: a linguistic approach". /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Genre in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Classroom.

1270 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- students production and perception skills. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 5. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Promote cross-linguistic contrast awareness of both segmental and suprasegmental /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- units. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 6.

1271 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- dimensions. Manipulating Task Complexity along the first /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: group of task variables directs attention to a wide range of functional and linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- requirements. Increasing complexity along /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- resource-dispersing dimensions reduces

1272 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- follows that pre-task planning does not greatly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- assist formulation, especially of grammatical /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: morphology. Thus, the linguistic correlate of effort /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- put into conceptualizing what to say is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- enhanced complexity and fluency rather than accuracy.”

1273 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- didactic materials. Secondly, the materials available were analysed (both in paper and on line) through /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a checklist that takes into account several factors (date of publication, the level of competence they aim /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: to, the type of linguistic skills they pay attention to, etc.). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Finally, the results obtained from this checklist were examined. We can conclude that there are no /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- materials addressed exclusively to ERASMUS students.

1274 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- develop a comprehensive approach /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- to language teaching. In this respect, literature can serve as a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: vehicle for practising strategies which will help students to broaden not only their linguistic competence /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- but also their world view within learner-centred or whole-language approaches. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: cultural competence, affective factor, holistic learning, linguistic skills, cognitive and meta-cognitive /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- skills /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1275 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communication. This will allow /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- even lower level students such as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: A1 and A2 to perform communicative functions despite their non-fully developed linguistic competence. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Common European Framework, “can do statements”, schemata.

1276 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- RAMEWORK /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As mentioned in the Introduction, knowing a language does not exclusively involve knowing /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: its linguistic complexities but being able to use it for communication. This communication /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- implies a particular context and other speakers with whom we interact together with certain /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: extra-linguistic rules and principles. This knowledge is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- also known as pragmatic competence. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As the CEF illustrates (13): /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Pragmatic competences are concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (production of language functions, speech acts, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- etc), drawing on scenarios or scripts of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interactional exchanges. It also concerns the mastery of discourse, cohesion and coherence, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the identification of text types and forms, irony and parody. For this component even more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: than the linguistic component, it is hardly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- necessary to stress the major impact of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interactions and cultural environments in which such abilities are constructed.

1277 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Learners can exploit their knowledge of the worl /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- d in order to predict the development of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: interaction and use their linguistic knowledge accordingly. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- D

1278 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Formulated in CEF terms: “I can understand simple directions relating to how to get from X /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- to Y, on foot or by public transport”. (CEF, 233) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The logical learning process would involve being presented with the input –in linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terms, this would obviously involv /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e some features such as prepositions. If we had time, it /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- would be quite interesting to draw the learners’ attention to the schemata similarities between /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: L1 and L2 and we could try to elicit some possible linguistic realizat /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ions of these micro- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- functions. For example, the typical schemata for asking for/giving directions could be

1279 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 6. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Thank the interlocutor. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Students could then try to provide some possible linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- realizations for these micro- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- functions and receive the input

1280 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- prepositions but they do not even /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- know how to ask for directions, the first obvious step in this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: interaction. Linguistic competences are clearly more important than functional ones. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Pre-intermediate Headway /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Directions are part of the section called Everyday English, which implies it is something /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- useful and practical learners will be able to actually use if /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- they ever visit the L2 country. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The linguistic input is again limited to prepositions, although in this case it is more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- complete and not merely receptive, since students /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- have to actually look at a map and try to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- find the places according to the given descriptions. This exercise is followed by a very /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- controlled practice focused on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: use of prepositions (linguistic competence) more than on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communication. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The second exercise rightly extends to the use of common verbs

1281 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- function. Still, the input is mainly based on the presentation of prepositions. However, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- approach is quite diffe /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: rent and mainly linguistic. Learners are not presente /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- d with a map but /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- with quite a complex invitation. There is no prev

1282 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- context and relation between in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terlocutors: “Is the person giving directions helpful?”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The “useful language” box at the bottom focuses on a couple of linguistic realizations /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of micro-functions both on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- part of the person who asks

1283 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e include a previous eliciting on the learne /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rs’ part of these /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: basic steps and their possible linguistic realization, which they could later compare with the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: offered input. Finally, learners should be encouraged to practise their new linguistic tools in a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- suitable context. Given the fact that the context is the classroom for most of them, an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- appropriate practice could include role-playing.

1284 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- om the prototypical schemata, the established /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- above are clearly stated together with some /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: typical linguistic realizations of these micro- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: functions. Quite shockingly, however, the practice is purely linguistic focused on the use of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the modal /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- may

1285 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- s has shown us the change /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of approach towards actual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: communication instead of mere linguistic knowledge. In this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- respect, it is undeniable the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- influence of the Common European Framework and its emphasis

1286 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- perform different and real activities after a relatively short tim /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e. On the contrary, a more /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic approach such as th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e one prevalent in previous decades establishes communication /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as a final goal and the learning process is therefore much longer and less productive, thus

1287 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- indicating that these individuals /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- can successfully learn a language with adequate changes in pedagogy /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and pacing, thus having a rich linguistic and cultural experience. Therefore, a first-year Spanish course /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- was developed combining instructional approaches and materials that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- would allow students to complete

1288 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 25/11/2005] /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Carter, R. 1987. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Vocabulary: An Applied Linguistic Perspective /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Londres: Allen and Unwin. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Clarke, M. A. 1980. “The short-circuit hypothesis of ESL

1289 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Amsterdam: Benjamins. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Pawley A. y F.H. Syder 1983. “Two Puzzles fo /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: r Linguistic Theory: Nativelike Selection and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Nativelike Fluency”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language and Communication

1290 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ija University in Madrid and the University of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) in the United States during the first semester of the academic year 2004- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: 05. Students worked with a partner, exchanging personal, linguistic and sociocultural information and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- corrections about each other’s language (English and Spanish). The project generated a wealth of data /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- which raised some interesting points regarding th

1291 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Century /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. C. Handa. Portsmouth, NH: Bonyton/Cook Publishers. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Belz, J.A. 2003. “Linguistic perspectives on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- development of intercultural competence in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- telecollaboration”,

1292 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- : 847-873. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Davis, B. H. y J.P. Brewer. 1997. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Electronic discourse: linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- individuals in virtual space /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- .

1293 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- being satisfactory. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Immigrant students, linguistic competence, multilingualism. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I

1294 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- tion comprises for the development of an adequate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- teaching process. This paper analyses the opinions of 9 state secondary school teachers in Vitoria- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Gasteiz, taken from a 40-item questionnaire, about the linguistic competence and attitudes of immigrant /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- students towards the three compulsory languages in the curriculum (Spanish, Basque and English). The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysis of the results provides information that will allow us to look in a more accurate way at the

1295 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Immigrant students, multilingualism, teacher’s pe /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: rceptions, linguistic co /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mpetence, attitudes. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1296 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Spanish and English, but a remarkable difference between both groups with regard to Catalan. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Immigrant students, linguistic competence, multilingualism. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I

1297 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In this work we present and discuss the special uses /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of gerund in Ecuadorian speech, its origins, and ,its /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: frequency of use. To do so, we have used the linguistic interviews made for th /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: e Ecuadorian Linguistic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ethnographic Atlas and we have made additional surveys, that allow us to evaluate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- up to what point these

1298 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Madrid, Gredos. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Labov, W. 1994. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Principles of Linguistic Change /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Cambridge, Blackwell, 2 vols. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Lipski, John M. 2004.

1299 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Piqué-Angordans J., S. Posteguillo, and J. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- V. Andreu-Besó. 2002. “Epistemic and deontic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: modality: A linguistic indicator of disciplinary variation in academic English”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- LSP /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and Professional Communication

1300 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ional diagnosis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- task model. Here the student’s command of English is evaluated by interpreting his performance on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: specific linguistic units in terms of three related crite /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ria, rather than by a general ranking of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- competence. These criteria have /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- been influenced by and adapted from The Common European

1301 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cate across languages, educational sectors and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- national boundaries’ (North, 2004). In accordance with the functional paradigm, a crucial /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: aspect of the CEF is its description of linguistic competence in terms of the so-called ‘can-do /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- statements’, or simply ‘can-do’s’. There are /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- about four hundred statements, subdivided into

1302 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- factor for students. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- However, while it is relatively easy to organize /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: students into n stages of linguistic knowledge, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the reality is that the subset of the foreign language known by students that have been /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- assigned a given stage can vary

1303 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- up to a higher stage is typically based /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- upon some sort of average mark made up from the results of test questions which measure a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: few linguistic skills. This practice inevitably leads to ‘holes’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in the students’ knowledge. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the author’s experience, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a more useful approach for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- classification of student knowledge /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and progress relates three dimensions, rather than the general notion of ‘degree of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: competence’. These interaction dimensions are: ‘linguistic level’, ‘ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge stage’ and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ‘genre’. Linguistic level corresponds approximately to the generally accepted distinction /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (with some variance) amongst linguists regard /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ing the structural composition of language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (lexicon, grammar, discourse). Knowledge stage is the term used to classify the students’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic knowledge; the difference lies in the scope of application, because its application is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- far more fine-grained on conceptual units, as explained below. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3.

1304 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ENGUA PARA FINES ESPECÍFICOS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 823 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: learns, in due course, the linguistic peculiarities attached to the different genres which /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- compose the domain, since language varies considerably from one genre to another, and one /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the didactic premises in I-PETER II is to en /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sure that the student’s knowledge is balanced /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: among the different linguistic levels. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The concept of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- genre

1305 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Figure 1 shows an example of the interface for two exercises within the A1 & A2 levels, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- where the student has to check /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: his linguistic competence about /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- indefinite articles and verb /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conjugation of the verb to be. Once he finishes the exercises, he can either pass on to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- completion of other exercises within the same level or get into another level (lexical or /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- textual) if he feels satisfied with what he has accomplished at the grammatical level in that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: particular unit. At every step of his performance he can check his particular linguistic level, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as well as the state of his /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge stages (Figure 2).

1306 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 826 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Figure 2: Interface showing a particular student’s state with respect to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic level /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge stage

1307 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- both to redefine and refine the classic monolithic concept of ‘level of command’ of a foreign /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language, showing the strong connections between them. Being a document originally /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: conceived for general language, the CEF’s linguistic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pedagogic philosophy and its /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- versatility have made it possible for the authors of this paper to

1308 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphors are used as lexical mechanisms to create /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a scientific terminology in different fields. This /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: paper explains some characteristics of metaphor as a linguistic expression, which helps to create a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terminology, and as a mental device. Both aspects of technical metaphors are interrelated and have to be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- studied together.

1309 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , presents some advances in the knowledge /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the linguistics aspects of specialized discourse in relation to general or common discourse. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Although aforementioned linguistic aspects have been broadly studied (Kocourek, Hoffmann, Lerat, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- among others), this paper brings an approach from corpus linguistics. Results confirm or refute former /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- studies, and allow new relevant features to appear. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In our opinion, this study and its results seem to be the way that will take us, on one hand, to a deeper /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and more rounded account of specialized discourse by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: investigating the causes of the linguistic features /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- obtained, and on the other hand, to the production of tools for semiautomatic identification of specialized /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discourses. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Terminology, specialized discourse, linguistic features, corpus linguistics. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 852

1310 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Sweetser, E. 1984. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Semantic Structure and Semantic C /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: hange: A Cognitive Linguistic Study of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Modality, Perception, Speech Acts and Togical Relations /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ph. D. Berkeley. University

1311 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- compartmentalise them, is shown by the fact that within each media form (radio, newspapers, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- television, film, etc.), there are many genres, each with its own /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic peculiarities. If the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language of television is a genre, being distinguished from that of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- film and radio, although

1312 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- only some items trickle down to PC users. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- More relevant for the media /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: student, and more necessary to master, are the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features of media jargons, such as “journalese” and “headlinese”, explained in Keeble (1998), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- which are made understandable to the public, with variations, in both print media

1313 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- toward the world dimension of communication and this is shown in the different communicative /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- styles with which people all over the world speak English. These differences are usually the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: result of hidden, intangible linguistic transferences that occur at the pragmatic level of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language use. In this discussion we would like to focus on the rather awkward notion /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communicative style

1314 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- politeness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and the different ways in which /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: it is encapsulated in linguistic systems. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Global communication, global village, cultural diversity, communicative styles, Business

1315 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communicative styles with which people all over the world speak English. These differences /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- are usually the result of hidden, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: intangible linguistic transferences that occur at the pragmatic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- level of language use. In this discussion we would like to focus on the rather awkward notion /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communicative style

1316 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- kinship system, social organisation, norms of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- politeness and behaviour, etc. are embedded in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the linguistic system. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- To understand the set of connections linking /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language and anthropological culture, we

1317 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- behaviour and politeness rules. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Finally, Level 4 is the level of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic expression /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of culture-specific behavioural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- norms. Language might be considered to be, us

1318 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interaction. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Foreign language teaching has long been fo /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: cused on explaining the linguistic system /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Level 4), isolating language from the network of interlinked bio-so /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cial, philosophical and

1319 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- an involvement-oriented culture highlights the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- person’s right and need to be considered a supporting member of society. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Politeness norms are embodied differently in linguistic systems (Level 4). Two /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- examples of Business correspondence in Englis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- h between native and non-native speakers and

1320 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ad hoc /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- formulation vs. verbal routines. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: As shown in example 2, German communicative style is reflected in the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- form: (a) directness: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- You talk rather vaguely about

1321 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- schools, most people seem to be unaware of the existence of cultural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- divergence in the way /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: English is used in the global village, when they rather unconsciously make linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- transferences at the pragmatic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- level of language use from their mother tongue to the second

1322 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- yles through the sets of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- connections interlinking the above-mentioned universal levels and consider how they are /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: culturally negotiated and reflected in different linguistic systems. Special attention should be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- paid to discourse behaviour, in general, and po /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- liteness, in particular, in relation to cultural

1323 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- are indescribable for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- many Business people. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Needless to say, a suitable linguistic approach together with an appropriate teaching /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- methodology that emphasizes the pragmatic level of language use are needed to train /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Business English students in the way people us

1324 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Since genres are situated in communicative practices, getting familiar with the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discursive practices of a community involves not only knowledge of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the linguistic features of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- specific genres but also an understanding of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- social context where they

1325 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- purposes, which are achieved thr /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ough a particular use of language (Swales 1990). The texts /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: belonging to a specific genre conform to certain conventions (regarding linguistic forms, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- organization, and content) the student must be aware of and comply to when using them. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Therefore, most genre-based ESP teaching has focused on the teaching of generic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conventions. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The genre-based approach to teaching ESP /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: is grounded in a linguistic view of genre /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Flowerdew 2002), one that applies theories /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of functional grammar and discourse and

1326 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- models of genres, such as the sales promotion letter, to identify the language strategies and to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- help students construct them. The purpose is not /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: only to make students aware of the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- features of the genre, but also /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- to offer genre-specific explanations of why these features are

1327 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- university context. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. Genres are responses to rhetorical situations: they are embedded in social contexts and, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: therefore, the linguistic features of the genre /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- are inseparable from the social context where it /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is used. Producing and processing genres requires getting familiar with the features of the

1328 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metaphor and metonymy in technical contexts in order to achieve a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- more effective use of language. Thus, since metaphor and metonymy play a remarkable role /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: as linguistic and communicative discourse devices within engineering areas, some /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- “theoretical” and more “practical” pedagogical implications /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- can be considered along the

1329 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conceptual organization, image schema struct /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ure, social stereotype, iconicity, gesture, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic relativism, and so forth. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In the 1970s some psychologists focused /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- their study on making a

1330 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ENGUA PARA FINES ESPECÍFICOS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 955 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: pre-linguistic and make basic assumptions regarding space, time, movement, counting, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- controlling, and other important el /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ements of human experience.

1331 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- languages, English and Spanish. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Due to the fact that students’ profile and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic domain is not very different among /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the engineerings mentioned above, and considering /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the time factor in an E.S.P. course design,

1332 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- boundaries, creating a team /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- identity and fostering communication between members on a project. But, on the other hand, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the use of these linguistic devices can also be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- created to broaden technical language to a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- wider audience, being chosen terms or expressions drawn from the everyday language to

1333 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metalinguistic role of I-PETER II, that is, its capacity to make the learner aware of the existence of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- multiple varieties within English, and furthermore, within English for work, according to geographical /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: area and (sub-) domain, and the most characteristic features of such varieties at all linguistic levels /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (pronunciation / spelling, vocabulary, grammar, discourse). This paper specifically describes the types of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- peculiarities present in the English spoken in Singapore, known as Singlish, that are considered

1334 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- E /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- NGLISH /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Despite its size, Singapore has considerable linguistic wealth. Due to its geographical /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- location, the languages spoken are mainly those of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- its neighbouring countries. Thus, 76.7% of

1335 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , and divergences from standard /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- English can be observed nowadays at all /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic levels: pronunciation, spelling, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- vocabulary, grammar, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and discourse.

1336 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in the world of inte /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rnational business and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: work relations, and showed the types of linguistic features that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- are relevant for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the learner to

1337 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pattern of textual organization /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- has proved to be particularly useful for teaching. The PS pattern has been described as one of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the possible linguistic realizations of reader-writer /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interaction (Hoey 2001) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and, while it is

1338 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sequence when writing; to our /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge, writing textbooks do not usually explai /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: n whether there exist different linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- realizations of such a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sequence or not, whether different re

1339 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Clause Relational Analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of Problem-Solution Texts”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Studying writing: linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- approaches. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1340 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- profesional /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: This paper focuses on the linguistic descriptors related to the categories and the skills proposed by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Academic and Professional English Portfolio, which is being developed by the Research Group /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- DYSCIT within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- assessment. After a brief explanation of the criteria followed to formulate the proficiency scales to assess /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the learners’ linguistic competence within the frame proposed by the Council of Europe, it shows the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- contribution of the Portfolio to the categories and communicative skills, particularly focussed on ESP /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: learning. The aim of these linguistic descriptors, for which the concept of genre (Swales 1990; Bhatia /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1993) is especially relevant, is to establish the basis of conscious and reflexive learning. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic descriptors, linguistic categories and skills, academic and professional portfolio /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I

1341 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- planning, reflecting upon and assessing his or her learning process and progress; it /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- encourages the learner to state what he/she can do in each language and to include /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: information on linguistic and cultural experiences gained in and outside formal educational /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- contexts. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The Dossier: This part includes the student's se

1342 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- University of Dublin, University /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of Fribourg, Moscow /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: State Linguistic University, University /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of Ljubljana and the University of Calabria, with a total of 1004 students were exposed to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ELP. However the results the surveys with students, and teachers are very revealing.

1343 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- full report is available at /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- www.unifr.ch/ids/Portfolio. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The Moscow State Linguistic University /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- developed an ELP model for philologists /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- including descriptors specific for translators,

1344 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and politics were also included. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The results from the pilot project were that the ELP helped /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: students mobilise their linguistic knowledge, bringing about a sharper awareness of their /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- personal identity as language learners. An increase in responsible participation in the learning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- process and in perception of language learning as a self-planned, individual process was

1345 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the Root Infinitive stage across languages. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cahiers Linguistiques d’Ottawa. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Rizzi, L. 1993/1994. Some notes on linguistic theory and language development: The case of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- root infinitives. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language Acquisition

1346 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This study analyze the nature of different types of Spanish orthography digraph (CH, LL, QU, GU y RR) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and the influence of their linguistic structure on spelling acquisition, along first to fourth grade of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Primary school. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- A dictation task including both words and pseudowords with the different types of digraph was carried

1347 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- can walk are easily to sell”. By relating /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the two psycholinguistic processes underlying /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: L1 and L2 acquisition we will be able to account for these similar results. In our linguistic account we /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- will support the hypothesis that bound pronouns are elsewhere elements (Hornstein, 2001). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS

1348 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Second language acquisiti /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: on and linguistic lheory /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Oxford: Blackwell /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Publishers.

1349 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SUMMARY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a linguistic deficit that affects the normal development of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language, to the understanding as well as to the ex /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- pression, being the cognitive yield superior to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic one. The goal of this work is to study the understanding and the expression of children with /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SLI. We study 16 children, eight w /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ith SLI and eight that follow the st

1350 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- onal projections (Morphological /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Bootstrapping). This hypothesis has been proposed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: to explain cross-linguistic variation in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- acquisition of language-specific structures. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Both Spanish and French show concord (underlined) between the noun and adjective

1351 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ages in acquisition, too /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- few of these word combinations are produced in order to assess 1) productivity and 2) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: erroneous use in either linguistic group. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Another question addressed here is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- whether spontaneous speech corpora are /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: representative of linguistic abilities. A number of authors have claimed that concord is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- acquired at very young ages, however, most /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- present evidence only for determiners and

1352 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Because complex DPs are rare in French and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Spanish spontaneous speech corpora of child /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: language, we verified linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ability to produce these forms using elicitation tasks in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- form of puzzles. The puzzles were constructed to oblige the participants to specify colour or

1353 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- while comparisons with /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- vert /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ‘green’ (68.75%) were not significant. Both linguistic groups /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- exhibited emerging ability to produce colour adjectives, at age 29 months in Spanish and 26 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- months in French participants.

1354 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discontinuity was observed between ability to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- produce less and more complex structures in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: some of the French-speaking children. Their linguistic behaviour was thus /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- more variable than /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that of Spanish-speaking children.

1355 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 419–21. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Bruck, M., Genesee, F., & Caravolas, M. 1997. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: A cross-linguistic study of early literacy /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- acquisition. En B. A. Blachman (Ed.), /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Foundations of reading acquisition and

1356 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Chafouleas, S. M., Vanauken, T. L. & Dunha /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- m, K. 2001. “Not all phonemes are created /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: equal: The effect of linguistic manipulations on phonological awareness tasks”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 19: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 216-226.

1357 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SUMMARY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This research investigates Spanish dyslexic spelling abilities, especially referring to consonant cluster /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: spelling. The main aim is to study the influence of this type of linguistic structure on children spelling /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- performance, taking into account that consonant cluster spelling requires adequate phonological /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- decoding abilities, in which dyslexic

1358 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Approches de la langue parlée en français /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Paris: Ophrys. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Chafe, W. L. 1985. Linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- differences produced by differences between speaking and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- writing.

1359 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- We compare context-determined and age-dependent patterns of use of the historical languages in six /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: autonomous communities with linguistic normalization. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- We analyze usage survey data, furnished by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- statistical bureaus of the autonomous communities to infer the magnitude and direction of the underlying

1360 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEYWORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- P /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: atterns of use, linguistic normalization, Catalan, Galician, Basque, usage survey, age groups /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I

1361 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- essional is how and in what sense a speaker from a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- specific group uses language in a specific communicative situation. For speakers communicate through a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: specific linguistic variety and in accordance with specific cultural norms. In other words, the meaning of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a speaker’s utterances is not only the result of their communicative intention but also of social and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cultural codes. These three factors, at least, contri

1362 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Translation, linguistic variation, literacy and orality, language and culture, Public Services, migration, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cognitivism and pragmatics. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA

1363 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- tal map” rather broaldly here to address socio- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- cognitive configurations motivated by spatio-temporal imagery and constructed by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: corresponding linguistic tokens. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Dickel Dunn 2005: 210-211) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- En este sentido los mayores casos de variación y variabilidad léxico-semántico-pragmática se

1364 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This article is based on a research about the lexical availability in L1 and L2 of 180 students who take /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- part in the Programme of Spanish Bilingual Sections in High Schools of Poland. It analyses the range of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: comparisons of this research, according to the following scheme: Given two linguistic communities A y /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: B, and having linguistic competence in its own language A (L1) and linguistic competence –usually /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learned – in the language B (L2), the comparative levels are: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a)

1365 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Association. New York: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Macmillan. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Hornberger, N. 1995 “Ethnography in Linguistic Perspective: Understanding school /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- processes”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language and Education

1366 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- México: INAH. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Duranti, Alessandro. 1997. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Anthropology. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hill, Jane y Kenneth. 1999. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Hablando mexicano, la dinámica de una lengua sincrética en el

1367 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Primer Simposio sobre Lengua en la Sociedad. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Austin. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Texas: Texas Linguistic Forum 33. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Panel 06 - PRAGMÁTICA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- COMUNICACIONES

1368 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the sixteenth century. For this purpose, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- dramatic works of John Lyly were used since, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: from a linguistic point of view, they are a great /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- source of information: they are dialogues /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and hence, they present a high degree of

1369 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- quantitative analysis of the texts that allowe /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- d me to provide statistical evidence for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: different linguistic forms; then, the qualitative approach allowed me to centre the analysis on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: extra linguistic factors, as the socio-cultural cont /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ext, pragmatic factors, cognitive features etc. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- First of all, it will be necessary to explain the theoretical approach I have used.

1370 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- or to the audience, or both, and it /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is substituted for a neutral or euphemistic expression for just that reason.” (1991: 26). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Nevertheless, as Chamizo (2004) points out, words and linguistic expressions can be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- both used and understood /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as either euphemisms

1371 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Strengthening: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- this mental operation can be defined as an increase or augmentation in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the scalar magnitude of a linguistic utterance or word. In order to exemplify this, think of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This suitcase weighs tons, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in which the speaker has intentionally increased the weight of

1372 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Mitigation /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- : we can describe this cognitive process as a decrease or a diminution in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: scalar magnitude of a linguistic utterance or /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- word. We can illustrate this point by means /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the following examples: first, imagine that someone cuts his knee in a fall but, even

1373 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As regards euphemism, the speaker performs /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the converse operation, i.e. he mitigates /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and reduces the emotional and affective load of the neutral linguistic expression. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Source /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Target

1374 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that are otherwise undefined to a greater or lesser extent, cf. Ruiz de Mendoza, 2005) on the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- part of both speaker and hearer that allows them to fix the valu /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: es of the linguistic expression /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- for its correct encoding and interpretation respectively, and in accordance with the context of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- situation. Also, a “retrieval of contextual effects” operation takes place /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in order to lead the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: hearer to derive some additional meanings conveyed by the linguistic utterance (e.g. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- My /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- uncle is growing daisies

1375 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- operations of parametrisation and retrieval of contextual effects /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- also perform a key role in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: generation of these linguistic processes. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- N /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- OTES

1376 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ruiz de Mendoza & Peña (2002: 139): “mental /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mechanism whose purpose is to derive a semantic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: representation out of a linguistic expression (or of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- other symbolic device, such as drawing) in order to make it meaningful in the context in which it is to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- be interpreted.”

1377 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Chicago & London: The University /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of Chicago Press. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez, F. J. 2005. “Linguistic interpretation and cognition.” /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cultural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Matrix Reloaded. Romanian Society for English and American Studies. Seventh

1378 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The present paper investigates the use of first person pronouns as metadiscoursal devices in research /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: article (RA) abstracts. Metadiscourse has been generally defined as the linguistic material used to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- organize discourse and to express interpersonal values. Following Hyland’s approach (2004, 2005), in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the present text, first person pronouns are taken to be ‘self-mentions’ (both first person singular

1379 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- two authors and in the Spanish subcorpus only 4 were co-authored. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Metadiscourse has been generally defined as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the linguistic material used to organize /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discourse and to express interpersonal values. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Several taxonomies of me

1380 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- bond with the peer reader, probably as a positive politeness strategy of in-group claiming. As /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- such, we may wonder whether it is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: a linguistic-cultural feature (Spanish culture is said to be /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- positive-oriented and Anglo-Saxon culture negative-oriented) or whether it obeys to other /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- factors such as the nature of the discipline

1381 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1256 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: and linguistic conditions and the discipline community conditions, which the writer needs to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- attend. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- We believe that further contrastive resear

1382 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Augustin: Asgard Verlag. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Ventola, Eija. 1994. “Abstracts as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: an Object of Linguistic Study”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Writing vs. Speaking: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language, Text, Discourse, Communication.

1383 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and will interact with other assumptions mutually manifest to interlocutors in their cognitive /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- environment. Hence, those metarepresentations feed their inferential processes and yield /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: specific inferences (Unger 2001) about their social relationships and the linguistic behaviour /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- expected from them in particular communicative situations. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In order to illustrate this, consider the cas

1384 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ghts and obligations /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- individuals are expected to conform to in particular communicative situations for their /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic behaviour to be evaluated by others /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as polite or impolite. Therefore, students’ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- selection of a phatic utterance that differs from the type prescribed by the cultural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- metarepresentations of the target sociocultural group may have negative consequences for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: perception of their linguistic behaviour and personality by the individuals of that target group, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- as there may arise /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- sociopragmatic failures

1385 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- contrary, they should focus on them because of the consequences that they may have for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- social interaction and for the interpretation of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: students’ linguistic behaviour. Thus, they will /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- make students aware of how they can transmit /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- information about their social relationships

1386 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- L. Mey. Oxford: Elsevier. 672-673. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Bou Franch, P. and P. Garcés Conejos. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: 2003. “Teaching Linguistic Politeness: A /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Methodological Proposal”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- IRAL

1387 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 14: 219-236. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Fraser, B. and W. Nolen. 1981. “The associa /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: tion of Deference with Linguistic Form”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- International Journal of the Sociology of Language /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 27: 93-109.

1388 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Harris and M. R. Key. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The Hague: Mouton. 215-238. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Laver, J. 1981. “Linguistic Routines and Politeness /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in Greeting and Parting”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Conversational

1389 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- derive from the general /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- balance that we find /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: in linguistic communication between explicit and imp /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- licit information. The latter strategies /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA

1390 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- refers to the baby because picking up a bay wh /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- en it cries is conventional behaviour. In the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: absence of other linguistic clues, it is this interpretation /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that would be favoured by the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- addressee.

1391 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- EFERENCES /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Bach, Kent & Harnish, Robert M. 1979. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.

1392 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Mental Models /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Cambridge: Cambrige University Press. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Kay, P. and Fillmore, C. 1999. Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations: The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 'What's X doing Y?' construction. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language

1393 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Philadelphia: Benjamins, 205-219. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Wilson, Deirdre & Sperber, Dan. 1993. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic form and relevance. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Lingua /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1394 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , or as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the result of metallurgic work. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Indeed, rather than being a linguistic ornament metaphor is an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- essential heuristic tool that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- fulfils wine critics’ cognitive

1395 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- nominal groups. Thus, “street-walker”, “whore”, “giant”, “monster”, and “Lolita” above /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- function as epithets characterizing the wines at issue – highlighting their most conspicuous /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: property by fronting it in the linguistic pattern. Furthermore, as happens with figurative nouns /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- with a referential function, the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- expressions also articulate either the initial or the final

1396 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Género, fraseología, análisis del discurso, publicidad, desautomatización. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: We explore the relationship between genre and phraseology, as two linguistic entities whose analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- embodies the consideration of extralinguistic or contextual factors. The proposal for a discourse analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- multidimensional approach made by Bhatia (2004) is the departure point for showing the relative

1397 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of resources, an absence of them or a distortion. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language of Williams syndrome people is the basis of our study. The “preservation” of formal aspects /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: in detriment of socio-communicative and pragmatic ones characterizes, from a linguistic point of view, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- this pathology. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- An extroverted personality together with a great loquacity and fluent and social language describes the

1398 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- it seems a legitimate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- project to investigate the discursive articulation of the ‘new man’ in problem columns, a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: genre of strictly linguistic nature within /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- men’s magazines, so far unattended by cultural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysts more concerned about visual

1399 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Intertextual positioning, or his/her evaluative position towards the representation of the views and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- statements of other speakers/writers. The paper presents the analysis of a case study, which focuses on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: the various linguistic resources for the expression of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Engagement in Tony Blair's statement opening the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Parliamentary debate on Iraq (18 March 2003).

1400 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- NTRODUCTION /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The aim of this article is to analyse the expression of Engagement in political discourse by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: making visible the presence and patterning of those linguistic resources whereby the speaker /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- evaluates potential communicative interactions or information attributed to other speakers. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Such a view of Engagement is inscribed within the theoretical framework of Appraisal

1401 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- political discourse. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Focusing on the expression of Engagement, we address the following objectives: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: (i) To identify the various linguistic resour /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ces for the expression of Engagement in Tony /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Blair's statement opening the Parliamentar

1402 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 5. C /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ONCLUSIONS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: This paper has explored the presence and patterning of linguistic resour /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ces for the expression /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of Engagement in Tony Blair's statement openi

1403 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- likowski, 1992). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Register variables (Halliday, Martin, 2001) w /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ill also be thoroughly studied. The linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- implications of which will show the characteristics of weblogs with regards to vocabulary, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- syntactic structures and th

1404 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (1978) define register as an instance of language in action which can be described in terms of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- phonological, lexical and indexical markers (peculiar to a text) and common-core features /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: (shared by texts). Martin (2001: 46) gives this definition: “register is a pattern of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- choices, and genre a pattern of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- register choices (i.e. a pattern of a pattern of texture)”.

1405 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- must be taken into account: power and contact /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relationships and affective involvement. The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic variations derived from these continua represent the distinction between formal and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- informal language (Eggins, 1994: 63-67; Albentosa y Moya, 2001: 25-26). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Mode is the role language is playing in

1406 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- evaluative, emotional and critical expressions. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The use of imperatives and the demand of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: readers’ opinion are also linguistic implications of tenor. In relation to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mode, standard syntax /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and the predominance of coordinators are the distinctive features.

1407 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- away from an isolated sociological approach /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and have added detailed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: analysis of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- interaction in talk shows /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Hutchby, 2001; Gregori Signes, 2002; and Lorenzo Dus, 2003;

1408 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- conflict. Brown and Levinson (1987) do not specify how positive and negative face function /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in relation to one another during interaction. In contrast to their attempt to examine the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic means by which individuals negotiate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- both their positive and negative face, I /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- suggest that these concepts function interactively to define relational conditions in a verbal

1409 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- argue that British guests delineate their face want both as a social and discursive project. In /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- this light, the notion of FACE entails the appropriate assessment of the above mentioned /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: sociological variables so the speaker can manage the necessary linguistic strategies in this /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- specific discursive practice. Interestingly, British face management appears to walk hand in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- hand with emotion suppression; that is, British

1410 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- at Cardiff University. The project paid attention to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- impact of various social agencies on contem /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: porary linguistic and communicative practices – /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- transnational cultural industries such as tourism and advertising being two of them. This /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ongoing research is

1411 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- anchored their study within “the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- constructionist view of discourse, i.e., assuming that in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic representation of people, places and ev /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ents, discursive choices not only describe the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- reality but also construct its

1412 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The examples discussed so far pivot on some crucial aspects dominating the English /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- promotional discourses of Spanish cultural tourism. In the first place, they are all targeted to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: foreign consumers, and they make use of English, which has, indeed, become the linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- vehicle for international promotion. From a cultural perspective, they also point to the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- promotions’ tendency to use stereotyped representations. This set of easily recognisable

1413 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Granada: Comares. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Garside, R.; Leech G. and McEnery A. (Eds.) 1997. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Corpus Annotation: Linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Information from Computer Text Corpora /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . London: Longman.

1414 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in the Development of Cast3LB. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The Second /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Växjö, Sweden. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Dickinson, M. 2005.

1415 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- enrichment of the corpus through annotation, and the extraction of terminology from the corpus. The /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- treatment of corpora with computer tools for the extraction of the terminology at different textual levels /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: provides linguistic evidence that, depending on the aims of the researcher, may be of greater or lesser /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relevance for the investigator. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS

1416 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and, more recently, to connectives or discourse mar /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- kers at the textual level. However, contrast relations /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: (CRs) are also expressed by other linguistic devices. We present a study on the linguistic mechanisms /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- used to express such relations in academic English. A distinction is drawn between devices of a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- connective type and other devices. Both

1417 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a description of contra /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- st as a discourse relation requires /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: considering as well other linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- devices, since connectives and DMs may be implicit. How is contrastive meaning conveyed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: or interpreted in such cases? These linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- means to express contrast have barely received /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- any attention in the literature on contrast

1418 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- “discourse connectors” (Blakemore 1987) and “discourse markers” (Schiffrin 1987). /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Connectives link text spans, marking relations between them. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Our study investigates the linguistic mechanisms expressing CRs in the academic genre /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of the research article. We aim at obtaining an overview of the whole range of means used to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- convey contrastive meaning in

1419 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- HE STUDY /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 252 CRs were identified in the corpus (1/91,54 words). Connectives are clearly the most /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: widely used linguistic signal for a CR (72%): less than a third of CRs (28%) are expressed by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- P /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ANEL

1420 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- INGÜÍSTICA DEL CORPUS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1457 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: other means. It seems that connectives are, as we expected, the preferred linguistic device to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- codify a CR in the genre studied. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1421 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- been identified. The corpus-based perspectiv /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e has provided the study with an overall /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: perspective of what linguistic resources are considered to express contrast in the literature /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and to what extent and how these are used in actual texts. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Contrast involves elements of a different

1422 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- context”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Text Representation: Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Eds. T. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Sanders, J. Schilperoord and W. Spooren. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John

1423 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- idiomatic) is assumed to reflect the output of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: entirely different linguistic processes /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1424 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- reflect different types of meaning accessed by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: a single linguistic process /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . [54 Art. A] /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 7. There have been many proposals offered in cognitive science in response to this question (see

1425 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language, which because of the very large amount of data involved cannot be studied directly /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- by human observations. In language study the samp /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: ling of linguistic data is indispensable. [...] /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language study must be based on sampling. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Para conseguir un estudio fiable de ciertas características lingüísticas Huizhong ya proponía

1426 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Carter, R. 1998. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Linguistic Choice across Genres: Variation in Spoken and Written English /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

1427 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- characteristics, it has become a useful tool in academic institutions to evaluate students’ writings. In the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Investigation Department of Desarrollo Humano e Inteligencia Artificial, we have developed a /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: knowledge representation tool to analyse linguistic corpora based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LEXESP /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and others). For developing a Natural Language Processing System, we created a lexico-conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- knowledge base. To generate this base of knowledge in a semi-automatic fashion we used a three-

1428 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Automatic summarization is a complex subject which is being worked on from different perspectives. Our /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: work aims at getting a valid linguistic model of automatic summarization and, for that, we integrate /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- several perspectives: textual, lexical, discursive, syntactic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- communicative. These articles are

1429 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- annotated syntactically and semantically. Said corpus has been developed within the framework of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- SenSem project. Our objective is twofold: first, we would like to present the potentialities of the tool, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: focusing on the different search possibilities that it allows and that reflect the linguistic information that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- has been considered and annotated in the corpus. Secondly, we want to explore the kind of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- generalizations that can be inferred by means of the acquisition of subcategorization patterns.

1430 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In this paper we will focus on the collocational patterns /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of a group of verbs which /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: share semantic and syntactic characteristics. Following the linguistic approach which /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- integrates syntax and semantics and groups verbs /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: which have similar linguistic properties into /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- lexical sets (Levin 1993, Verdaguer and Poch /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2003), we have selected a group of reporting

1431 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Oakey, D. 2002. “Formulaic language in English Academic Writing”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Using Corpora to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Explore Linguistic Variation /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Eds. R. Reppen /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- et al.

1432 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- This paper argues that, although corpus linguistics is not a theory of language, there are aspects of its /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: techniques that are providing linguistic evidence that may need new parameters to account for the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- empirical data. Large corpora provide significant quantities of textual data. Corpora are textual data /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- banks, which can be used in the scientific study of natural phenomena, phenomena ranging from natural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: human language to natural genetic language. Corpus linguistic techniques are applicable to all kinds of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- tasks related to knowledge discovery in texts. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS

1433 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- NTRODUCTION /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Corpus linguistics, an empirical approach to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic description, re /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- lies on the evidence of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language usage as collected and analysed in

1434 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- thing as a theory of language from a corpus linguistics perspective? This paper argues that, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- although corpus linguistics is not a theory of language, there are aspects of its techniques that /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: are providing linguistic evidence that may need new parameters to account for the empirical /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- data. Some of these parameters such as collocation and colligation will be discussed in the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- first part of the paper and are changing our way of conceiving the language.

1435 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- linguistics fuses lexis and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- grammar which opens up a new /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: theoretical perspective on language. The linguistic and statistical analysis of text that we have /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- summarised here is the basis of much work being done on knowledge discovery in text. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 3.

1436 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- T /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- EXTS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: There is, in addition to corpora for linguistic research, a need for consciously created and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- organized collections of data and information that can be used to carry out “knowledge /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- discovery in texts” and to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the tools for these

1437 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- building of formal specialized terminologies /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Specialized terminologies are normally /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: obtained by building a corpus of domain knowledge and then using statistical and linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysis to extract the necessary terms. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- A first analysis has to be done to determine the optimal number of texts in order to

1438 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terms. More sophisticated systems involve the use of computer progr /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ammes to distinguish /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: terms in tagged corpora, based on linguistic attributes such as word forms, parts of speech /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and syntactic structures of possible terms, and the statistical contrast between the frequencies /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of words in general texts and specialised texts (Kageura & Umino, 1996: 259–289).

1439 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- As can be seen from the above description of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the project, the project goes beyond what is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: strictly a linguistic analysis. It is clear that lexical and terminological /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- processes of analysis /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- provide the basis for working towards

1440 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- new theoretical perspective on language. Large co /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- rpora have meant more data, which in turn /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: has meant more linguistic evidence. Theories of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- language (or, for that matter, any theory) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- have no existence beyond the evidence.

1441 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- related to knowledge discovery in text. Specialized terminologies are normally obtained by /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- building a corpus of domain knowledge and then /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: using statistical and linguistic analysis to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- extract the necessary terms. The statistical contrast between the frequencies of words in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- general texts and specialised texts takes a corpus comparison approach and is a useful way of

1442 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Multifunctional ETAP-3 linguistic processor /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- [Traductor /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- automático ruso-inglés disponible:

1443 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- motivated in the assessment of wines. We have /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- also attempted to show the extent to which the wine target domain constrains both the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic realization and role of the metaphor. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Thus, whereas the assessment of white wines /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA

1444 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . This visual distance /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- is to be understood as the separation holding between the speaker and the scene being /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: referred to by a prepositional expression. It is argued that this extra-linguistic notion /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- systematically motivates the semantic structur /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- e of these prepositions in two fundamental

1445 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- any function in the distribution of these prepositions. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- After assessing that the alternation of these prepositions could not be attributed to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: strictly linguistic or semantic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- factors, I analysed the wider context where they were inserted. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In other words, I looked into higher frames

1446 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Beitel, Gibbs and Sanders (1997) sought to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- show that there exist tight connections /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: between bodily experiences and linguistic meaning. Their experimental investigation focuses /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- on how image schemas could help to predict /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relatedness between different uses of the

1447 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 8: 440-447. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Doke, C.M. 1935. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Bantu Linguistic Terminology /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . London: Longman, Green and Co. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- García de Diego, V. 1968.

1448 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- IBLIOGRAFÍA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Kövecses, Z. y G. Radden. 1998. “Metonymy: de /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: veloping a cognitive linguistic view”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cognitive Linguistics /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 9, 1, pp. 37-77.

1449 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- In very recent articles, both Mairal and Faber (2005) and Mairal and Guest (in press), expound a new /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- system of lexical representation based on a universal metalanguage. In order to find semantic primitives /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: which make those representations typologically valid, the resulting paradigm feeds upon linguistic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- mathematical notions, such of that of interval. This paper provides a case study within the new /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- paradigm, that of eating verbs, where we will see the way this class of verbs is represented.

1450 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- structured meaning definitions signal the major distinctions within lexical domain /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- organization. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: The proposal consists of two basic modules which are subject to cross-linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- validity and psychological adequacy: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1451 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- of predicate meaning within a unified framework, RRG in our case. In order to achieve that, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the final inventory must be systematic, finite and with some sort of internal organization. This /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: metalanguage aspires to cross-linguistic valid /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ity and psychological adequacy (conceptual /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- representation). Finally, this new semantic re

1452 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- congreso se hallan en la publicación /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción como mediación entre lenguas y culturas / /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Translation as mediation or how to bridge linguistic and cultural gaps /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . 2005, Valero Garcés, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- C. ed. A partir de ahí el grupo ha seguido

1453 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Martínez Lanzán, G. 2005. “Interpretación social en Zaragoza”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción como mediación /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: entre lenguas y culturas / Translation as Mediation or How to Bridge Linguistic and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Cultural Gaps /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. C. Valero-Garcés. Alcalá de Henares: Servicio de Publicaciones

1454 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- educación para favorecer la comunicación”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción como mediación entre /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: lenguas y culturas/Translation as Mediation or how to Bridge Linguistic and Cultural /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Gaps /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed. C. Valero – Garcés. Alcalá de Henares: Servicio de Publicaciones de la

1455 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Islands. The study shows that, in spite of the good intentions of the Canarian Government –as expressed /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- in documents such as Primer Plan Canario de Inmigración- there is still a long way to go in order to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: overcome the linguistic barriers that hinder the full integration of the non-Spanish speaking population. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Immigration, public services, linguistic mediation /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- I

1456 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- other languages and members of other cultures to our county is making us more aware of this, not only /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- out of scientific curiosity but also because of the need to deal with new socio-cultural situations. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Migration makes it necessary to reconsider linguistic standards and the parameters of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: competence. Given the different linguistic backgrounds of migrants, speaking a language "correctly" is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- no longer a formal knowledge of grammar or lexicon. Rather, it is, as we will show, to adapt discourse to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a specific communicative situation. That is to say, "speaking a language correctly" means not only

1457 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- a fue propuesto por Hymes (1972) y ofreció /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- un nuevo marco de análisis más allá de las propuestas generativas. “There is much more to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic competence than knowledge of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- that this knowledge in fact plays a major role in determining what forms are used and in what

1458 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción como mediación entre lenguas y culturas, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Translation as Mediation or how to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Bridge Linguistic and Cultural Gaps /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- (Valero Garcés, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2005) se puede ampliar esta aproximación.), del

1459 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción como mediación entre lenguas y culturas / /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Translation as Mediation or how to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Bridge Linguistic and Cultural GAPS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Alcalá de

1460 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Ed., trans. P. Zlateva. London: Routlege. 39-46. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Catford, J. C. 1965. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- London: Oxford University Press.

1461 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Eds. S. Masayoshi and S. A. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Thompson. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 195–220. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Slobin, D. I. 2003. “Language and thought online: Cognitive consequences of linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- relatitivy”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Language in mind: Advances in the investigation of language and thought /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Eds. D. Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 157-191 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Slobin, D. I. 2005. “Linguistic representations of motion events: What is signifier and what is /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- signified?”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Iconicity Inside Out: Iconicity in Language and Literature

1462 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Eds. E. Steiner y C. Yallop. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Berlín/Nueva York: Mouton de Gruyter. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: House, J. 2001b. «Translation Quality Assessment: Linguistic Description versus Social /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Evaluation», en /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Meta

1463 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Two main objectives will be achieved through this work. On the one hand, we intend to describe the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- strategies of discourse arrangement and reformulation in Spanish, emphasizing the analysis of the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic units which can reveal this kind of strategies in the texts. On the other hand, a comparative /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- and contrastive study of the same strategies in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- other European languages (French, English, German and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Icelandic) will be also made. The achievement of these two objectives will allo /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- w us to complete the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic theory about the discourse organization and improve current results in the realm of Applied /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Linguistics, specially in language teaching, automatic translation and lexicography. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- D /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- iscourse organization, discourse arrangement /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: , reformulation, comparative linguistic. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- P

1464 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- UCLM /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: This paper addresses some theoretical issues in cross-linguistic phraseology /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 2 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- analysis and focuses on

1465 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- dictionary entries have to /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- contain information about such /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: cross-linguistic asymmetry. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Examples of this kind can be taken from the Spanish idiom /2006/aesla_XXV.txt-

1466 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ALFA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , 7/8, 41-60. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Jakobson, R. 1966. ‘On linguistic aspects of /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- translation’ in Brower, R. (ed.) /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- On Translation.

1467 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- needs regarding theoretical and practical knowledge. Within the context of undergraduate programs on /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Translation and Interpreting, it is necessary to emphasize that we are not training future experts in /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Terminology or Documentary Sciences but dealing with linguistic mediators whose habilities must /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- include a punctual and descriptive /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- terminological work. Thus, studen

1468 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- concentrate on the specific characteristics of the translation and interpreting processes. These /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- peculiarities will determine the type of terminological competence necessary to carry out such inter- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: linguistic activities satisfactorily. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- KEY WORDS /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Terminology, translation, interpreting, teaching

1469 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Traducción, cultura, texto original, texto meta, sentido /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ABSTRACT /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Since Cicero, the discussion on translation has been based on the search of linguistic equivalences. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Looking for an impossible faithfulness, translators only have a choice: they must bring the target text as /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- much as possible closer to the source text or seek its

1470 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- romantique /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- , Gallimard, Paris. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Black, M. 1968. " Linguistic Rela /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- tivity : The Views of Benjamin Lee Whorf ", dans Manners, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Robert & Kaplan, David,

1471 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- or interactive on-line /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- resources. As Nott states, “ /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: translation is at the very top of the linguistic and cultural food /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- chain /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- ” (2005). However translating skills seem to have a lower representation among on-line

1472 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learning activity. Each task involves the translation of a source text into English; this is the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- learning task itself with intended learning outcom /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: es related to linguistic or cultural learning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- objectives, such as passive avoidance. In order to fulfil the task a number of activities and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- resources are available to students. Activities vary from grammar to comprehension

1473 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The Study screen presents the source text an /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- d learning aids - such as audio files, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: reflective questions and selected exercises, to target a particular linguistic or cultural learning /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- objective, together with resources such as dictionaries, glossaries, etc. Once students are /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- satisfied that the text has been researched and the preparation completed they proceed to the

1474 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- exercise, the nature of translation, and the current technical limitations discussed previously, /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the on-line assessment element needs to lim /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: it itself to specific linguistic matters. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- The final screen presents the feedback from /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the questionnaire and a suggested version

1475 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- On-line reading and writing skills differ slightly from traditional on-paper skills and /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- may pose some disadvantage to some individuals. While progression from e-learning to e- /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: assessment is desirable, the current limitation of on-line feedback to specific linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Actas del XXIV Congreso Internacional de AESLA /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- 1690

1476 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- . Madrid: /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Universidad Europea de Madrid. 28-35. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Doughty, C. J. 2000. “Negotiating the linguistic environment”. /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- University of Hawaii Working /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- Papers in ESL

1477 /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- for /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- the /2006/aesla_XXV.txt: Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistic /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- s and Area Studies. [Internet document /2006/aesla_XXV.txt- available at http://www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/r